Brixton (UK Parliament constituency)

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Brixton
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Brixton1885.png
Brixton in London 1885–1918
CountyGreater London
18851974 (1974)
Number of membersOne
Replaced byLambeth Central
Created fromLambeth

Brixton was a parliamentary constituency centred on the Brixton district of South London. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first-past-the-post system.

History[edit]

The constituency was created for the 1885 general election, and abolished for the February 1974 general election, when it was largely replaced by the new Lambeth Central constituency.

Boundaries[edit]

1885–1918[edit]

Lambeth Met. B Ward Map 1916.svg

The constituency was created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, when the existing two-member Parliamentary Borough of Lambeth was divided into four single-member divisions.[1][2] The seat, formally known as Lambeth, Brixton Division, comprised part of the civil parish of Lambeth, and was defined in terms of the wards used for elections to the parish vestry under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 as follows:

  • The parts of Brixton and Stockwell wards to the north of the centres of Acre Lane and Coldharbour Lane
  • The part of Vauxhall ward to the east of the centre of Clapham Road.[1][2]

1918–1950[edit]

Brixton in London 1918–50

The Representation of the People Act 1918 redrew constituencies throughout Great Britain. In London, the seats were redefined in terms of the wards of the Metropolitan Boroughs of the County of London, which had been created in 1900. Accordingly, the constituency was defined as consisting of the following areas of the Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth:

  • Stockwell ward.
  • The part of Brixton ward to the south of a line running from Clapham Road along the middle of Stockwell Park Road, Grove Road, Brixton Road, Mostyn Road, Akerman Road and Lothian Road and across Camberwell New Road to Wyndham Road.
  • The part of Herne Hill Ward to the north of a line running from Coldharbour Lane along the north side of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway to Denmark Hill.
  • The part of Tulse Hill to the north and west of a line running along the middle of Brixton Hill from Mill Lane to Water Lane, along the middle of Water Lane to Effra Road, and along the middle of Effra Road to Coldharbour Lane.[2][3]

1950–1974[edit]

Brixton in London 1950–74

The final boundary change was made by the Representation of the People Act 1948, and came into effect at the 1950 general election. The 1948 Act introduced the term "borough constituency". Due to a population decrease in Lambeth, the number of constituencies in the borough was reduced from four to three. The new Lambeth Brixton Borough Constituency was defined as consisting of four wards of the metropolitan borough as they existed at the end of 1947:

  • "The Angell, Stockwell, Town Hall, and Vassal wards of the borough of Lambeth"[2][4]

Local government was completely reorganised in Greater London in 1965, and the metropolitan borough was abolished to be replaced by the larger London Borough of Lambeth. However these changes were not reflected in parliamentary boundaries until the general election of 1974. The Brixton constituency was largely replaced by the new seat of Lambeth Central[2]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Election Member Party
1885 Ernest Baggallay Conservative
1887 by-election George Osborne, Marquess of Carmarthen, later Duke of Leeds Conservative
1896 by-election Evelyn Hubbard Conservative
1900 by-election Sir Robert Mowbray Conservative
1906 Joel Seaverns Liberal
1910 Davison Dalziel, later Baron Dalziel Conservative
1923 Frederick Joseph Laverack Liberal
1924 Davison Dalziel, later Baron Dalziel Unionist
1927 by-election Nigel Colman Conservative
1945 Marcus Lipton Labour
Feb 1974 constituency abolished: see Lambeth Central

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General election 1885: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Ernest Baggallay 3,427 55.4 N/A
Liberal William Blake Odgers 2,762 44.6 N/A
Majority 665 10.8 N/A
Turnout 6,189 77.7 N/A
Registered electors 7,963
Conservative win (new seat)
General election 1886: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Ernest Baggallay 3,300 63.6 +8.2
Liberal Montagu Hughes Cookson 1,886 36.4 −8.2
Majority 1,414 27.2 +16.4
Turnout 5,186 65.1 −12.6
Registered electors 7,963
Conservative hold Swing +8.2

Baggallay resigned after being appointed a Metropolitan Police Magistrate, causing a by-election.

By-election, 19 Jul 1887: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Osborne 3,307 56.3 −7.3
Liberal James Hill 2,569 43.7 +7.3
Majority 738 12.6 −14.6
Turnout 5,876 69.5 +4.4
Registered electors 8,455
Conservative hold Swing -7.3

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

Richard Stapley
General election 1892: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Osborne 4,061 55.9 −7.7
Liberal Richard Stapley 3,204 44.1 +7.7
Majority 857 11.8 −15.4
Turnout 7,265 74.2 +9.1
Registered electors 9,789
Conservative hold Swing +7.7
General election 1895: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Osborne 4,199 65.6 +9.7
Liberal Robert Head 2,199 34.4 −9.7
Majority 2,000 31.2 +19.4
Turnout 6,398 62.4 −11.8
Registered electors 10,253
Conservative hold Swing +9.7
1896 Brixton by-election[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Evelyn Hubbard 4,493 67.8 +2.2
Liberal E.W. Nunn 2,131 32.2 −2.2
Majority 2,362 35.6 +4.4
Turnout 6,624 64.1 +1.7
Registered electors 10,327
Conservative hold Swing +2.2

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

1900 Brixton by-election[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert Mowbray Unopposed
Registered electors 10,666
Conservative hold
General election 1900: Brixton[5][page needed]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert Mowbray Unopposed
Registered electors 10,666
Conservative hold
General election 1906: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Joel Seaverns 4,521 51.6 N/A
Conservative Davison Dalziel 4,235 48.4 N/A
Majority 286 3.2 N/A
Turnout 8,756 79.5 N/A
Registered electors 11,010
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General election January 1910: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Davison Dalziel 5,465 55.2 +6.8
Liberal Joel Seaverns 4,427 44.8 −6.8
Majority 1,038 10.4 N/A
Turnout 9,892 86.5 +7.0
Registered electors 11,442
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.8
General election December 1910: Brixton[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Davison Dalziel 4,770 56.3 +1.1
Liberal Joel Seaverns 3,702 43.7 −1.1
Majority 1,068 12.6 +2.2
Turnout 8,472 74.0 −12.5
Registered electors 11,442
Conservative hold Swing +1.1

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

General election 1918: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Davison Dalziel 9,902 61.3 +7.0
NFDDSS Stephen Kelley 3,641 22.6 N/A
Liberal Horace Norton 2,594 16.1 −27.6
Majority 6,261 38.7 +26.1
Turnout 37,745 42.8 −31.2
Unionist hold Swing +17.3
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General election 1922: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Davison Dalziel 11,284 54.8 −6.5
Liberal Frederick Joseph Laverack 9,316 45.2 +29.1
Majority 1,968 9.6 −29.1
Turnout 20,600 52.8 +10.0
Registered electors 39,004
Unionist hold Swing −17.8
General election 1923: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Frederick Joseph Laverack 10,881 53.5 +8.3
Unionist Davison Dalziel 9,476 46.5 −8.3
Majority 1,405 7.0 N/A
Turnout 20,357 51.9 −0.9
Registered electors 39,189
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +8.3
General election 1924: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Davison Dalziel 15,755 56.6 +10.1
Labour James Adams 7,210 25.9 N/A
Liberal Frederick Joseph Laverack 4,871 17.5 −36.0
Majority 8,545 30.7 N/A
Turnout 28,099 69.4 +17.5
Registered electors 40,134
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +18.9
1927 Brixton by-election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Nigel Colman 10,358 48.1 −8.5
Labour James Adams 6,032 28.0 +2.1
Liberal Frederick Joseph Laverack 5,134 23.9 +6.4
Majority 4,326 20.1 −10.6
Turnout 21,524 53.9 −15.5
Registered electors 39,953
Unionist hold Swing −5.3
General election 1929: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Nigel Colman 14,252 44.9 −11.7
Labour A.B. Bishop 10,089 31.7 +5.8
Liberal Arthur S. Quick 7,438 23.4 +5.9
Majority 4,163 13.2 −17.5
Turnout 31,779 62.4 −7.0
Registered electors 50,956
Unionist hold Swing −8.8

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General election 1931: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Nigel Colman 24,673 77.0
Labour Edward Albert Radice 7,358 23.0
Majority 17,315 54.0
Turnout 52,569 60.9
Conservative hold Swing +20.4
General election 1935: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Nigel Colman 17,414 67.6
Labour Marcus Lipton 10,908 36.1
Liberal Arthur S. Quick 1,911 6.3
Majority 6,506 21.5
Turnout 51,713 58.5
Conservative hold Swing -11.3

General Election 1939/40

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected;

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General election 1945: Brixton[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 15,583 63.6
Conservative Nigel Colman 8,928 36.4
Majority 6,655 27.2
Turnout 37,493 65.4
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +29.4

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General election 1950: Brixton[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 24,015 52.8
Conservative Anthony Herbert Foord 18,957 41.7
Liberal Enid Lakeman 2,527 5.5
Majority 5,058 11.1
Turnout 56,082 81.1
Labour hold Swing -8.1
General election 1951: Brixton[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 24,776 56.1
Conservative Patricia M. Marlowe 19,423 43.9
Majority 5,353 12.2
Turnout 55,362 79.8
Labour hold Swing +0.6
General election 1955: Brixton[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 20,594 57.0
Conservative William Roots 15,559 43.0
Majority 5,035 14.0
Turnout 53,045 68.2
Labour hold Swing +0.9
General election 1959: Brixton[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 18,117 53.1
Conservative Brian Warren 16,005 46.9
Majority 2,112 6.2
Turnout 52,261 65.3
Labour hold Swing -3.9

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General election 1964: Brixton[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 16,518 58.1
Conservative Kenneth P. Payne 11,934 41.9
Majority 4,584 16.2
Turnout 49,903 57.0
Labour hold Swing +5.0
General election 1966: Brixton[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 16,634 61.3
Conservative Piers Dixon 10,500 38.7
Majority 6,134 22.6
Turnout 47,615 57.0
Labour hold Swing +3.2

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General election 1970: Brixton[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Marcus Lipton 13,053 57.3
Conservative James W. Harkess 9,727 42.7
Majority 3,326 14.6
Turnout 43,372 52.5
Labour hold Swing -4.0

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, (48 & 49 Vict.) C 23, Sixth Schedule: Divisions of Boroughs. Number, Names, Contents and Boundaries of Divisions.
  2. ^ a b c d e Youngs, Frederic A, Jr. (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol.I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. pp. 743, 764. ISBN 0-901050-67-9.
  3. ^ Representation of the People Act 1918, Ninth Schedule, Redistribution of Seats, Part I: Parliamentary Boroughs (I) London
  4. ^ Representation of the People Act 1948 (11 & 12 Geo. 6.) C. 65, First Schedule, Parliamentary Constituencies.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 29. ISBN 9781349022984.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h British Parliamentary Election Results 1918–1949, FWS Craig
  7. ^ Report of the Annual Conference of the Labour Party, 1939
  8. ^ a b c d e f g British Parliamentary Election Results 1950–1973, FWS Craig