Government of the 2nd Dáil

Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Second Dáil was elected at the 1921 Irish elections on 24 May 1921 and lasted 388 days. It first met on 16 August 1921.[1]

3rd Ministry[edit]

Government of the 2nd Dáil
3rd Ministry
Éamon de Valera 03.jpg
Date formed26 August 1921
Date dissolved9 January 1922
People and organisations
Head of statePresident Éamon de Valera
Head of governmentÉamon de Valera
Total no. of ministers15 (inc. 9 non-members of cabinet)
Member partySinn Féin
Status in legislatureMajority Government
History
Election(s)1921 general election
Legislature term(s)2nd Dáil
Predecessor2nd Ministry
Successor4th Ministry

The outgoing Ministry of Dáil Éireann did not resign immediately on the sitting of the Second Dáil. On 26 August 1921, Éamon de Valera resigned as President.[2] De Valera was then proposed by Seán Mac Eoin and seconded by Richard Mulcahy to the position of President of the Irish Republic and approved unanimously.[3] This was a change of title, suggesting that de Valera was now considered as the head of state of the Irish Republic, rather than only its head of government.

De Valera then proposed the members of the 3rd Ministry of the Irish Republic (26 August 1921–9 January 1922), which were approved by the Dáil.[4]

Office Name
President of the Republic Éamon de Valera
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Arthur Griffith
Secretary of State for Home Affairs Austin Stack
Secretary of State for Defence Cathal Brugha
Secretary of State for Finance Michael Collins
Secretary of State for Local Government W. T. Cosgrave
Secretary of State for Economic Affairs Robert Barton

Ministers not in cabinet[edit]

Office Name
Assistant Secretary of State for Local Government Kevin O'Higgins
Secretary for Fine Arts Count Plunkett
Secretary for Publicity Desmond FitzGerald
Secretary for Education John J. O'Kelly
Secretary for Labour Constance Markievicz
Secretary for Trade and Commerce Ernest Blythe
Secretary for Agriculture Art O'Connor
Secretary for Fisheries Seán Etchingham

4th Ministry[edit]

Government of the 2nd Dáil
4th Ministry
Arthur Griffith (1871-1922).jpg
Date formed10 January 1922
Date dissolved9 September 1922
People and organisations
Head of governmentArthur Griffith d. 12 August 1922
Total no. of ministers14 (inc. 5 non-members of cabinet & 3 assistant ministers)
Member partySinn Féin
Status in legislatureMajority Government
History
Legislature term(s)2nd Dáil
Predecessor3rd Ministry
Successor1st Provisional Government

On 7 January 1922, the Anglo-Irish Treaty was approved by Dáil Éireann in a vote of 64 to 57. Among those voting against were President de Valera. On 10 January, he resigned as President. He was then proposed by Kathleen Clarke and seconded by Liam Mellowes for the position of president. This motion was defeated with 58 votes in favour to 60 against.[5]

On 10 January, Arthur Griffith was proposed as President of Dáil Éireann. While the vote was to take place, de Valera and his supporters rose and left the Dáil chamber. Griffith was then approved unanimously by those members remaining in the Dáil.[6] The members of the 4th Ministry (10 January – 9 September 1922) were then proposed by Griffith and approved by the Dáil.

Under the terms of the Treaty another cabinet, the Provisional Government, was also established on 16 January, with Michael Collins as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Irish Free State. The 4th Ministry therefore held office in parallel with the 1st Provisional Government. In August, Griffith died of natural causes and Collins was killed in action. The remaining members of the Ministry remained in office until the Third Dáil elected a new Ministry on 9 September under W. T. Cosgrave. Cosgrave had also been named as Chairman of the Provisional Government on the death of Collins, and from that date the personnel of the two cabinets were identical. Both cabinets were replaced by the Executive Council of the Irish Free State on 6 December 1922.

Office Name
President of the Republic Arthur Griffith
Minister for Finance Michael Collins
Minister for Foreign Affairs George Gavan Duffy
Arthur Griffith[7]
Michael Hayes[8]
Minister for Home Affairs Eamonn Duggan
Minister for Local Government W. T. Cosgrave
Minister for Economic Affairs Kevin O'Higgins
Minister for Defence Richard Mulcahy

Ministers not in cabinet[edit]

Office Name
Minister for Education Michael Hayes
Minister for Trade Ernest Blythe
Minister for Agriculture Patrick Hogan
Minister for Labour Joseph McGrath
Minister for Publicity Desmond FitzGerald

Assistant Ministers[edit]

Office Name
Asst. Minister for Local Government Lorcan Robbins[9]
Asst. Minister for Home Affairs George Nicolls[10]
Asst. Minister for Education Frank Fahy[11]

1st Provisional Government[edit]

Government of the 2nd Dáil
1st Provisional Government
Michael Collins 1921.jpg William Thomas Cosgrave.jpg
Michael Collins, W. T. Cosgrave
Date formed16 January 1922
Date dissolved30 August 1922
People and organisations
Head of stateGeorge V
Head of governmentMichael Collins (Jan.–22 Aug 1922)
W. T. Cosgrave (22–30 Aug 1922)
Total no. of ministers13 (inc. 4 acting ministers)
Member partySinn Féin
Status in legislatureMajority Government
History
Legislature term(s)2nd Dáil
Predecessor4th Ministry
Successor2nd Provisional Government

The 1st Provisional Government was the Provisional Government that held office from 16 January – 30 August 1922.[12] The Provisional Government was established under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty as an interim administration that would govern Ireland (not including Northern Ireland) until the establishment of the Irish Free State in December. Its members were nominated at a meeting of "the members elected to sit in the House of Commons of Southern Ireland" (pro-Treaty Sinn Féin and four unionist members), on 14 January,[13] and they took up office two days later.[12] The British government formally transferred power to the cabinet on 1 April. Headed by Michael Collins as Chairman, its membership consisted solely of partisans of the pro-Treaty wing of Sinn Féin.

At the time the Provisional Government was established there was a pre-existing administration, in the form of the 4th Ministry of the Irish Republic but that cabinet was not recognised by the British government. The 4th Ministry came to office on 10 January, just six days before the Provisional Government, but continued in office after the latter's establishment. Thus, until September there were two parallel administrations, with an overlapping membership.

After the Civil War began on 29 June four members of the cabinet were seconded for military service and substitutes were appointed to temporarily take their places as acting ministers. Two new members, Michael Hayes and Ernest Blythe, began serving as acting ministers on 17 July and were added to the cabinet as permanent members on 27 July. Collins was killed in action on 22 August and so the cabinet met and elected Cosgrave as chairman on 25 August. Five days later the entire cabinet was reconstituted as the 2nd Provisional Government. After that date, the newly constituted Provisional Government appointed by that Dáil continued in being as the sole Government, until superseded on 6 December 1922, by the formation of the 1st Executive Council of the Irish Free State.

Office Name
Chairman of the Provisional Government Michael Collins[14]
W. T. Cosgrave[15]
Minister for Finance Michael Collins[16]
W. T. Cosgrave[17]
Minister for Home Affairs Eamonn Duggan
Minister for Local Government W. T. Cosgrave
Minister for Economic Affairs Kevin O'Higgins
Minister for Education Fionán Lynch
Minister for Agriculture Patrick Hogan
Minister for Labour Joseph McGrath
Postmaster-General James J. Walsh

Substitutes[edit]

Office Name
Acting Minister for Finance W. T. Cosgrave
Acting Minister for Labour Patrick Hogan
Acting Minister for Education Michael Hayes
Acting Minister for Economic Affairs Ernest Blythe

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Dáil Éireann debate - Tuesday, 16 August 1921: Prelude". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Dáil Éireann debate - Friday, 26 August 1921: RESIGNATION OF MINISTRY". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  3. ^ "Dáil Éireann debate - Friday, 26 August 1921: ELECTION OF PRESIDENT". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  4. ^ "Dáil Éireann debate - Friday, 26 August 1921: ELECTION OF PRESIDENT". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  5. ^ "Dáil Éireann debate - Monday, 9 January 1922: RESIGNATION OF PRESIDENT". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  6. ^ "Dáil Éireann debate - Tuesday, 10 January 1922: ELECTION OF PRESIDENT". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  7. ^ Served from 26 July 1922 – 12 August 1922.
  8. ^ Served from 21 August 1922 – 30 August 1922.
  9. ^ Served from 11 January 1922 – 9 September 1922.
  10. ^ Served from 17 January 1922 – 9 September 1922.
  11. ^ Served until 3 February 1922, appointment date is unknown.
  12. ^ a b "History of Government – Second Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  13. ^ "History:Parliament in Ireland". Oireachtas.ie. Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  14. ^ Served until 22 August 1922.
  15. ^ Served from 25 August 1922 – 30 August 1922.
  16. ^ Served from 16 January 1922 – 17 July 1922.
  17. ^ Served as acting Minister for Finance from 17 July 1922 – 30 August 1922.