Global Gender Gap Report

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Cover of the 2008 report

The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2020 report (published in 2019) covers 153 countries. The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality.[1]

The index is designed to "measure gender-based gaps in access to resources and opportunities in countries rather than the actual level of the available resources and opportunities in those countries."[2] It is not necessarily true that highly developed countries should have higher scores.

The methodology used to determine index scores is designed in such a way as to count situations in which men are disadvantaged relative to women as "equal".[3]

Methodology[edit]

The report's Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gap between women and men in four key areas: health, education, economy and politics to gauge the state of gender equality in a country. The report measures women's disadvantage compared to men, and is not a measure of equality of the gender gap. Gender imbalances to the advantage of women do not affect the score.[3] So, for example, the indicator "number of years of a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value" would score 1 if the number of years was 25, but would still score 1 if the number of years was 50. Due to this methodology, gender gaps that favor women over men are reported as equality and would not cause deficits of equality in other areas to become less visible in the score, excepted for life expectancy. To put it more simply: women could be better off in all areas and still the index would deem that country perfectly equal.

The three highest-ranking countries have closed over 84% of their gender gaps, while the lowest-ranking country has closed only a little over 50% of its gender gap. It "assesses countries on how well they are dividing their resources and opportunities among their male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources and opportunities," the Report says.[4] "By providing a comprehensible framework for assessing and comparing global gender gaps and by revealing those countries that are role models in dividing these resources equitably between women and men, the Report serves as a catalyst for greater awareness as well as greater exchange between policymakers."[4]

The report examines four overall areas of inequality between men and women in 130 economies around the globe, over 93% of the world's population:

  • Economic participation and opportunity – outcomes on salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment
  • Educational attainment – outcomes on access to basic and higher level education
  • Political empowerment – outcomes on representation in decision-making structures
  • Health and survival – outcomes on life expectancy and sex ratio. In this case parity is not assumed, there are assumed to be fewer female births than male (944 female for every 1,000 males), and men are assumed to die younger. Provided that women live at least six percent longer than men, parity is assumed. But if it is less than six percent it counts as a gender gap.[5]

Thirteen out of the fourteen variables used to create the index are from publicly available "hard data" indicators from international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization.[6]

Upper limiting value of the Gender Gap Index[edit]

1. Economic participation and opportunity
 ratio limit[7] weight[8] value
* Labour force participation 1.0 0.199 0.199
* Wage equality for similar work 1.0 0.310 0.310
* Estimated earned income 1.0 0.221 0.221
* Legislators, senior officials and managers 1.0 0.149 0.149
* Professional and technical workers 1.0 0.121 0.121
  sum 1.0 1.0
2. Educational attainment
 ratio limit[7] weight[8] value
* Literacy rate 1.0 0.191 0.191
* Enrolment in primary education 1.0 0.459 0.459
* Enrolment in secondary education 1.0 0.229 0.229
* Enrolment in tertiary education 1.0 0.121 0.121
  sum 1.0 1.0
3. Health and survival
 ratio limit[7] weight[8] value
* Sex ratio at birth 0.944[9] 0.693 0.654
* Healthy life expectancy 1.060[10] 0.307 0.325
  sum 1.0 0.980
4. Political empowerment
 ratio limit[7] weight[8] value
* Women in parliament 1.0 0.310 0.310
* Women in ministerial positions 1.0 0.247 0.247
* Years with female head of state 1.0 0.443 0.443
  sum 1.0 1.0
Compilation
1. Economic participation and opportunity 1.000
2. Educational attainment 1.000
3. Health and survival 0.980
4. Political empowerment 1.000
sum   3.980

Gender Gap Index: 3.98 / 4 = 0.9949

This is the upper limiting value of the Gender Gap Index (limes superior) for the female-to-male ratio and for the male-to-female ratio.

WEF Global Gender Gap Index rankings[edit]

The highest possible score is 1.0 (equality or better for women, except for lifespan (106% or better for women) and gender parity at birth (94.4% or better for women[11]) and the lowest possible score is 0. Data for some countries are unavailable.[12][13][14]

Global Gender Gap Report 2020
Location Year [note 1]
Country Region 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[15] 2016[2] 2017 2018 2020[16] 2021[17]
 Afghanistan South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.444
 Albania Europe 0.6607 0.6685 0.6591 0.6601 0.6726 0.6748 0.6655 0.6412 0.6869 0.701 0.704 0.728 0.734 0.769 0.770
 Algeria Africa 0.6018 0.6068 0.6111 0.6119 0.6052 0.5991 0.6112 0.5966 0.6182 0.632 0.642 0.629 0.629 0.634 0.633
 Angola Africa 0.6039 0.6034 0.6032 0.6353 0.6712 0.6624 N/A 0.6659 0.6311 0.637 0.643 0.640 0.633 0.660 0.657
 Argentina South America 0.6829 0.6982 0.7209 0.7211 0.7187 0.7236 0.7212 0.7195 0.7317 0.734 0.735 0.732 0.733 0.746 0.752
 Armenia West Asia N/A 0.6651 0.6677 0.6619 0.6669 0.6654 0.6636 0.6634 0.6622 0.668 0.669 0.677 0.678 0.684 0.673
 Australia Oceania 0.7163 0.7204 0.7241 0.7282 0.7271 0.7291 0.7294 0.7390 0.7409 0.733 0.721 0.731 0.730 0.731 0.731
 Austria Europe 0.6986 0.7060 0.7153 0.7031 0.7091 0.7165 0.7391 0.7437 0.7266 0.733 0.716 0.709 0.718 0.744 0.777
 Azerbaijan West Asia N/A 0.6781 0.6856 0.6626 0.6446 0.6577 0.6546 0.6582 0.6753 0.675 0.684 0.676 0.680 0.687 0.688
 Bahamas Central America N/A N/A N/A 0.7179 0.7128 0.7340 0.7156 0.7128 0.7269 0.728 0.729 0.743 0.741 0.720 0.725
 Bahrain West Asia 0.5894 0.5931 0.5927 0.6136 0.6217 0.6232 0.6298 0.6334 0.6261 0.644 0.615 0.632 0.627 0.629 0.632
 Bangladesh South Asia 0.6270 0.6314 0.6531 0.6526 0.6702 0.6812 0.6684 0.6848 0.6973 0.704 0.698 0.719 0.721 0.726 0.719
 Barbados Central America N/A N/A 0.7188 0.7236 0.7176 0.7170 0.7232 0.7301 0.7289 0.744 0.739 0.750 0.753 0.749 0.769
 Belarus Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.734 0.737 0.744 0.747 0.746 0.758
 Belgium Europe 0.7078 0.7198 0.7163 0.7165 0.7509 0.7531 0.7652 0.7684 0.7809 0.753 0.745 0.739 0.738 0.750 0.789
 Belize Central America N/A 0.6426 0.6610 0.6636 0.6536 0.6489 0.6465 0.6449 0.6701 0.668 0.676 0.692 0.662 0.671 0.699
 Benin Africa 0.5780 0.5656 0.5582 0.5643 0.5719 0.5832 0.6258 0.5885 N/A 0.625 0.636 0.652 0.654 0.658 0.653
 Bhutan South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6651 0.6364 0.646 0.642 0.638 0.638 0.635 0.639
 Bolivia South America 0.6335 0.6574 0.6667 0.6693 0.6751 0.6862 0.7222 0.7340 0.7049 0.749 0.746 0.758 0.748 0.734 0.722
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.713
 Botswana Africa 0.6897 0.6797 0.6839 0.7071 0.6876 0.6832 0.6744 0.6752 0.7129 0.710 0.715 0.720 0.715 0.709 0.716
 Brazil South America 0.6543 0.6637 0.6737 0.6695 0.6655 0.6679 0.6909 0.6949 0.6941 0.686 0.687 0.684 0.681 0.691 0.695
 Brunei Darussalam Southeast Asia N/A N/A 0.6392 0.6524 0.6748 0.6787 0.6750 0.6730 0.6719 0.684 0.669 0.671 0.686 0.686 0.678
 Bulgaria Europe 0.6870 0.7085 0.7077 0.7072 0.6983 0.6987 0.7021 0.7097 0.7444 0.722 0.726 0.756 0.756 0.727 0.746
 Burkina Faso Africa 0.5854 0.5912 0.6029 0.6081 0.6162 0.6153 0.6455 0.6513 0.6500 0.651 0.64 0.646 0.629 0.635 0.651
 Burundi Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7270 0.7338 0.7397 0.7565 0.748 0.768 0.755 0.741 0.745 0.769
 Cambodia Southeast Asia 0.6291 0.6353 0.6469 0.6410 0.6482 0.6464 0.6457 0.6509 0.6520 0.662 0.658 0.676 0.683 0.694 0.685
 Cameroon Africa 0.5865 0.5919 0.6017 0.6108 0.6110 0.6073 0.6291 0.6560 N/A 0.682 0.684 0.689 0.714 0.686 0.692
 Canada North America 0.7165 0.7198 0.7136 0.7196 0.7372 0.7407 0.7381 0.7425 0.7464 0.740 0.731 0.769 0.771 0.772 0.772
 Cape Verde Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7180 0.7122 0.7133 0.717 0.729 0.686 0.702 0.725 0.716
 Chad Africa 0.5247 0.5381 0.5290 0.5417 0.5330 0.5334 0.5594 0.5588 0.5764 0.580 0.587 0.575 0.580 0.596 0.593
 Chile South America 0.6455 0.6482 0.6818 0.6884 0.7013 0.7030 0.6676 0.6670 0.6975 0.698 0.699 0.704 0.717 0.723 0.716
 China East Asia 0.6561 0.6643 0.6878 0.6907 0.6881 0.6866 0.6853 0.6908 0.6830 0.682 0.676 0.674 0.673 0.676 0.682
 Colombia South America 0.7049 0.7090 0.6944 0.6939 0.6927 0.6714 0.6901 0.7171 0.7122 0.725 0.727 0.731 0.729 0.758 0.725
 Costa Rica Central America 0.6936 0.7014 0.7111 0.7180 0.7194 0.7266 0.7225 0.7241 0.7165 0.732 0.736 0.727 0.749 0.782 0.786
 Côte d'Ivoire Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.5691 0.5773 0.5785 0.5814 0.5874 0.606 0.597 0.611 0.627 0.606 0.637
 Croatia Europe 0.7145 0.7210 0.6967 0.6944 0.6939 0.7006 0.7053 0.7069 0.7075 0.708 0.7 0.711 0.712 0.720 0.733
 Cuba Central America N/A 0.7169 0.7195 0.7176 0.7253 0.7394 0.7417 0.7540 0.7317 0.740 0.74 0.745 0.749 0.746 0.746
 Cyprus West Asia 0.6430 0.6522 0.6694 0.6706 0.6642 0.6567 0.6732 0.6801 0.6741 0.671 0.684 0.684 0.684 0.692 0.707
 Czech Republic Europe 0.6712 0.6718 0.6770 0.6789 0.6850 0.6789 0.6767 0.6770 0.6737 0.687 0.69 0.688 0.693 0.706 0.711
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.576
 Denmark Europe 0.7462 0.7519 0.7538 0.7628 0.7719 0.7778 0.7777 0.7779 0.8025 0.767 0.754 0.776 0.778 0.782 0.768
 Dominican Republic Central America 0.6639 0.6705 0.6744 0.6859 0.6774 0.6682 0.6659 0.6867 0.6906 0.686 0.676 0.697 0.701 0.700 0.699
 Ecuador South America 0.6433 0.6881 0.7091 0.7220 0.7072 0.7035 0.7206 0.7389 0.7455 0.738 0.726 0.724 0.729 0.729 0.739
 Egypt Africa 0.5786 0.5809 0.5832 0.5862 0.5899 0.5933 0.5975 0.5935 0.6064 0.599 0.614 0.608 0.614 0.629 0.639
 El Salvador Central America 0.6837 0.6853 0.6875 0.6939 0.6596 0.6567 0.6630 0.6609 0.6863 0.706 0.702 0.705 0.690 0.706 0.738
 Estonia Europe 0.6944 0.7008 0.7076 0.7094 0.7018 0.6983 0.6977 0.6997 0.7017 0.749 0.747 0.731 0.734 0.751 0.733
 Ethiopia Africa 0.5946 0.5991 0.5867 0.5948 0.6019 0.6136 0.6200 0.6198 0.6144 0.640 0.662 0.656 0.656 0.705 0.691
 Fiji Oceania N/A N/A N/A 0.6414 0.6256 0.6255 0.6285 0.6286 0.6286 0.645 N/A N/A 0.669 0.678 0.674
 Finland Europe 0.7958 0.8044 0.8195 0.8252 0.8260 0.8383 0.8451 0.8421 0.8453 0.850 0.845 0.823 0.821 0.832 0.861
 France Europe 0.6520 0.6824 0.7341 0.7331 0.7025 0.7018 0.6984 0.7089 0.7588 0.761 0.755 0.778 0.779 0.781 0.784
 Gambia, The Africa 0.6448 0.6421 0.6622 0.6752 0.6762 0.6763 0.6630 N/A N/A 0.674 0.667 0.649 0.642 0.628 0.644
 Georgia West Asia 0.6700 0.6665 0.6654 0.6680 0.6598 0.6624 0.6691 0.6750 0.6855 0.687 0.681 0.679 0.677 0.708 0.732
 Germany Europe 0.7524 0.7618 0.7394 0.7449 0.7530 0.7590 0.7629 0.7583 0.7780 0.779 0.766 0.778 0.776 0.787 0.796
 Ghana Africa 0.6653 0.6725 0.6679 0.6704 0.6782 0.6811 0.6778 0.6811 0.6661 0.704 0.705 0.695 0.688 0.673 0.666
 Greece Europe 0.6540 0.6648 0.6727 0.6662 0.6908 0.6916 0.6716 0.6782 0.6784 0.685 0.68 0.692 0.696 0.701 0.689
 Guatemala Central America 0.6067 0.6144 0.6072 0.6209 0.6238 0.6229 0.6260 0.6304 0.6821 0.667 0.666 0.667 0.668 0.666 0.655
 Guinea Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.618 0.64 0.659 0.656 0.642 0.660
 Guyana South America N/A N/A N/A 0.7108 0.7090 0.7084 0.7119 0.7085 0.7010 0.702 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.728
 Honduras Central America 0.6483 0.6661 0.6960 0.6893 0.6927 0.6945 0.6763 0.6773 0.6935 0.688 0.69 0.711 0.706 0.722 0.716
 Hungary Europe 0.6698 0.6731 0.6867 0.6879 0.6720 0.6642 0.6718 0.6742 0.6759 0.672 0.669 0.670 0.674 0.677 0.688
 Iceland Europe 0.7813 0.7836 0.7999 0.8276 0.8496 0.8530 0.8640 0.8731 0.8594 0.881 0.874 0.878 0.858 0.877 0.892
 India South Asia 0.6011 0.5936 0.6060 0.6151 0.6155 0.6190 0.6442 0.6551 0.6455 0.664 0.683 0.669 0.665 0.668 0.625
 Indonesia Southeast Asia 0.6541 0.6550 0.6473 0.6580 0.6615 0.6594 0.6591 0.6613 0.6725 0.681 0.682 0.691 0.691 0.700 0.688
 Iran West Asia 0.5803 0.5903 0.6021 0.5839 0.5933 0.5894 0.5927 0.5842 0.5811 0.580 0.587 0.583 0.589 0.584 0.582
 Iraq West Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.535
 Ireland Europe 0.7335 0.7457 0.7518 0.7597 0.7773 0.7830 0.7839 0.7823 0.7850 0.807 0.797 0.794 0.796 0.798 0.800
 Israel West Asia 0.6889 0.6965 0.6900 0.7019 0.6957 0.6926 0.6989 0.7032 0.7005 0.712 0.719 0.721 0.722 0.718 0.724
 Italy Europe 0.6456 0.6498 0.6788 0.6798 0.6765 0.6796 0.6729 0.6885 0.6973 0.726 0.719 0.692 0.706 0.707 0.721
 Jamaica Central America 0.7014 0.6925 0.6980 0.7013 0.7037 0.7028 0.7035 0.7085 0.7128 0.703 0.724 0.717 0.724 0.735 0.741
 Japan East Asia 0.6447 0.6455 0.6434 0.6447 0.6524 0.6514 0.6530 0.6498 0.6584 0.670 0.66 0.657 0.662 0.652 0.656
 Jordan West Asia 0.6109 0.6203 0.6275 0.6182 0.6048 0.6117 0.6103 0.6093 0.5968 0.593 0.603 0.604 0.605 0.623 0.683
 Kazakhstan Central Asia 0.6928 0.6983 0.6976 0.7013 0.7055 0.7010 0.7213 0.7218 0.7210 0.719 0.718 0.713 0.712 0.710 0.710
 Kenya Africa 0.6486 0.6508 0.6547 0.6512 0.6499 0.6493 0.6768 0.6803 0.7258 0.719 0.702 0.694 0.700 0.671 0.692
 Korea, Rep. East Asia 0.6157 0.6409 0.6154 0.6146 0.6342 0.6281 0.6356 0.6351 0.6403 0.651 0.649 0.650 0.657 0.672 0.687
 Kuwait West Asia 0.6341 0.6409 0.6358 0.6356 0.6318 0.6322 0.6320 0.6292 0.6457 0.646 0.624 0.679 0.630 0.650 0.621
 Kyrgyz Republic Central Asia 0.6742 0.6653 0.7045 0.7058 0.6973 0.7036 0.7013 0.6948 0.6974 0.693 0.687 0.691 0.691 0.689 0.681
 Laos Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6993 0.7044 0.713 N/A 0.703 0.748 0.731 0.750
 Latvia Europe 0.7091 0.7333 0.7397 0.7416 0.7429 0.7399 0.7572 0.7610 0.7691 0.752 0.755 0.756 0.758 0.785 0.778
 Lebanon West Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6084 0.6083 0.6030 0.6028 0.5923 0.598 0.598 0.596 0.595 0.599 0.638
 Lesotho Africa 0.6807 0.7078 0.7320 0.7495 0.7678 0.7666 0.7608 0.7530 0.7255 0.706 0.706 0.695 0.693 0.695 0.698
 Liberia Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.652 0.652 0.669 0.681 0.685 0.693
 Lithuania Europe 0.7077 0.7234 0.7222 0.7175 0.7132 0.7131 0.7191 0.7308 0.7208 0.740 0.744 0.742 0.749 0.745 0.804
 Luxembourg Europe 0.6671 0.6786 0.6802 0.6889 0.7231 0.7216 0.7439 0.7410 0.7333 0.738 0.734 0.706 0.712 0.725 0.726
 North Macedonia Europe 0.6983 0.6967 0.6914 0.6950 0.6996 0.6966 0.6968 0.7013 0.6943 0.701 0.696 0.702 0.707 0.711 0.715
 Madagascar Africa 0.6385 0.6461 0.6736 0.6732 0.6713 0.6797 0.6982 0.7016 0.7214 0.698 0.704 0.692 0.691 0.719 0.725
 Malawi Africa 0.6437 0.6480 0.6664 0.6738 0.6824 0.6850 0.7166 0.7139 0.7281 0.701 0.7 0.672 0.662 0.664 0.671
 Malaysia Southeast Asia 0.6509 0.6444 0.6442 0.6467 0.6479 0.6525 0.6539 0.6518 0.6520 0.655 0.666 0.670 0.676 0.677 0.676
 Maldives South Asia N/A 0.6350 0.6501 0.6482 0.6452 0.6480 0.6616 0.6604 0.6557 0.652 .65 0.669 0.662 0.646 0.642
 Mali Africa 0.5996 0.6019 0.6117 0.5860 0.5680 0.5752 0.5842 0.5872 0.5779 0.599 0.591 0.583 0.582 0.621 0.591
 Malta Europe 0.6518 0.6615 0.6634 0.6635 0.6695 0.6658 0.6666 0.6761 0.6707 0.668 0.664 0.682 0.686 0.693 0.703
 Mauritania Africa 0.5835 0.6022 0.6117 0.6103 0.6152 0.6164 0.6129 0.5810 0.6029 0.613 0.624 0.614 0.607 0.614 0.606
 Mauritius Africa 0.6328 0.6487 0.6466 0.6513 0.6520 0.6529 0.6547 0.6599 0.6541 0.646 0.652 0.664 0.663 0.665 0.679
 Mexico North America 0.6462 0.6441 0.6441 0.6503 0.6577 0.6604 0.6712 0.6917 0.6900 0.699 0.7 0.692 0.721 0.754 0.757
 Moldova Europe 0.7128 0.7172 0.7244 0.7104 0.7160 0.7083 0.7101 0.7037 0.7405 0.742 0.741 0.740 0.733 0.757 0.768
 Mongolia East Asia 0.6821 0.6731 0.7049 0.7221 0.7194 0.7140 0.7111 0.7204 0.7212 0.709 0.705 0.713 0.714 0.706 0.716
 Montenegro Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.689 0.681 0.693 0.706 0.710 0.732
 Morocco Africa 0.5827 0.5676 0.5757 0.5926 0.5767 0.5804 0.5833 0.5845 0.5988 0.593 0.597 0.598 0.607 0.605 0.612
 Mozambique Africa N/A 0.6883 0.7266 0.7195 0.7329 0.7251 0.7350 0.7349 0.7370 0.741 0.75 0.741 0.721 0.723 0.758
 Myanmar Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.691 0.690 0.665 0.681
 Namibia Africa 0.6864 0.7012 0.7141 0.7167 0.7238 0.7177 0.7121 0.7094 0.7219 0.760 0.765 0.777 0.789 0.784 0.809
   Nepal South Asia 0.5478 0.5575 0.5942 0.6213 0.6084 0.5888 0.6026 0.6053 0.6458 0.658 0.661 0.664 0.671 0.680 0.683
 Netherlands Europe 0.7250 0.7383 0.7399 0.7490 0.7444 0.7470 0.7659 0.7608 0.7730 0.776 0.756 0.737 0.747 0.736 0.762
 New Zealand Oceania 0.7509 0.7649 0.7859 0.7880 0.7808 0.7810 0.7805 0.7799 0.7772 0.782 0.781 0.791 0.801 0.799 0.840
 Nicaragua Central America 0.6566 0.6458 0.6747 0.7002 0.7176 0.7245 0.7697 0.7715 0.7894 0.776 0.78 0.814 0.809 0.804 0.796
 Niger Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.629
 Nigeria Africa 0.6104 0.6122 0.6339 0.6280 0.6055 0.6011 0.6315 0.6469 0.6391 0.638 0.643 0.641 0.621 0.635 0.627
 Norway Europe 0.7994 0.8059 0.8239 0.8227 0.8404 0.8404 0.8403 0.8417 0.8374 0.850 0.842 0.830 0.835 0.842 0.849
 Oman West Asia N/A 0.5903 0.5960 0.5938 0.5950 0.5873 0.5986 0.6053 0.6091 0.604 0.612 N/A 0.605 0.602 0.608
 Pakistan South Asia 0.5434 0.5509 0.5549 0.5458 0.5465 0.5583 0.5478 0.5459 0.5522 0.559 0.556 0.546 0.550 0.564 0.556
 Panama Central America 0.6935 0.6954 0.7095 0.7024 0.7072 0.7042 0.7122 0.7164 0.7195 0.772 0.721 0.722 0.722 0.730 0.737
 Papua New Guinea Oceania N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.635
 Paraguay South America 0.6556 0.6659 0.6379 0.6868 0.6804 0.6818 0.6714 0.6724 0.6890 0.666 0.676 0.678 0.672 0.683 0.702
 Peru South America 0.6619 0.6624 0.6959 0.7024 0.6895 0.6796 0.6742 0.6787 0.7198 0.683 0.687 0.719 0.720 0.714 0.721
 Philippines Southeast Asia 0.7516 0.7629 0.7568 0.7579 0.7654 0.7685 0.7757 0.7832 0.7814 0.790 0.786 0.790 0.799 0.781 0.784
 Poland Europe 0.6802 0.6756 0.6951 0.6998 0.7037 0.7038 0.7015 0.7031 0.7051 0.715 0.727 0.728 0.728 0.736 0.713
 Portugal Europe 0.6922 0.6959 0.7051 0.7013 0.7171 0.7144 0.7071 0.7056 0.7243 0.731 0.737 0.734 0.732 0.744 0.775
 Qatar West Asia N/A 0.6041 0.5948 0.5907 0.6059 0.6230 0.6264 0.6299 0.6403 0.645 0.643 0.626 0.629 0.629 0.624
 Romania Europe 0.6797 0.6859 0.6763 0.6805 0.6826 0.6812 0.6859 0.6908 0.6936 0.693 0.69 0.708 0.711 0.724 0.700
 Russia Europe 0.6770 0.6866 0.6994 0.6987 0.7036 0.7037 0.6980 0.6983 0.6927 0.694 0.691 0.696 0.701 0.706 0.708
 Rwanda Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.794 0.8 0.822 0.804 0.791 0.805
 Saudi Arabia West Asia 0.5242 0.5647 0.5537 0.5651 0.5713 0.5753 0.5731 0.5879 0.6059 0.605 0.583 0.584 0.590 0.599 0.603
 Senegal Africa N/A N/A N/A 0.6427 0.6414 0.6573 0.6657 0.6923 0.6912 0.698 0.685 0.684 0.682 0.684 0.684
 Serbia Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7037 0.7116 0.7086 0.720 0.72 0.727 0.730 0.736 0.780
 Sierra Leone Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.655
 Singapore Southeast Asia 0.6550 0.6609 0.6625 0.6664 0.6914 0.6914 0.6989 0.7000 0.7046 0.711 0.712 0.702 0.707 0.724 0.727
 Slovakia Europe 0.6757 0.6797 0.6824 0.6845 0.6778 0.6797 0.6824 0.6857 0.6806 0.675 0.679 0.694 0.693 0.718 0.712
 Slovenia Europe 0.6745 0.6842 0.6937 0.6982 0.7047 0.7041 0.7132 0.7155 0.7443 0.784 0.786 0.805 0.784 0.743 0.741
 South Africa Africa 0.7125 0.7194 0.7232 0.7709 0.7535 0.7478 0.7496 0.7510 0.7527 0.759 0.764 0.756 0.755 0.780 0.781
 Spain Europe 0.7319 0.7444 0.7281 0.7345 0.7554 0.7580 0.7266 0.7266 0.7325 0.742 0.738 0.746 0.746 0.795 0.788
 Sri Lanka South Asia 0.7199 0.7230 0.7371 0.7402 0.7458 0.7212 0.7122 0.7019 0.6903 0.686 0.673 0.669 0.676 0.680 0.670
 Suriname South America N/A 0.6794 0.6674 0.6726 0.6407 0.6395 0.6409 0.6369 0.6504 0.670 0.679 0.689 0.695 0.707 0.729
 Eswatini Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.670 0.665 0.670 N/A N/A 0.729
 Sweden Europe 0.8133 0.8146 0.8139 0.8139 0.8024 0.8044 0.8159 0.8129 0.8165 0.823 0.815 0.816 0.822 0.820 0.823
  Switzerland Europe 0.6997 0.6924 0.7360 0.7426 0.7562 0.7627 0.7672 0.7736 0.7798 0.785 0.776 0.755 0.755 0.779 0.798
 Syria West Asia N/A 0.6216 0.6181 0.6072 0.5926 0.5896 0.5626 0.5661 0.5775 0.568 0.567 0.568 0.568 0.567 0.568
 Tajikistan Central Asia N/A 0.6578 0.6541 0.6661 0.6598 0.6526 0.6608 0.6682 0.6654 0.675 0.679 0.678 0.638 0.626 0.650
 Tanzania Africa 0.7038 0.6969 0.7068 0.6797 0.6829 0.6904 0.7091 0.6928 0.7182 0.718 0.716 0.700 0.704 0.713 0.707
 Thailand Southeast Asia 0.6831 0.6815 0.6917 0.6907 0.6910 0.6892 0.6893 0.6928 0.7027 0.706 0.699 0.694 0.702 0.708 0.710
 Timor-Leste Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6855 N/A N/A N/A 0.637 0.628 0.638 0.662 0.720
 Togo Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.683
 Trinidad and Tobago Central America 0.6797 0.6859 0.7245 0.7298 0.7353 0.7372 0.7116 0.7166 0.7154 0.720 0.723 N/A N/A 0.756 0.749
 Tunisia Africa 0.6288 0.6283 0.6295 0.6233 0.6266 0.6255 N/A N/A 0.6272 0.634 0.636 0.651 0.648 0.644 0.649
 Turkey West Asia 0.5850 0.5768 0.5853 0.5828 0.5876 0.5954 0.6015 0.6081 0.6183 0.624 0.623 0.625 0.628 0.635 0.638
 Uganda Africa 0.6797 0.6833 0.6981 0.7067 0.7169 0.7220 0.7228 0.7086 0.6821 0.708 0.704 0.721 0.724 0.717 0.717
 Ukraine Europe 0.6797 0.6790 0.6856 0.6896 0.6869 0.6861 0.6894 0.6935 0.7056 0.702 0.7 0.705 0.708 0.721 0.714
 United Arab Emirates West Asia 0.5919 0.6184 0.6220 0.6198 0.6397 0.6454 0.6392 0.6372 0.6436 0.646 0.639 0.649 0.642 0.655 0.716
 United Kingdom Europe 0.7365 0.7441 0.7366 0.7402 0.7460 0.7462 0.7433 0.7440 0.7383 0.758 0.752 0.770 0.744 0.767 0.775
 United States North America 0.7042 0.7002 0.7179 0.7173 0.7411 0.7412 0.7373 0.7392 0.7463 0.740 0.722 0.718 0.720 0.724 0.763
 Uruguay South America 0.6549 0.6608 0.6907 0.6936 0.6897 0.6907 0.6745 0.6803 0.6871 0.679 0.681 0.710 0.715 0.737 0.702
 Vanuatu Oceania N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.625
 Venezuela South America 0.6664 0.6797 0.6875 0.6839 0.6863 0.6861 0.7060 0.7060 0.6851 0.691 0.694 0.706 0.709 0.713 0.699
 Vietnam Southeast Asia N/A 0.6889 0.6778 0.6802 0.6776 0.6732 0.6867 0.6863 0.6915 0.687 0.7 0.698 0.698 0.700 0.701
 Yemen West Asia 0.4595 0.4510 0.4664 0.4609 0.4603 0.4873 0.5054 0.5128 0.5145 0.484 0.516 0.516 0.499 0.494 0.492
 Zambia Africa 0.6360 0.6288 0.6205 0.6310 0.6293 0.6300 0.6279 0.6312 0.6364 0.650 N/A N/A N/A 0.731 0.726
 Zimbabwe Africa 0.6461 0.6464 0.6485 0.6518 0.6574 0.6607 N/A N/A 0.7013 0.709 0.71 0.717 0.721 0.730 0.732

Criticisms[edit]

In an academic publication from 2010, Beneria and Permanyer criticized the Global Gender Gap Index for only capturing inequality in certain aspects of women's lives therefore making it an incomplete measure of gender inequality.[18]

In an academic publication from 2019, Stoet and Geary argued that the Global Gender Gap Index has limitations as a measure of gender equality, because of the way it caps scores and because it ignores specific issues on which men are known to fall behind (e.g., risks of working in hazardous jobs).[19]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Years of report publication. Values may reflect data collected the previous year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2017". Global Gender Gap Report 2017. Retrieved 2018-05-11.
  2. ^ a b "Global Gender Gap Report 2017 - Rankings". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  3. ^ a b Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum, Editors (2009). "The Global Gender Gap Report 2009" (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-11-02. (...) the Index rewards countries that reach the point where outcomes for women equal those for men, but it neither rewards nor penalizes cases in which women are outperforming men in particular variablesCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ a b 2008 Report, p. 24
  5. ^ 2014 report, page 5
  6. ^ 2008 Report, p. 5
  7. ^ a b c d The Global Gender Gap Report 2018 (GGGR), p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data truncation at equality benchmark: As a second step, these ratios are truncated at the "equality benchmark”. For all indicators, except the two health indicators, this equality benchmark is considered to be 1, meaning equal numbers of women and men.
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … To calculate the Index, all ratios were truncated at the parity benchmark of 1 and thus the highest score possible is 1.
  8. ^ a b c d GGGR 2018, p. 6; Table 2: Calculation of weights within each subin-dex
  9. ^ GGGR 2018, p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data truncation at equality benchmark: … In the case of sex ratio at birth, the equality benchmark is set at 0.944,
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … except for the sex ratio at birth (0.944)
  10. ^ GGGR 2018, p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data trun-cation at equality benchmark: … the case of healthy life expectancy the equality benchmark is set at 1.06.
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … and the healthy life expectancy (1.06) indicators.
  11. ^ 2016 Report, Page 6
  12. ^ http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf
  13. ^ "The Global Gender Gap Report 2013" (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
  14. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2014 - Reports - World Economic Forum". Global Gender Gap Report 2014.
  15. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2015 - Rankings". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  16. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2020" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2021" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  18. ^ Beneria, L., Permanyer, I.,(2010). The Measurement of Socio-economic Gender Inequality Revisited, Development and Change, 41:3, pp.375-399
  19. ^ Stoet, G. & Geary, D.C. (2019). A simplified approach to measuring national gender inequality, PLOS ONE 14(1): e0205349. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205349

External links[edit]

Reports[edit]

  • Ricardo Hausmann; Laura D. Tyson; Yasmina Bekhouche; Saadia Zahidi (2014). The Global Gender Gap Index 2014 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-11-26.
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2013). The Global Gender Gap Report 2013 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-10-26.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2012). The Global Gender Gap Report 2012 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2012-10-26.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 (PDF).
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2010). The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2010-10-20.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2009). The Global Gender Gap Report 2009 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-05. Retrieved 2009-11-02.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2008). The Global Gender Gap Report 2008 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2008-11-19.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2007). The Global Gender Gap Report 2007 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2008-11-19.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, Editors (2006). The Global Gender Gap Report 2006 (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2008-11-19.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)