Farming/language dispersal hypothesis

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Farming/language dispersal hypothesis[1] proposes that significant language families in the world dispersed along with the expansions of agriculture, proposed by Peter Bellwood and Colin Renfrew.

Examples[edit]

Indo-European[edit]

Anatolian hypothesis states that Proto-Indo-European speakers lived in Anatolia throughout the Neolithic period, and that the spread of the Indo-European language was associated with the Neolithic Revolution of the 7-6th millennium BC. It claims that the Indo-European language spread from Asia Minor to Europe around 7000 BC with the Neolithic Revolution and happened peacefully mixed with indigenous peoples.[2] Therefore, most Neolithic Europeans speak Indo-European, and later migrations have replaced it with another Indo-European language. However, there are currently more evidences that support the Kurgan hypothesis, which is another hypothesis of origin and dispersal of Indo-European languages.[3][4]

Bantu[edit]

The Bantu languages descend from a common Proto-Bantu language, which is believed to have been spoken in what is now Cameroon in Central Africa.[5] An estimated 2,500–3,000 years ago (1000 BC to 500 BC), speakers of the Proto-Bantu language began a series of migrations eastward and southward, carrying agriculture with them. This Bantu expansion came to dominate Sub-Saharan Africa east of Cameroon, an area where Bantu peoples now constitute nearly the entire population.[5][6] Some other sources estimate the Bantu Expansion started closer to 3000 BC.[7]

Afro-Asiatic[edit]

There are two hypotheses about the origin of the Afroasiatic languages, the Levant theory and the African continental theory. According to the theory of Levant, the distribution was expanded to Africa in conjunction with the spread of agriculture.[8][9]

Nostratic[edit]

Bomhard (2008)[10] suggested that the Proto-Nostratic language differentiated with the onset of the Levant Neolithic Revolution in 8,000 BC, and spread across Fertile crescent to Caucasus (Proto-Kartvelian), beyond Egypt and the Red Sea to Horn of Africa (Proto-Afro-Asiatic), to Iranian Plateau (Proto-Elamo-Dravidian), and to Central Asia (Proto-Eurasiatic, then Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Altaic, and Proto-Uralic in 5,000 BC).

Elamo-Dravidian[edit]

Elamo-Dravidian hypothetical language family is often associated with the spread of farming from the Fertile Crescent to the Indus Valley Civilization. However, there is some disagreement with this. Genetic studies have detected a genetic link between Neolithic Iran and South Asians.[11]

Transeurasian[edit]

Martine Robbeets named "Transeurasian" to Macro-Altaic languages (Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Japonic, and Koreanic). It is suggested that Proto-Transeurasian was spoken in Xinglongwa culture in the west Liao river basin in 6th millenium BC, differentiated to the daughter languages along with millet agriculture.[12][13]

Japonic[edit]

Many scholars believe that the Japonic language was brought from the Korean Peninsula to the Japanese archipelago around 700-300 BC by the Yayoi people who cultivated wet rice.[14][15] According Martine Robbeets (2017), Japonic language originated from Proto-"Transeurasian" language (the common ancestor of Mongolic, Turkic, Tungusic, Japonic, and Koreanic), located in the Xinglongwa culture in the 6th millennium BC. She suggest Proto-Transeurasian people cultivated millet, but after branching to the "Japono-Koreanic" language family in the Liaodong Peninsula, Proto-Japonic was influenced by Para-Austronesian who cultivated wet rice in the Shandong Peninsula in the 2nd-3rd millennium BC, borrowed a large amount of vocabulary mainly related to agriculture, and then went south on the Korean Peninsula and entered the Japanese archipelago in the 1st millennium BC.[16] It is also proposed that the distribution of Japanese has expanded with the expansion of wet rice cultivation in the Japanese archipelago.[17]

Austronesian[edit]

It is proposed that the spread of Austronesian languages was driven by farming.[18][19][20]

Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Since 2019, phylogenetic studies of 50 Sino-Tibetan languages that have existed from ancient times to the present day have proved the hypothesis that the language family expanded with agricultural transmission. It is concluded that the Sino-Tibetan language family originated from the millet farming people located in North China 7,200 years ago.[21][22][23][24]

Austroasiatic[edit]

Several theories exist about the Urheimat of Austroasiatic languages; the Red River Delta,[25] the Mekong River region,[26] the Zhu River region,[27] the Yangtze River region,[28][29] and the north of the Yangtze River.[30][31] Proto-Austro-Asiatic speaking people was a farmer who cultivated rice and millet and raised dogs, pigs, chickens, etc., but without millet cultivation (with only rice cultivation and some livestock farming), around 4500 BC, it reached Indochina and replaced native hunter-gatherers.[32]

Uto-Aztecan[edit]

It is suggested that Uto-Aztecan speakers expanded to Mesoamerica and Southwestern US with corn farming.[33][34][35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Higham, C. Chapter 18 Languages and Farming Dispersals: Austroasiatic Languages and Rice Cultivation (2003).
  2. ^ Renfrew, Colin (1990) [1987]. Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-138675-3.
  3. ^ Will Chang, Chundra Cathcart, David Hall, Andrew Garrett (2015). "Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis supports the Indo-European steppe hypothesis". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 91 (1): 193–244. doi:10.1353/lan.2015.0005. S2CID 143978664.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Science News. 2015. “Genetic Study Revives Debate on Origin and Expansion of Indo-European Languages in Europe.” March 4, 2015. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150304075334.htm
  5. ^ a b Philip J. Adler, Randall L. Pouwels, World Civilizations: To 1700 Volume 1 of World Civilizations, (Cengage Learning: 2007), p.169.
  6. ^ Toyin Falola, Aribidesi Adisa Usman, Movements, borders, and identities in Africa, (University Rochester Press: 2009), p.4.
  7. ^ Gemma Berniell-Lee et al, "Genetic and Demographic Implications of the Bantu Expansion: Insights from Human Paternal Lineages" Archived 2011-04-16 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford Journals
  8. ^ Diamond J, Bellwood P (April 2003). "Farmers and their languages: the first expansions". Science. 300 (5619): 597–603. Bibcode:2003Sci...300..597D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1013.4523. doi:10.1126/science.1078208. PMID 12714734. S2CID 13350469.
  9. ^ Bellwood P, Renfrew C (2002). Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
  10. ^ Bomhard, Allan R. (2008). Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic: Comparative Phonology, Morphology, and Vocabulary, 2 volumes. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-16853-4
  11. ^ Sylvester, Charles (2019), "Maternal genetic link of a south Dravidian tribe with native Iranians indicating bidirectional migration", Annals of Human Biology, 46 (2): 175–180, doi:10.1080/03014460.2019.1599067, PMID 30909755, S2CID 85516060
  12. ^ Robbeets, M (2017) The language of the Transeurasian farmers. In Robbeets, M and Savelyev, A (eds), Language Dispersal Beyond Farming (pp. 93–116). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  13. ^ Robbeets, M (2020) The Transeurasian homeland: where, what and when? In Robbeets, M, Hübler, N and Savelyev, A (eds), The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  14. ^ Serafim, Leon A. (2008), "The uses of Ryukyuan in understanding Japanese language history", in Frellesvig, Bjarne; Whitman, John (eds.), Proto-Japanese: Issues and Prospects, John Benjamins, pp. 79–99, ISBN 978-90-272-4809-1.
  15. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2017),“Origins of the Japanese Language”, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.277.
  16. ^ Martine Irma Robbeets (2017): "Austronesian influence and Transeurasian ancestry in Japanese: A case of farming/language dispersal". Language Dynamics and Change, volume 7, issue 2, pages 201–251, doi:10.1163/22105832-00702005
  17. ^ De Boer, E., Yang, M., Kawagoe, A., & Barnes, G. (2020). Japan considered from the hypothesis of farmer/language spread. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2, E13. doi:10.1017/ehs.2020.7
  18. ^ Glover, Ian, 1934- Bellwood, Peter S. (2004). Southeast Asia : from prehistory to history. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-29777-X. OCLC 52720792.
  19. ^ Donohue, Mark; Denham, Tim (2010). "Farming and Language in Island Southeast Asia: Reframing Austronesian History". Current Anthropology. 51 (2): 223–256. doi:10.1086/650991. ISSN 0011-3204. JSTOR 10.1086/650991. S2CID 4815693.
  20. ^ Bellwood, Peter (2006), "Asian Farming Diasporas? Agriculture, Languages, and Genes in China and Southeast Asia", Archaeology of Asia, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, pp. 96–118, doi:10.1002/9780470774670.ch6, ISBN 978-0-470-77467-0
  21. ^ Laurent Sagart; Guillaume Jacques; Yunfan Lai; Robin J. Ryder; Valentin Thouzeau; Simon J. Greenhill; Johann-Mattis List (May 2019). "Dated language phylogenies shed light on the ancestry of Sino-Tibetan". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (21): 10317–10322. doi:10.1073/pnas.1817972116. PMC 6534992. PMID 31061123.
  22. ^ "Origin of Sino-Tibetan language family revealed by new research". ScienceDaily. May 6, 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  23. ^ Zhang, M.; Yan, S.; Pan, W. (24 April 2019). "Phylogenetic evidence for Sino-Tibetan origin in northern China in the Late Neolithic". Nature. 569 (2019): 112–115. Bibcode:2019Natur.569..112Z. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1153-z. PMID 31019300. S2CID 129946000. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  24. ^ "Linguistics: The roots of the Sino-Tibetan language family". nature asia. April 25, 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  25. ^  Sidwell, Paul. 2021. Austroasiatic Dispersal: the AA "Water-World" Extended. SEALS 2021. (Video)
  26. ^ Sidwell, Paul (2009). The Austroasiatic Central Riverine Hypothesis. Keynote address, SEALS, XIX.
  27. ^ van Driem, George. (2011). Rice and the Austroasiatic and Hmong-Mien homelands. In N. J. Enfield (Ed.), Dynamics of Human Diversity: The Case of Mainland Southeast Asia (pp. 361-390). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  28. ^ Peiros, Ilia (2011). "Some thoughts on the problem of the Austro-Asiatic homeland" (PDF). Journal of Language Relationship. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  29. ^ Reconstructing Austroasiatic prehistory. In P. Sidwell & M. Jenny (Eds.), The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill. (Page 1: "Sagart (2011) and Bellwood (2013) favour the middle Yangzi" 
  30. ^ Zhang, Xiaoming; Liao, Shiyu; Qi, Xuebin; Liu, Jiewei; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Tuot, Sovannary (20 October 2015). Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro- Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent OPEN. 5.
  31. ^ Blench, Roger. 2018.  Waterworld: lexical evidence for aquatic subsistence strategies in Austroasiatic. In Papers from the Seventh International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics, 174-193. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society Special Publication No. 3. University of Hawaiʻi Press.
  32. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2015. Phylogeny, innovations, and correlations in the prehistory of Austroasiatic. Paper presented at the workshop Integrating inferences about our past: new findings and current issues in the peopling of the Pacific and South East Asia, 22–23 June 2015, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
  33. ^ Hill JH (2001) Proto-Uto-Aztecan: A community of cultivators in central Mexico? Am Anthropol 103:913–934.
  34. ^ Renfrew C, McMahon AMS, Trask RLBellwood P (2000) in Time Depth in Historical Linguistics, The time depth of major language families: An archaeologist's perspective, eds Renfrew C, McMahon AMS, Trask RL (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK), 1, pp 109–140.
  35. ^ Bellwood P, Renfrew CMatson RG (2002) in Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis, The spread of maize agriculture in the U.S. Southwest, eds Bellwood P, Renfrew C (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK), pp 331–340.