Alternative Investment Market
|Location||London, England, UK|
|Founded||19 June 1995|
|Owner||London Stock Exchange Group|
|Key people||Marcus Stuttard Head of UK Primary Markets and AIM|
|No. of listings||821|
|Website||AIM homepage on London Stock Exchange website|
AIM (formerly the Alternative Investment Market) is a sub-market of the London Stock Exchange that was launched on 19 June 1995 as a replacement to the previous Unlisted Securities Market (USM) that had been in operation since 1980. It allows companies that are smaller, less-developed, or want/need a more flexible approach to governance to float shares with a more flexible regulatory system than is applicable on the main market.
At launch, AIM comprised only 10 companies valued collectively at £82.2 million. As at May 2021, 821 companies comprise the sub-market, with an average market cap of £80 million per listing. AIM has also started to become an international exchange, often due to its low regulatory burden, especially in relation to the US Sarbanes–Oxley Act (though only a quarter of AIM-listed companies would qualify to be listed on a US stock exchange even prior to passage of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act). By December 2005, over 270 foreign companies had been admitted to AIM.
AIM is an exchange regulated venue featuring an array of principles-based rules for publicly held companies. AIM's regulatory model is based on a comply-or-explain option that lets companies that are floated on AIM either comply with AIM's relatively few rules, or explain why it has decided not to comply with them.
Nominated Advisers (Nomads)
Aside from granting leeway in regard to regulatory compliance, the Exchange also mandates continuous oversight and advice by the issuer's underwriter, referred to as a Nominated Adviser (Nomad). The role of Nomads is central to AIM's regulatory model, as these entities play the role of gatekeepers, advisers and regulators of AIM companies. In advising each firm as to which rules should be complied with and the manner in which existing requirements should be met, Nomads provide the essential service of allowing firms to abide by tailor-made regulation, reducing regulatory costs in the process. Theoretically, Nomads are liable for damages from tolerating misdemeanors on behalf of their supervised companies, including the loss of reputational capital. However, this heavy reliance on Nomads has been criticised as creating a conflict of interest, since Nomads receive fees from the companies they purportedly supervise while, in practice, managing to avoid liability for market misconduct.
Because AIM is an unregulated market segment, it escapes most of the mandatory provisions contained in European Union directives – as implemented in the UK – and other rules applicable to companies listed in the LSE. AIM believes self-regulation is pivotal to AIM's low regulatory burden: companies seeking an AIM listing are not subject to significant admission requirements; after admission is granted, firms must comply with ongoing obligations which are comparatively lower to the ones that govern the operation of larger exchanges; and certain corporate governance provisions are not mandatory for AIM companies. Therefore, AIM-listed companies are often subject to manipulation by institutional investors. AIM-listed companies usually are only required to adhere to the corporate governance requirements of their home jurisdiction, which, as a practical matter, vary widely.
Another important element of AIM's model is the composition of its investor base. Although AIM-listed companies are not start-ups, most are small and potentially more risky than a FTSE listing. This may prove to be hazardous for unsophisticated investors who lack both the knowledge and resources to conduct proper inquiries into a firm's prospects and activities, or even larger investors which lack strong internal control and risk management requirements. As a consequence, AIM's investor base is largely composed of institutional investors and wealthy individuals.
The following table lists the 10 biggest AIM companies on 1 October 2018.
|Rank||Company||Market Cap (GBP)|
|4||Hutchmed (China) Ltd||3.060 billion|
|5||Fevertree Drinks||2.977 billion|
|7||RWS Holdings||2.487 billion|
|8||ITM Power||2.166 billion|
|9||Ceres Power Holdings||2.070 billion|
|10||Keywords Studios||1.967 billion|
The following table lists the top 100 AIM companies by market capitalisation on 25 April 2020.
|AB Dynamics plc||ABDP|
|Advanced Medical Solutions Group plc||AMS|
|Alliance Pharma Plc||APH|
|Alpha Financial Markets Consulting Plc||AFM|
|Alpha FX Group plc||AFX|
|Andrews Sykes Group plc||ASY|
|Atalaya Mining plc||ATYM|
|Benchmark Holdings plc||BMK|
|Blue Prism plc||PRSM|
|Boohoo Group plc||BOO|
|Breedon Group plc||BREE|
|Brooks Macdonald Group||BRK|
|Burford Capital Ltd||BUR|
|Bushveld Minerals Ltd||BMN|
|Caretech Holdings plc||CTH|
|Central Asia Metals||CAML|
|Ceres Power Holdings||CWR|
|Clinigen Group plc||CLIN|
|Codemasters Group Holdings Limited||CDM|
|Creo Medical Group Plc||CREO|
|CVS Group plc||CVSG|
|Dart Group plc||DTG|
|Diversified Gas & Oil Plc||DGOC|
|dotDigital Group plc||DOTD|
|Draper Esprit plc||GROW|
|Eddie Stobart Logistics plc||ESL|
|Emis Group Plc||EMIS|
|Fevertree Drinks plc||FEVR|
|Frontier Developments plc||FDEV|
|Gamma Communications Ltd||GAMA|
|Gateley Holdings plc||GTLY|
|GB Group plc||GBG|
|Gooch & Housego||GHH|
|Greencoat Renewables plc||GRP|
|Highland Gold Mining||HGM|
|Horizon Discovery Group plc||HZD|
|Hotel Chocolat Group plc||HOTC|
|Hurricane Energy plc||HUR|
|Hutchison China Meditech||HCM|
|IG Design Group plc||IGR|
|Impax Asset Management Group Plc||IPX|
|ITM Power plc||ITM|
|Jadestone Energy Inc||JSE|
|James Halstead plc||JHD|
|Johnson Service Group plc||JSG|
|Judges Scientific plc||JDG|
|Kape Technologies Plc||KAPE|
|Keywords Studios plc||KWS|
|Knights Group Hldgs||KGH|
|Learning Technologies Group plc||LTG|
|M P Evans Group Plc||MPE|
|Mattioli Woods Plc||MTW|
|Midwich Group plc||MIDW|
|Mortgage Advice Bureau (Holdings) Ltd||MAB1|
|Next Fifteen Communications Group||NFC|
|Pan African Resources plc||PAF|
|Pebble Group plc||PEBB|
|Polar Capital Holdings Plc||POLR|
|Premier Miton Group plc||PMI|
|PurpleBricks Group plc||PURP|
|Randall & Quilter Investment Holdings Ltd||RQIH|
|Renew Holdings Plc||RNWH|
|RWS Holdings plc||RWS|
|Scapa Group plc||SCPA|
|Secure Income REIT plc||SIR|
|Serica Energy Plc||SQZ|
|Silence Therapeutics plc||SLN|
|Smart Metering Systems plc||SMS|
|Strix Group plc||KETL|
|Team17 Group Plc||TM17|
|Telit Communications Plc||TCM|
|Thorpe (F.W) plc||TFW|
|Tremor International Ltd||TRMR|
|Warehouse REIT plc||WHR|
|Watkin Jones plc||WJG|
|Young & Co's Brewery Plc||YNGA|
|Young & Co's Brewery Plc||YNGN|
In March 2007, U.S. securities regulator Roel Campos suggested that AIM's rules for share trading have created a market like a "casino". Campos reportedly said: "I'm concerned that 30% of issuers that list on AIM are gone in a year. That feels like a casino to me and I believe that investors will treat it as such." The comment resulted in several angry retorts, including one from the London Stock Exchange, which controls AIM, pointing out that the number of companies that go into liquidation or administration in a year is actually fewer than 2%.
AIM has since issued new rules requiring that listed companies maintain a website.
The calibre of participants in the market has also been criticised by fund manager John Hempton of Bronte Capital Management.
Langbar International fraud
AIM was criticised for allowing Langbar International to be listed. This £375 million ($750m) share fraud was investigated by the Serious Fraud Office and the City of London Police when it was discovered in November 2005 that Langbar had none of the assets it declared at listing. This was due in part because the Nomad (Nominated Adviser) failed to carry out due diligence. Also, the Exchange did not ensure that the AIM rules had been complied with. AIM changed the rules for Nomads in 2006. On 19 October 2007 they fined Nabarro Wells £250,000 ($512,500) and publicly censured them for breaches of the AIM rules.
In March 2007 The Daily Telegraph noticed a tendency to use listing vehicles incorporated in offshore financial centres prior to floating on AIM. Some 35% of the companies floated on AIM during 2006 were from OFCs, of which the majority came from the Channel Islands or the British Virgin Islands.
On 29 January 2009 it was announced that AIM is to form the basis of an Asian-orientated growth or incubator market called 'Tokyo AIM', which will be run as a joint venture between the Tokyo Stock Exchange and LSE. Tokyo AIM will replicate AIM's system of oversight by NOMADs, with 'J-Nomads' being "selected and approved by TOKYO AIM ... to assess companies' suitability for the market". In July 2012, TOKYO AIM changed its name to TOKYO PRO Market, and since then Tokyo Stock Exchange, Inc. has continued to operate TOKYO AIM based on the original market concept.
As of 1 October 2018, just under a third of AIM-listed companies have paid shareholders a dividend within their most recent financial year. The largest companies to have paid dividends include: Fevertree Drinks PLC (FEVR), Burford Capital Ltd (BUR), and Abcam PLC (ABC). The smallest companies to have paid dividends include: Holders Technology PLC (HDT), Aeorema Communications PLC (AEO), and Stilo International (STL).
- First North – a similar market serving the Nordic countries
- Growth Enterprise Market – a similar market in Hong Kong
- LSE AIM Contact page 3 Jun 2021 Archived 20 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Reports: Issuer List, May 2021" (xlsx). London Stock Exchange. May 2021.
- "Doidge, Karolyi and Stulz "Has New York Become Less Competitive in Global Markets? Evaluating Foreign Listing Choices over Time"". Papers.ssrn.com. 25 April 2007. SSRN 982193. Cite journal requires
- Warwick-Ching, Lucy (29 December 2007). "Advisers walk away from smallest fry". Financial Times.
- Mendoza, Jose Miguel (October 2007). "Securities regulation in low-tier listing venues: The rise of the Alternative Investment Market". Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law (abstract). New York. XIII (1). SSRN 1004548.
- "Rule 19 of AIM Rules for Companies (2010)" (PDF). London Stock Exchange. London Stock Exchange. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "FTSE AIM 100: Market overview". Hargreaves Lansdown. 25 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
- Jill Treanor (9 March 2007). "Treanor, Jill "City hits out over US 'casino' jibe at Aim" The Guardian 10 March 2007". London: Business.guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "LSE AIM Rule 26". Aimlisting.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Frost, James (November 2016). "The iconoclast". SmartInvestor. The Australian Financial Review. p. 9.
And then there are certain places with a preponderance of bad people. Stockbrokers from Long Island, mining promoters in Perth or Vancouver, anything on the AIM boards in the UK.
- "Aim's lesser ranks face the threat of shell shock". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "Expanding AIM faces increased LSE scrutiny". The Lawyer. Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2006.
- "Has the Langbar scandal damaged AIM's healthy reputation?". The Lawyer. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Serious Fraud Office Press Releases 29 November 2005". Sfo.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Simon Bowers (25 November 2005). "Fraud inquiry starts into shell firm's missing millions". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Langbar faces SFO probe over possible missing cash". Financial Times. 26 November 2005. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "Money". The Daily Telegraph. 16 February 2016. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 24 August 2018.[dead link]
- Bowers, Simon (30 November 2005). "Fraud office launches inquiry into Langbar". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- "Langbar: The SFO are called in". Yorkshire Post. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Sharewatch: LSE takes AIM" Archived 12 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. The Sunday Times, 2 July 2006
- "Inside the City: Rogue nomads in the firing line" Archived 12 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Sunday Times, 2 July 2006
- Essen, Yvette (3 October 2006). "LSE takes aim at nomads to quell concerns". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Historic Currency Conversion". Discount-currency-exchange.com. 19 October 2007. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- ""Nomad strayed from market rules" Financial Times 19 October 2007". Financial Times. 19 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- LSE hits Nabarro Wells with £250,000 fine over AIM checks" Archived 12 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Times 20 October 2007
- Essen, Yvette (12 March 2007). "Aim market: Offshore attractions for the 'sophisticated' investor". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Tokyo Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange publish rulebook for public comment; name new growth market "TOKYO AIM"". London Stock Exchange. 29 January 2009. Archived from the original on 29 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Tokyo Stock Exchange changed its name from AIM to PRO Market". Japan Stock Exchange Group. July 2012.
- "Dividend Yield Opportunities On AIM (2018)". AIM-Watch. 1 October 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.