Global Gender Gap Report

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Cover of the 2008 report

The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2017 report covers 144 major and emerging economies. The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality.[1]

Methodology[edit]

The report's Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gap between women and men in four key areas: health, education, economy and politics to gauge the state of gender equality in a country. The report measures women's disadvantage compared to men, and is not a measure of equality of the gender gap. Gender imbalances to the advantage of women do not affect the score.[2] So, for example, the indicator "number of years of a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value" would score 1 if the number of years was 25, but would still score 1 if the number of years was 50. Due to this methodology, gender gaps that favor women over men are reported as equality and would not cause deficits of equality in other areas to become less visible in the score, excepted for life expectancy.

The three highest-ranking countries have closed over 84% of their gender gaps, while the lowest-ranking country has closed only a little over 50% of its gender gap. It "assesses countries on how well they are dividing their resources and opportunities among their male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources and opportunities," the Report says.[3] "By providing a comprehensible framework for assessing and comparing global gender gaps and by revealing those countries that are role models in dividing these resources equitably between women and men, the Report serves as a catalyst for greater awareness as well as greater exchange between policymakers."[3]

The report examines four overall areas of inequality between men and women in 130 economies around the globe, over 93% of the world's population:

  • Economic participation and opportunity – outcomes on salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment
  • Educational attainment – outcomes on access to basic and higher level education
  • Political empowerment – outcomes on representation in decision-making structures
  • Health and survival – outcomes on life expectancy and sex ratio. In this case parity is not assumed, there are assumed to be fewer female births than male (944 female for every 1,000 males), and men are assumed to die younger. Provided that women live at least six percent longer than men, parity is assumed. But if it is less than six percent it counts as a gender gap.[4]

Thirteen out of the fourteen variables used to create the index are from publicly available "hard data" indicators from international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization.[5]

Upper limiting value of the Gender Gap Index[edit]

1. Economic participation and opportunity
 ratio limit[6] weight[7] value
* Labour force participation 1.0 0.199 0.199
* Wage equality for similar work 1.0 0.310 0.310
* Estimated earned income 1.0 0.221 0.221
* Legislators, senior officials and managers 1.0 0.149 0.149
* Professional and technical workers 1.0 0.121 0.121
  sum 1.0 1.0
2. Educational attainment
 ratio limit[6] weight[7] value
* Literacy rate 1.0 0.191 0.191
* Enrolment in primary education 1.0 0.459 0.459
* Enrolment in secondary education 1.0 0.229 0.229
* Enrolment in tertiary education 1.0 0.121 0.121
  sum 1.0 1.0
3. Health and survival
 ratio limit[6] weight[7] value
* Sex ratio at birth 0.944[8] 0.693 0.654
* Healthy life expectancy 1.060[9] 0.307 0.345
  sum 1.0 1.0
4. Political empowerment
 ratio limit[6] weight[7] value
* Women in parliament 1.0 0.310 0.310
* Women in ministerial positions 1.0 0.247 0.247
* Years with female head of state 1.0 0.443 0.443
  sum 1.0 1.0
Compilation
1. Economic participation and opportunity 1.000
2. Educational attainment 1.000
3. Health and survival 1.000
4. Political empowerment 1.000
sum   4.000

Gender Gap Index: 4.0 / 4 = 1.0

This is the upper limiting value of the Gender Gap Index (limes superior) for the female-to-male ratio and for the male-to-female ratio.

WEF Global Gender Gap Index rankings[edit]

The highest possible score is 1.0 (equality or better for women, except for lifespan (106% or better for women) and gender parity at birth (94.4% or better for women[10])) and the lowest possible score is 0. Data for some countries are unavailable.[11][12][13]

The WEF Gender gap index world map for 2017[14]
Country Region Year[note 1]
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[15] 2016[14] 2017 2018
 Albania Europe 0.6607 0.6685 0.6591 0.6601 0.6726 0.6748 0.6655 0.6412 0.6869 0.701 0.704 0.728 0.734
 Algeria Africa 0.6018 0.6068 0.6111 0.6119 0.6052 0.5991 0.6112 0.5966 0.6182 0.632 0.642 0.629 0.629
 Angola Africa 0.6039 0.6034 0.6032 0.6353 0.6712 0.6624 N/A 0.6659 0.6311 0.637 0.643 0.640 0.633
 Argentina South America 0.6829 0.6982 0.7209 0.7211 0.7187 0.7236 0.7212 0.7195 0.7317 0.734 0.735 0.732 0.733
 Armenia Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6651 0.6677 0.6619 0.6669 0.6654 0.6636 0.6634 0.6622 0.668 0.669 0.677 0.678
 Australia Oceania 0.7163 0.7204 0.7241 0.7282 0.7271 0.7291 0.7294 0.7390 0.7409 0.733 0.721 0.731 0.730
 Austria Europe 0.6986 0.7060 0.7153 0.7031 0.7091 0.7165 0.7391 0.7437 0.7266 0.733 0.716 0.709 0.718
 Azerbaijan Europe and Central Asia N/A 0.6781 0.6856 0.6626 0.6446 0.6577 0.6546 0.6582 0.6753 0.675 0.684 0.676 0.680
 Bahamas North America N/A N/A N/A 0.7179 0.7128 0.7340 0.7156 0.7128 0.7269 0.728 0.729 0.743 0.741
 Bahrain Middle East 0.5894 0.5931 0.5927 0.6136 0.6217 0.6232 0.6298 0.6334 0.6261 0.644 0.615 0.632 0.627
 Bangladesh South Asia 0.6270 0.6314 0.6531 0.6526 0.6702 0.6812 0.6684 0.6848 0.6973 0.704 0.698 0.719 0.721
 Barbados North America N/A N/A 0.7188 0.7236 0.7176 0.7170 0.7232 0.7301 0.7289 0.744 0.739 0.750 0.753
 Belarus Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.734 0.737 0.744 0.747
 Belgium Europe 0.7078 0.7198 0.7163 0.7165 0.7509 0.7531 0.7652 0.7684 0.7809 0.753 0.745 0.739 0.738
 Belize North America N/A 0.6426 0.6610 0.6636 0.6536 0.6489 0.6465 0.6449 0.6701 0.668 0.676 0.692 0.662
 Benin Africa 0.5780 0.5656 0.5582 0.5643 0.5719 0.5832 0.6258 0.5885 N/A 0.625 0.636 0.652 0.654
 Bhutan South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6651 0.6364 0.646 0.642 0.638 0.638
 Bolivia South America 0.6335 0.6574 0.6667 0.6693 0.6751 0.6862 0.7222 0.7340 0.7049 0.749 0.746 0.758 0.748
 Botswana Africa 0.6897 0.6797 0.6839 0.7071 0.6876 0.6832 0.6744 0.6752 0.7129 0.710 0.715 0.720 0.715
 Brazil South America 0.6543 0.6637 0.6737 0.6695 0.6655 0.6679 0.6909 0.6949 0.6941 0.686 0.687 0.684 0.681
 Brunei Darussalam Southeast Asia N/A N/A 0.6392 0.6524 0.6748 0.6787 0.6750 0.6730 0.6719 0.684 0.669 0.671 0.686
 Bulgaria Europe 0.6870 0.7085 0.7077 0.7072 0.6983 0.6987 0.7021 0.7097 0.7444 0.722 0.726 0.756 0.756
 Burkina Faso Africa 0.5854 0.5912 0.6029 0.6081 0.6162 0.6153 0.6455 0.6513 0.6500 0.651 0.64 0.646 0.629
 Burundi Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7270 0.7338 0.7397 0.7565 0.748 0.768 0.755 0.741
 Cambodia Southeast Asia 0.6291 0.6353 0.6469 0.6410 0.6482 0.6464 0.6457 0.6509 0.6520 0.662 0.658 0.676 0.683
 Cameroon Africa 0.5865 0.5919 0.6017 0.6108 0.6110 0.6073 0.6291 0.6560 N/A 0.682 0.684 0.689 0.714
 Canada North America 0.7165 0.7198 0.7136 0.7196 0.7372 0.7407 0.7381 0.7425 0.7464 0.740 0.731 0.769 0.771
 Cape Verde Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7180 0.7122 0.7133 0.717 0.729 0.686 0.702
 Chad Africa 0.5247 0.5381 0.5290 0.5417 0.5330 0.5334 0.5594 0.5588 0.5764 0.580 0.587 0.575 0.580
 Chile South America 0.6455 0.6482 0.6818 0.6884 0.7013 0.7030 0.6676 0.6670 0.6975 0.698 0.699 0.704 0.717
 China East Asia 0.6561 0.6643 0.6878 0.6907 0.6881 0.6866 0.6853 0.6908 0.6830 0.682 0.676 0.674 0.673
 Colombia South America 0.7049 0.7090 0.6944 0.6939 0.6927 0.6714 0.6901 0.7171 0.7122 0.725 0.727 0.731 0.729
 Costa Rica North America 0.6936 0.7014 0.7111 0.7180 0.7194 0.7266 0.7225 0.7241 0.7165 0.732 0.736 0.727 0.749
 Côte d'Ivoire Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.5691 0.5773 0.5785 0.5814 0.5874 0.606 0.597 0.611 0.627
 Croatia Europe 0.7145 0.7210 0.6967 0.6944 0.6939 0.7006 0.7053 0.7069 0.7075 0.708 0.7 0.711 0.712
 Cuba North America N/A 0.7169 0.7195 0.7176 0.7253 0.7394 0.7417 0.7540 0.7317 0.740 0.74 0.745 0.749
 Cyprus Europe and Middle East 0.6430 0.6522 0.6694 0.6706 0.6642 0.6567 0.6732 0.6801 0.6741 0.671 0.684 0.684 0.684
 Czech Republic Europe 0.6712 0.6718 0.6770 0.6789 0.6850 0.6789 0.6767 0.6770 0.6737 0.687 0.69 0.688 0.693
 Denmark Europe 0.7462 0.7519 0.7538 0.7628 0.7719 0.7778 0.7777 0.7779 0.8025 0.767 0.754 0.776 0.778
 Dominican Republic North America 0.6639 0.6705 0.6744 0.6859 0.6774 0.6682 0.6659 0.6867 0.6906 0.686 0.676 0.697 0.701
 Ecuador South America 0.6433 0.6881 0.7091 0.7220 0.7072 0.7035 0.7206 0.7389 0.7455 0.738 0.726 0.724 0.729
 Egypt Middle East and Africa 0.5786 0.5809 0.5832 0.5862 0.5899 0.5933 0.5975 0.5935 0.6064 0.599 0.614 0.608 0.614
 El Salvador North America 0.6837 0.6853 0.6875 0.6939 0.6596 0.6567 0.6630 0.6609 0.6863 0.706 0.702 0.705 0.690
 Estonia Europe 0.6944 0.7008 0.7076 0.7094 0.7018 0.6983 0.6977 0.6997 0.7017 0.749 0.747 0.731 0.734
 Ethiopia Africa 0.5946 0.5991 0.5867 0.5948 0.6019 0.6136 0.6200 0.6198 0.6144 0.640 0.662 0.656 0.656
 Fiji Oceania N/A N/A N/A 0.6414 0.6256 0.6255 0.6285 0.6286 0.6286 0.645 N/A N/A 0.669
 Finland Europe 0.7958 0.8044 0.8195 0.8252 0.8260 0.8383 0.8451 0.8421 0.8453 0.850 0.845 0.823 0.821
 France Europe 0.6520 0.6824 0.7341 0.7331 0.7025 0.7018 0.6984 0.7089 0.7588 0.761 0.755 0.778 0.779
 Gambia, The Africa 0.6448 0.6421 0.6622 0.6752 0.6762 0.6763 0.6630 N/A N/A 0.674 0.667 0.649 0.642
 Georgia Europe and Central Asia 0.6700 0.6665 0.6654 0.6680 0.6598 0.6624 0.6691 0.6750 0.6855 0.687 0.681 0.679 0.677
 Germany Europe 0.7524 0.7618 0.7394 0.7449 0.7530 0.7590 0.7629 0.7583 0.7780 0.779 0.766 0.778 0.776
 Ghana Africa 0.6653 0.6725 0.6679 0.6704 0.6782 0.6811 0.6778 0.6811 0.6661 0.704 0.705 0.695 0.688
 Greece Europe 0.6540 0.6648 0.6727 0.6662 0.6908 0.6916 0.6716 0.6782 0.6784 0.685 0.68 0.692 0.696
 Guatemala North America 0.6067 0.6144 0.6072 0.6209 0.6238 0.6229 0.6260 0.6304 0.6821 0.667 0.666 0.667 0.668
 Guinea Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.618 0.64 0.659 0.656
 Guyana South America N/A N/A N/A 0.7108 0.7090 0.7084 0.7119 0.7085 0.7010 0.702 N/A N/A N/A
 Honduras North America 0.6483 0.6661 0.6960 0.6893 0.6927 0.6945 0.6763 0.6773 0.6935 0.688 0.69 0.711 0.706
 Hungary Europe 0.6698 0.6731 0.6867 0.6879 0.6720 0.6642 0.6718 0.6742 0.6759 0.672 0.669 0.670 0.674
 Iceland Europe 0.7813 0.7836 0.7999 0.8276 0.8496 0.8530 0.8640 0.8731 0.8594 0.881 0.874 0.878 0.858
 India South Asia 0.6011 0.5936 0.6060 0.6151 0.6155 0.6190 0.6442 0.6551 0.6455 0.664 0.683 0.669 0.665
 Indonesia Southeast Asia 0.6541 0.6550 0.6473 0.6580 0.6615 0.6594 0.6591 0.6613 0.6725 0.681 0.682 0.691 0.691
 Iran, Islamic Rep. Middle East 0.5803 0.5903 0.6021 0.5839 0.5933 0.5894 0.5927 0.5842 0.5811 0.580 0.587 0.583 0.589
 Ireland Europe 0.7335 0.7457 0.7518 0.7597 0.7773 0.7830 0.7839 0.7823 0.7850 0.807 0.797 0.794 0.796
 Israel Middle East 0.6889 0.6965 0.6900 0.7019 0.6957 0.6926 0.6989 0.7032 0.7005 0.712 0.719 0.721 0.722
 Italy Europe 0.6456 0.6498 0.6788 0.6798 0.6765 0.6796 0.6729 0.6885 0.6973 0.726 0.719 0.692 0.706
 Jamaica North America 0.7014 0.6925 0.6980 0.7013 0.7037 0.7028 0.7035 0.7085 0.7128 0.703 0.724 0.717 0.724
 Japan East Asia 0.6447 0.6455 0.6434 0.6447 0.6524 0.6514 0.6530 0.6498 0.6584 0.670 0.66 0.657 0.662
 Jordan Middle East 0.6109 0.6203 0.6275 0.6182 0.6048 0.6117 0.6103 0.6093 0.5968 0.593 0.603 0.604 0.605
 Kazakhstan Central Asia 0.6928 0.6983 0.6976 0.7013 0.7055 0.7010 0.7213 0.7218 0.7210 0.719 0.718 0.713 0.712
 Kenya Africa 0.6486 0.6508 0.6547 0.6512 0.6499 0.6493 0.6768 0.6803 0.7258 0.719 0.702 0.694 0.700
 Korea, Rep. East Asia 0.6157 0.6409 0.6154 0.6146 0.6342 0.6281 0.6356 0.6351 0.6403 0.651 0.649 0.650 0.657
 Kuwait Middle East 0.6341 0.6409 0.6358 0.6356 0.6318 0.6322 0.6320 0.6292 0.6457 0.646 0.624 0.679 0.630
 Kyrgyz Republic Central Asia 0.6742 0.6653 0.7045 0.7058 0.6973 0.7036 0.7013 0.6948 0.6974 0.693 0.687 0.691 0.691
 Laos Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6993 0.7044 0.713 N/A 0.703 0.748
 Latvia Europe 0.7091 0.7333 0.7397 0.7416 0.7429 0.7399 0.7572 0.7610 0.7691 0.752 0.755 0.756 0.758
 Lebanon Middle East N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6084 0.6083 0.6030 0.6028 0.5923 0.598 0.598 0.596 0.595
 Lesotho Africa 0.6807 0.7078 0.7320 0.7495 0.7678 0.7666 0.7608 0.7530 0.7255 0.706 0.706 0.695 0.693
 Liberia Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.652 0.652 0.669 0.681
 Lithuania Europe 0.7077 0.7234 0.7222 0.7175 0.7132 0.7131 0.7191 0.7308 0.7208 0.740 0.744 0.742 0.749
 Luxembourg Europe 0.6671 0.6786 0.6802 0.6889 0.7231 0.7216 0.7439 0.7410 0.7333 0.738 0.734 0.706 0.712
 Macedonia Europe 0.6983 0.6967 0.6914 0.6950 0.6996 0.6966 0.6968 0.7013 0.6943 0.701 0.696 0.702 0.707
 Madagascar Africa 0.6385 0.6461 0.6736 0.6732 0.6713 0.6797 0.6982 0.7016 0.7214 0.698 0.704 0.692 0.691
 Malawi Africa 0.6437 0.6480 0.6664 0.6738 0.6824 0.6850 0.7166 0.7139 0.7281 0.701 0.7 0.672 0.662
 Malaysia Southeast Asia 0.6509 0.6444 0.6442 0.6467 0.6479 0.6525 0.6539 0.6518 0.6520 0.655 0.666 0.670 0.676
 Maldives South Asia N/A 0.6350 0.6501 0.6482 0.6452 0.6480 0.6616 0.6604 0.6557 0.652 .65 0.669 0.662
 Mali Africa 0.5996 0.6019 0.6117 0.5860 0.5680 0.5752 0.5842 0.5872 0.5779 0.599 0.591 0.583 0.582
 Malta Europe 0.6518 0.6615 0.6634 0.6635 0.6695 0.6658 0.6666 0.6761 0.6707 0.668 0.664 0.682 0.686
 Mauritania Africa 0.5835 0.6022 0.6117 0.6103 0.6152 0.6164 0.6129 0.5810 0.6029 0.613 0.624 0.614 0.607
 Mauritius Africa 0.6328 0.6487 0.6466 0.6513 0.6520 0.6529 0.6547 0.6599 0.6541 0.646 0.652 0.664 0.663
 Mexico North America 0.6462 0.6441 0.6441 0.6503 0.6577 0.6604 0.6712 0.6917 0.6900 0.699 0.7 0.692 0.721
 Moldova Europe 0.7128 0.7172 0.7244 0.7104 0.7160 0.7083 0.7101 0.7037 0.7405 0.742 0.741 0.740 0.733
 Mongolia East Asia 0.6821 0.6731 0.7049 0.7221 0.7194 0.7140 0.7111 0.7204 0.7212 0.709 0.705 0.713 0.714
 Montenegro Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.689 0.681 0.693 0.706
 Morocco Africa 0.5827 0.5676 0.5757 0.5926 0.5767 0.5804 0.5833 0.5845 0.5988 0.593 0.597 0.598 0.607
 Mozambique Africa N/A 0.6883 0.7266 0.7195 0.7329 0.7251 0.7350 0.7349 0.7370 0.741 0.75 0.741 0.721
 Myanmar Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.691 0.690
 Namibia Africa 0.6864 0.7012 0.7141 0.7167 0.7238 0.7177 0.7121 0.7094 0.7219 0.760 0.765 0.777 0.789
   Nepal South Asia 0.5478 0.5575 0.5942 0.6213 0.6084 0.5888 0.6026 0.6053 0.6458 0.658 0.661 0.664 0.671
 Netherlands Europe 0.7250 0.7383 0.7399 0.7490 0.7444 0.7470 0.7659 0.7608 0.7730 0.776 0.756 0.737 0.747
 New Zealand Oceania 0.7509 0.7649 0.7859 0.7880 0.7808 0.7810 0.7805 0.7799 0.7772 0.782 0.781 0.791 0.801
 Nicaragua North America 0.6566 0.6458 0.6747 0.7002 0.7176 0.7245 0.7697 0.7715 0.7894 0.776 0.78 0.814 0.809
 Nigeria Africa 0.6104 0.6122 0.6339 0.6280 0.6055 0.6011 0.6315 0.6469 0.6391 0.638 0.643 0.641 0.621
 Norway Europe 0.7994 0.8059 0.8239 0.8227 0.8404 0.8404 0.8403 0.8417 0.8374 0.850 0.842 0.830 0.835
 Oman Middle East N/A 0.5903 0.5960 0.5938 0.5950 0.5873 0.5986 0.6053 0.6091 0.604 0.612 N/A 0.605
 Pakistan South Asia 0.5434 0.5509 0.5549 0.5458 0.5465 0.5583 0.5478 0.5459 0.5522 0.559 0.556 0.546 0.550
 Panama Central America 0.6935 0.6954 0.7095 0.7024 0.7072 0.7042 0.7122 0.7164 0.7195 0.772 0.721 0.722 0.722
 Paraguay South America 0.6556 0.6659 0.6379 0.6868 0.6804 0.6818 0.6714 0.6724 0.6890 0.666 0.676 0.678 0.672
 Peru South America 0.6619 0.6624 0.6959 0.7024 0.6895 0.6796 0.6742 0.6787 0.7198 0.683 0.687 0.719 0.720
 Philippines Southeast Asia 0.7516 0.7629 0.7568 0.7579 0.7654 0.7685 0.7757 0.7832 0.7814 0.790 0.786 0.790 0.799
 Poland Europe 0.6802 0.6756 0.6951 0.6998 0.7037 0.7038 0.7015 0.7031 0.7051 0.715 0.727 0.728 0.728
 Portugal Europe 0.6922 0.6959 0.7051 0.7013 0.7171 0.7144 0.7071 0.7056 0.7243 0.731 0.737 0.734 0.732
 Qatar Middle East N/A 0.6041 0.5948 0.5907 0.6059 0.6230 0.6264 0.6299 0.6403 0.645 0.643 0.626 0.629
 Romania Europe 0.6797 0.6859 0.6763 0.6805 0.6826 0.6812 0.6859 0.6908 0.6936 0.693 0.69 0.708 0.711
 Russian Federation Europe and Northern Asia 0.6770 0.6866 0.6994 0.6987 0.7036 0.7037 0.6980 0.6983 0.6927 0.694 0.691 0.696 0.701
 Rwanda Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.794 0.8 0.822 0.804
 Saudi Arabia Middle East 0.5242 0.5647 0.5537 0.5651 0.5713 0.5753 0.5731 0.5879 0.6059 0.605 0.583 0.584 0.590
 Senegal Africa N/A N/A N/A 0.6427 0.6414 0.6573 0.6657 0.6923 0.6912 0.698 0.685 0.684 0.682
 Serbia Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7037 0.7116 0.7086 0.720 0.72 0.727 0.730
 Singapore Southeast Asia 0.6550 0.6609 0.6625 0.6664 0.6914 0.6914 0.6989 0.7000 0.7046 0.711 0.712 0.702 0.707
 Slovakia Europe 0.6757 0.6797 0.6824 0.6845 0.6778 0.6797 0.6824 0.6857 0.6806 0.675 0.679 0.694 0.693
 Slovenia Europe 0.6745 0.6842 0.6937 0.6982 0.7047 0.7041 0.7132 0.7155 0.7443 0.784 0.786 0.805 0.784
 South Africa Africa 0.7125 0.7194 0.7232 0.7709 0.7535 0.7478 0.7496 0.7510 0.7527 0.759 0.764 0.756 0.755
 Spain Europe 0.7319 0.7444 0.7281 0.7345 0.7554 0.7580 0.7266 0.7266 0.7325 0.742 0.738 0.746 0.746
 Sri Lanka South Asia 0.7199 0.7230 0.7371 0.7402 0.7458 0.7212 0.7122 0.7019 0.6903 0.686 0.673 0.669 0.676
 Suriname South America N/A 0.6794 0.6674 0.6726 0.6407 0.6395 0.6409 0.6369 0.6504 0.670 0.679 0.689 0.695
 Swaziland Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.670 0.665 0.670 N/A
 Sweden Europe 0.8133 0.8146 0.8139 0.8139 0.8024 0.8044 0.8159 0.8129 0.8165 0.823 0.815 0.816 0.822
  Switzerland Europe 0.6997 0.6924 0.7360 0.7426 0.7562 0.7627 0.7672 0.7736 0.7798 0.785 0.776 0.755 0.755
 Syria Middle East N/A 0.6216 0.6181 0.6072 0.5926 0.5896 0.5626 0.5661 0.5775 0.568 0.567 0.568 0.568
 Tajikistan Central Asia N/A 0.6578 0.6541 0.6661 0.6598 0.6526 0.6608 0.6682 0.6654 0.675 0.679 0.678 0.638
 Tanzania Africa 0.7038 0.6969 0.7068 0.6797 0.6829 0.6904 0.7091 0.6928 0.7182 0.718 0.716 0.700 0.704
 Thailand Southeast Asia 0.6831 0.6815 0.6917 0.6907 0.6910 0.6892 0.6893 0.6928 0.7027 0.706 0.699 0.694 0.702
 Timor-Leste Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6855 N/A N/A N/A 0.637 0.628 0.638
 Trinidad and Tobago North America 0.6797 0.6859 0.7245 0.7298 0.7353 0.7372 0.7116 0.7166 0.7154 0.720 0.723 N/A N/A
 Tunisia Africa 0.6288 0.6283 0.6295 0.6233 0.6266 0.6255 N/A N/A 0.6272 0.634 0.636 0.651 0.648
 Turkey Middle East and Europe 0.5850 0.5768 0.5853 0.5828 0.5876 0.5954 0.6015 0.6081 0.6183 0.624 0.623 0.625 0.628
 Uganda Africa 0.6797 0.6833 0.6981 0.7067 0.7169 0.7220 0.7228 0.7086 0.6821 0.708 0.704 0.721 0.724
 Ukraine Europe 0.6797 0.6790 0.6856 0.6896 0.6869 0.6861 0.6894 0.6935 0.7056 0.702 0.7 0.705 0.708
 United Arab Emirates Middle East 0.5919 0.6184 0.6220 0.6198 0.6397 0.6454 0.6392 0.6372 0.6436 0.646 0.639 0.649 0.642
 United Kingdom Europe 0.7365 0.7441 0.7366 0.7402 0.7460 0.7462 0.7433 0.7440 0.7383 0.758 0.752 0.770 0.744
 United States North America 0.7042 0.7002 0.7179 0.7173 0.7411 0.7412 0.7373 0.7392 0.7463 0.740 0.722 0.718 0.720
 Uruguay South America 0.6549 0.6608 0.6907 0.6936 0.6897 0.6907 0.6745 0.6803 0.6871 0.679 0.681 0.710 0.715
 Venezuela South America 0.6664 0.6797 0.6875 0.6839 0.6863 0.6861 0.7060 0.7060 0.6851 0.691 0.694 0.706 0.709
 Vietnam Southeast Asia N/A 0.6889 0.6778 0.6802 0.6776 0.6732 0.6867 0.6863 0.6915 0.687 0.7 0.698 0.698
 Yemen Middle East 0.4595 0.4510 0.4664 0.4609 0.4603 0.4873 0.5054 0.5128 0.5145 0.484 0.516 0.516 0.499
 Zambia Africa 0.6360 0.6288 0.6205 0.6310 0.6293 0.6300 0.6279 0.6312 0.6364 0.650 N/A N/A N/A
 Zimbabwe Africa 0.6461 0.6464 0.6485 0.6518 0.6574 0.6607 N/A N/A 0.7013 0.709 0.71 0.717 0.721

Controversies[edit]

There are controversies around credibility of the index,[16][17] stemmed mostly from misunderstandings. On 2014, for example, JTBC News Channel in South Korea described the reason why South Korea had such a low rank.[18] According to the news, some of the raw data used to calculate the index do not reflect the country's unique situation accurately, and that partially accounts for their rank. This conclusion is, while not entirely wrong, somewhat misleading. Since the final index is calculated by weighted averages of fourteen ratios, tweaking one or two ratios to be a little bit higher does not affect the result much.[19]

The index is designed to "measure gender-based gaps in access to resources and opportunities in countries rather than the actual levels of the available resources and opportunities in those countries."[14] It is not necessarily true that highly developed countries should have higher scores.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Years of report publication. Values may reflect data collected the previous year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2017". Global Gender Gap Report 2017. Retrieved 2018-05-11.
  2. ^ Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum, Editors (2009). "The Global Gender Gap Report 2009" (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-11-02. (...) the Index rewards countries that reach the point where outcomes for women equal those for men, but it neither rewards nor penalizes cases in which women are outperforming men in particular variablesCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b 2008 Report, p. 24
  4. ^ 2014 report, page 5
  5. ^ 2008 Report, p. 5
  6. ^ a b c d The Global Gender Gap Report 2018 (GGGR), p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data truncation at equality benchmark: As a second step, these ratios are truncated at the "equality benchmark”. For all indicators, except the two health indicators, this equality benchmark is considered to be 1, meaning equal numbers of women and men.
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … To calculate the Index, all ratios were truncated at the parity benchmark of 1 and thus the highest score possible is 1.
  7. ^ a b c d GGGR 2018, p. 6; Table 2: Calculation of weights within each subin-dex
  8. ^ GGGR 2018, p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data truncation at equality benchmark: … In the case of sex ratio at birth, the equality benchmark is set at 0.944,
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … except for the sex ratio at birth (0.944)
  9. ^ GGGR 2018, p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data trun-cation at equality benchmark: … the case of healthy life expectancy the equality benchmark is set at 1.06.
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … and the healthy life expectancy (1.06) indicators.
  10. ^ 2016 Report, Page 6
  11. ^ http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf
  12. ^ "The Global Gender Gap Report 2013" (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
  13. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2014 - Reports - World Economic Forum". Global Gender Gap Report 2014.
  14. ^ a b c "Global Gender Gap Report 2017 - Rankings". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2015 - Rankings". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  16. ^ "Is WEF's South Korea's Gender Equality Ranking really worse than Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, and Burkina Faso, etc?". reddit.
  17. ^ "Why the U.S. is losing the global fight for gender equality". fortune.com.
  18. ^ "FactCheck: South Korea ranked 117th. Is that accurate?". YouTube.
  19. ^ 2016 report, page 5

External links[edit]

Reports[edit]

  • Ricardo Hausmann; Laura D. Tyson; Yasmina Bekhouche; Saadia Zahidi (2014). The Global Gender Gap Index 2014 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-11-26.
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2013). The Global Gender Gap Report 2013 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-10-26.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2012). The Global Gender Gap Report 2012 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2012-10-26.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 (PDF).
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2010). The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2010-10-20.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2009). The Global Gender Gap Report 2009 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-05. Retrieved 2009-11-02.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2008). The Global Gender Gap Report 2008 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2008-11-19.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2007). The Global Gender Gap Report 2007 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2008-11-19.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2006). The Global Gender Gap Report 2006 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2008-11-19.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)