History of anarchism

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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed voluntary institutions,[1] but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations.[2] Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful.[3] While anti-statism is central,[4] anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system.[5]

History of Anarchism begins with the first humans walking on earth. Prehistoric society existed without formal hierarchies, pretty close to anarchist principles. The first traces of anarchist thought can be spotted in ancient Greece and China where numerous philosophers questioned the neccessity of the state. But there was no anarchist movement those times. During the Middle Ages, few religious sects espoused some libertarian thoughts, but it was Enlightenment and the rise of rationalism that gave birth to the modern anarchism which sprang from the secular or religious thought of the.[6] The central tendency of anarchism as a mass social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a literary phenomenon[7] which did nevertheless affect the bigger currents,[8] including the participation of individualists in large anarchist organizations.[9]

Early history[edit]

Most contemporary anthropologists as well as anarcho-primitivists agree that for the longest period before recorded history human society was without a separate class of established authority or formal political institutions.[10] According to anthropologist prof. Harold Barclay, long before anarchism emerged as a distinct perspective, human beings lived for thousands of years in self-governing societies without a special ruling or political class.[11] It was only after the rise of hierarchical societies that anarchist ideas were formulated as a critical response to and rejection of coercive political institutions and hierarchical social relationships.

Taoism in Ancient China[edit]

Taoism, which developed in ancient China, has been embraced by some anarchists as a source of anarchistic attitudes. The Taoists sages Lao Zi (Lao Tzu) and Zhuang Zhou whose philosophy was a kind of philosophy based on a "anti-polity" stance and rejection of any kind of involvement in political movements or organisations and developed a philosophy of "non-rule" in the Zhuang Zhou and Tao Te Ching and many Taoists in response lived an anarchist lifestyle. In 300 CE, Bao Jingyan explicitly argued that there should be neither lords nor subjects.[10]Similarly, anarchistic tendencies in the West can be traced to the philosophers of ancient Greece such as Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism; and Aristippus, who said that the wise should not give up their liberty to the state.[12]

Ancient Greece[edit]

Some convictions and ideas deeply held by modern Anarchists were first expressed by ancient Greek philosophers - like the belief personal autonomy- but it never yielded an anarchist movement.[13]

The usage of the words anarchia and anarchos, both meaning "without ruler", can be traced back to Homer's Iliad and Herodotus's Histories.[14][15] The first known political usage of the word anarchy appears in the play Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus, dated at 467 BC. There, Antigone openly refuses to abide by the rulers' decree to leave her brother Polyneices' body unburied as punishment for his participation in the attack on Thebes, saying that "even if no one else is willing to share in burying him I will bury him alone and risk the peril of burying my own brother. Nor am I ashamed to act in defiant opposition to the rulers of the city (Ἒχουσα ἄπιστων τήν ἀναρχίαν πόλει; Ekhousa apistõn tēn anarkhian polei)". Sophocles used the same theme 50 years later, in his tragedy Antigone, where the heroin challenges the established order of Thebes, coming in direct clash with Creon, the ruler of the town.[16]

Diogenes of Sinope advocated anarchistic forms of society

Ancient Greece also saw the first Western instance of anarchism as a philosophical ideal mainly -but not only- by the Cynics and Stoicists. The cynic Diogenes of Sinope and Crates of Thebes are both supposed to have advocated anarchistic forms of society, although little remains of their writings. Their most significant contribution was the radical approach of Nomos (law) and Physis (nature). Contrary to the rest of Greek philosophy, aiming to blend Nomos and Physis in harmony, Cynics dismissed Nomos (and in consequence: the authorities, hierarchies, establishments and moral code of Polis) while promoting a way of life, based solely on Physis.[17][18]

Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, who was much influenced by the Cynics, described his vision of a utopian society around 300 BC.[19] Zeno's Republic advocates a form of anarchism in which there are no need for state structures. According to the 20th century anarchist Peter Kropotkin, Zeno was "[t]he best exponent of Anarchist philosophy in ancient Greece". As summarized by Kropotkin, Zeno "repudiated the omnipotence of the state, its intervention and regimentation, and proclaimed the sovereignty of the moral law of the individual". Within Greek philosophy, Zeno's vision of a free community without government is opposed to the state-utopia of Plato's Republic. Zeno argued that although the necessary instinct of self-preservation leads humans to egotism, nature has supplied a corrective to it by providing man with another instinct, namely sociability. Like many modern anarchists, he believed that if people follow their instincts, they will have no need of law courts or police, no temples and no public worship and use no money (free gifts taking the place of the exchanges). However, Zeno's beliefs have only reached us as fragmentary quotations.[10]

Socrates, even though he far from being an anarchist, hold some views that could be seen as anarchistic. Socrates was constantly questioning authority and in the epicenter of his philosophy stood every man's right to freedom of consciousness.[20] Aristippus, a pupil of Socrates and founder of the Hedonistic school, was claiming that he was being a ruler or being ruled, and also he saw the State as a danger to personal autonomy.[17]

The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle used the term anarchy negatively in association with democracy which they mistrusted as inherently vulnerable and prone to deteriorate into tyranny. Plato believed that the political corruption created by democracy loosens the "natural" hierarchy between social classes, genders and age groups, to the extent that "anarchy finds a way into the private houses, and ends by getting among the animals and infecting them" (Republic, book eight). Aristotle spoke of it in book six of Politics when discussing revolutions, saying that the upper classes may be motivated to stage a coup d'état by their contempt for the prevailing "disorder and anarchy (ἀταξίας καὶ ἀναρχίας; ataxias kai anarkhias) in the affairs of the state. He also connected anarchy with democracy when he saw "democratic" features in tyrannies, namely "license among slaves (ἀναρχία δούλων; anarkhia doulōn)" as well as among women and children. "A constitution of this sort", he concludes, "will have a large number of supporters, as disorderly living (ζῆν ἀτάκτως; zēn ataktōs) is pleasanter to the masses than sober living". It has also been argued that the Mu’tazilite and Najdite Muslims of 9th-century Basra were anarchists.[21]

In Athens, the year 404 BC was commonly referred to as "the year of anarchy". According to the historian Xenophon, this happened even though Athens was at the time in fact under the rule of the oligarchy of "The Thirty", installed by the Spartans following their victory in the second Peloponnesian war and despite the fact that there was literally an Archon in place nominated by the oligarchs in the person of Pythodoros of Tralles. However, the Athenians refused to apply here their custom of calling the year by that archon's name since he was elected during the oligarchy and "preferred to speak of it as the 'year of anarchy'".

Middle Ages[edit]

During the Middle Ages, in Persia, a Zoroastrian prophet named Mazdak preached was calling for abolishing private property, free love and overthrowing the King, now considered a proto-socialist. He and his thousands of followers were massacred in 582 CE but his teaching influenced other Islamic sects in the following centuries.[22]

In Europe, Christianity was overshadowing all aspects of life. Brethren of the Free Spirit was the most notable example of heretic belief that had some vague anarchist tendencies. They hold anticleric sentiments and believed in total freedom. Even though most of their ideas were individualistic, the movement had a social impact, influencing riots and rebellions in Europe the years to come.[23] Other anarchistic religious movements in Europe during the Middle Ages, include the Klompdraggers, the Hussites, Adamites and the early Anabaptists.[24]

Later in the 20th century, historian James Joll described the two opposing of anarchism. In the Middle Ages, zealotic and ascitic religious movements emerged, which rejected institutions, laws, and the established order. Later, in the 18th century, another anarchist stream would emerge, based on rationalism and logic. This two currents of anarchism would later blend to form a contradictory movement that resonated to a very broad audience nonetheless.[25]

Early modern era[edit]

Europe[edit]

In Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532–1552), François Rabelais wrote of the Abby of Thelema (Greek word meaning "will" or "wish"), an imaginary utopia whose motto was "Do as Thou Will". Around the same time, the French law student Etienne de la Boetie wrote his Discourse on Voluntary Servitude in which he argued that tyranny resulted from voluntary submission and could be abolished by the people refusing to obey the authorities above them. It was common among them among thinkers of that time, employing Utopia in their works, to bypass state censorship.[26]

The Anabaptists of 16th-century Europe are sometimes considered to be religious forerunners of modern anarchism. In his History of Western Philosophy, Bertrand Russell writes that the Anabaptists "repudiated all law, since they held that the good man will be guided at every moment by the Holy Spirit...[f]rom this premiss they arrive at communism".[27] Prior to Leo Tolstoy, Christian anarchism found one of its most articulate exponents in Gerrard Winstanley, who was part of the Diggers movement in England during the English Civil War. Winstanley published a pamphlet calling for communal ownership and social and economic organization in small agrarian communities. Drawing on the Bible, he argued that "the blessings of the earth" should "be common to all" and "none Lord over others".[10]

America[edit]

The first to use the term "anarchy" to mean something other than chaos was Louis-Armand, Baron de Lahontan in his Nouveaux voyages dans l'Amérique septentrionale (New voyages in northern America,1703), where he described the indigenous American society which had no state, laws, prisons, priests or private property as being in anarchy.[28] William Blake has also been said to espouse an anarchistic political position.[21]

Religious dissenter Roger Williams founded the colony of Providence, Rhode Island after being run out of the theocratic Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636. Unlike the Puritans, he scrupulously purchased land from local American Indians for his settlement.[29] While Williams was not explicitly anarchist, another Rhode Islander named Anne Hutchinson was. Hutchinson and her followers emigrated to Rhode Island in 1638, bought Aquidneck Island from the Native Americans and founded the town of Pocasset (now Portsmouth). Another Rogue Island libertarian was Samuell Gorton. He and his followers were accused of being anarchists.

The coastal area north of Albemarle Sound in what is now northeastern North Carolina was home to a quasi-anarchistic society in the mid-17th century but their land was to bestowed to eight feudal proprietors in 1663.[30]When William Penn left his Quaker colony in Pennsylvania, the people stopped paying quitrent and any semblance of formal government evaporated. The Quakers treated the Native Americans with respect. According to Voltaire, the Shackamaxon Treaty was "the only treaty between Indians and Christians that was never sworn to and that was never broken". The Quakers refused to provide any assistance to New England's Indian wars. Penn's attempt to impose government by appointing a military man (John Blackwell) as governor failed miserably.[31]

Development of anarchism[edit]

Modern anarchism sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.[6]

In France, various anarchist currents were present during the Revolutionary period, with some revolutionaries using the term "anarchiste" in a positive light as early as September 1793.[32] The Enragés (Enraged Ones) opposed revolutionary government as a contradiction in terms. Denouncing the Jacobin dictatorship, Jean Varlet wrote in 1794 that "government and revolution are incompatible, unless the people wish to set its constituted authorities in permanent insurrection against itself".[10]In his "Manifesto of the Equals", Sylvain Maréchal looked forward to the disappearance, once and for all, of "the revolting distinction between rich and poor, of great and small, of masters and valets, of governors and governed".[10] The debate of the effects of the French Revolution to the anarchist causes spans to our days. Anarchist historian Max Nettlau, French revolutions did nothing more than re-shaping and modernizing the militaristic state[33] while Kropotkin on the other hand, traced the origins of the anarchist movement in the struggle of the revolutionaries.[34] In a more moderate approach, Sean Sheehan points out that the French Revolutioνthat proved that even the strongest political establishments can be overthrown.[35]

As part of the political turmoil of the 1790s in the wake of the French Revolution, William Godwin developed the first expression of modern anarchist thought.[36][37] Godwin is generally regarded as the founder of the school of thought known as 'philosophical anarchism'. He argued in Political Justice (1793) that government has an inherently malevolent influence on society, and that it perpetuates dependency and ignorance. He thought that the spread of the use of reason to the masses would eventually cause government to wither away as an unnecessary force. Although he did not accord the state with moral legitimacy, he was against the use of revolutionary tactics for removing the government from power. Rather, he advocated for its replacement through a process of peaceful evolution.{{sfn|Philip|2006}[38] His aversion to the imposition of a rules-based society led him to denounce, as a manifestation of the people's ‘mental enslavement’, the foundations of law, property rights, and even the institution of marriage. He considered the basic foundations of society as constraining the natural development of individuals to use their powers of reasoning to arrive at a mutually beneficial method of social organization. In each case, government and its institutions are shown to constrain the development of our capacity to live wholly in accordance with the full and free exercise of private judgment.

19th century[edit]

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Max Stirner and the Paris Commune[edit]

The Frenchman Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is regarded as the first self-proclaimed anarchist, a label he adopted in his groundbreaking work What is Property?, published in 1840. It is for this reason that some claim Proudhon as the founder of modern anarchist theory.[39] He developed the theory of spontaneous order in society, where organization emerges without a central coordinator imposing its own idea of order against the wills of individuals acting in their own interests; his famous quote on the matter is "Liberty is the mother, not the daughter, of order". In What is Property?, Proudhon answers with the famous accusation "Property is theft". In this work, he opposed the institution of decreed "property" (propriété), where owners have complete rights to "use and abuse" their property as they wish.[40][41] He contrasted this with what he called "possession", or limited ownership of resources and goods only while in more or less continuous use. Later, Proudhon also added that "Property is Liberty" and argued that it was a bulwark against state power.[42] His opposition to the state, organized religion and certain capitalist practices inspired subsequent anarchists and made him one of the leading social thinkers of his time.

While he opposed communism and favoured remuneration for labor, he also opposed capitalist wage labour (i.e. profiting from someone else's labor).[43][44] He also opposed rent, interest and profit. Proudhon supported an economic system called mutualism and urged workers "to form themselves into democratic societies, with equal conditions for all members, on pain of a relapse into feudalism". Under capitalism, he argued, employees are "subordinated, exploited" and their "permanent condition is one of obedience", a "slave". Proudhon's ideas were influential within French working class movements and his followers were active in the Revolution of 1848 in France as well as the Paris Commune of 1871. Anarcho-communists such as Peter Kropotkin later disagreed with Proudhon for his support of "private property" in the products of labor (i.e. wages, or "remuneration for work done") rather than free distribution of the products of labor.[45] He soon came in conflict with Marx.[46]

There were other anarchists active in the 1848 Revolution in France, including Anselme Bellegarrigue, Ernest Coeurdero and the early anarcho-communist Joseph Déjacque, who was the first person to call himself a libertarian.[47][48] Unlike Proudhon, Déjacque argued that "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature".[49] Déjacque was also a critic of Proudhon's anti-feminism and mutualism, adopting an anarcho-communist position.[10] Returning to New York, he was able to serialise his book in his periodical Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement social.[50] The French anarchist movement, though self-described as mutualists, started gaining pace during 1860's as workers associations started to form.[51]

An influential form of individualist anarchism called egoism,[52] or egoist anarchism, was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner.[53] Stirner's The Ego and Its Own, published in 1844, is a founding text of the philosophy.[53] According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is their power to obtain what they desire,[54] without regard for God, state, or morality.[55] To Stirner, rights were "spooks in the mind" and he held that society does not exist, but "the individuals are its reality".[56] Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw Unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will,[57] which Stirner proposed as a form of organization in place of the state.[58] Egoist anarchists claim that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals.[59] Egoism has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy. It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and LGBT activist John Henry Mackay.

In 1870, Mikhail Bakunin led a failed uprising in Lyon on the principles later exemplified by the Paris Commune, calling for a general uprising in response to the collapse of the French government during the Franco-Prussian War, seeking to transform an imperialist conflict into social revolution. In his Letters to A Frenchman on the Present Crisis, he argued for an invisible guidance of the revolution.[60]

Anarchist historian George Woodcock reports: "The annual Congress of the International had not taken place in 1870 owing to the outbreak of the Paris Commune, and in 1871 the General Council called only a special conference in London. One delegate was able to attend from Spain and none from Italy, while a technical excuse – that they had split away from the Fédération Romande – was used to avoid inviting Bakunin's Swiss supporters. Thus only a tiny minority of anarchists was present, and the General Council's resolutions passed almost unanimously. Most of them were clearly directed against Bakunin and his followers".[61] In 1872, the conflict climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress, where Bakunin and James Guillaume were expelled from the International and its headquarters were transferred to New York. In response, the federalist sections formed their own International at the St. Imier Congress, adopting a revolutionary anarchist program.[49]

Louise Michel, influential French anarchist participant at the Paris Commune

Paris Commune in 1971, an uprising after the Franco-Prussian War, was greatly influenced by anarchist and had a great impact on anarchist history as well. Anarchists had a prominent role in the Commune, next to Blanquists and to a lesser extent Marxists.[62] Radical socialist views, like Proudhonian federalism, were implemented to a small extent, most importantly the workers proved they could run their own services and factories. After the defeat of the Commune, anarchists like Varlin, Louise Michel and Elisee Reclus, were shot or imprisoned[63] Socialist ideas were persecuted from France for a decade. Leading Internationalists who managed to survive the bloody suppression of the Commune, fled to Switzerland where they formed the Anarchist St. Imier International[62]

Individualist anarchism in the United States[edit]

Henry David Thoreau was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. He has been speptic towards government; in his work Civil Disobedience he declared that " “That government is best which governs least”"". He has frequently been cited as anarcho-individualist, even though he was never rebellious.[64][18]

Since the 18th century, ideas favoring minimal government were popular in the USA, particularly in the east coast.[65] The next century saw anarchism developing towards individualism. Anarchists were influenced by Proudhon and made no criticism to capitalism.[66] Another characteristic of American anarchists, was transcendentalism, with most notable example being Thoreau. Benjamin Tucker was the editor of the prominent anarchist journal Liberty and influenced deeply the American anarchist movement. In the shade of individualism there was also anarcho-christianism as well as some socialist pockets, especially in Chicago. [67]It was in Chicago's bloody protests in 1886, when anarchist movement became known nationwide, but they did decline fast when anarchism was associated with terrorist violence.[68]

An important concern for American individualist anarchism was free love. Free love particularly stressed women's rights since most sexual laws discriminated against women, for example marriage laws and anti-birth control measures.[69] In New York City's Greenwich Village, bohemian feminists and socialists advocated self-realisation and pleasure for women (and also men) in the here and now. They encouraged playing with sexual roles and sexuality[70] and the openly bisexual radical Edna St. Vincent Millay and the lesbian anarchist Margaret Anderson were prominent among them. Discussion groups organised by the Villagers were frequented by Emma Goldman, among others.[71].

Some of the American individualist anarchists later in this era such as Benjamin Tucker abandoned natural rights positions and converted to Max Stirner's egoist anarchism. Rejecting the idea of moral rights, Tucker said that there were only two rights, "the right of might" and "the right of contract". After converting to Egoist individualism, he also said: "In times past...it was my habit to talk glibly of the right of man to land. It was a bad habit, and I long ago sloughed it off....Man's only right to land is his might over it".[72] In adopting Stirnerite egoism in 1886, Tucker rejected natural rights which had long been considered the foundation of libertarianism. This rejection galvanized the movement into fierce debates, with the natural rights proponents accusing the egoists of destroying libertarianism itself.[73]

The First International and collectivist anarchism[edit]

In Spain, Ramón de la Sagra established anarchist journal El Porvenir in La Coruña in 1845 which was inspired by Proudhon's ideas.[77] The Catalan politician Francesc Pi i Margall became the principal translator of Proudhon's works into Spanish[78] and later briefly became president of Spain in 1873 while being the leader of the Democratic Republican Federal Party. Proudhonian thought had influenced Spain's federalist movement since early 1860, [78] and when Pi y Margall came into power for a brief period he tried to implement some of Proudhon's ideas.[77]

In Europe, harsh reaction followed the revolutions of 1848, during which ten countries had experienced brief or long-term social upheaval as groups carried out nationalist uprisings. After most of these attempts at systematic change ended in failure, conservative elements took advantage of the divided groups of socialists, anarchists, liberals, and nationalists, to prevent further revolt.[79] In 1864 the International Workingmen's Association (sometimes called the "First International") united diverse revolutionary currents including French followers of Proudhon, Blanquists, Philadelphes, English trade unionists, socialists and social democrats.[citation needed]

Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International became a significant organization. Karl Marx became a leading figure in the International and a member of its General Council. Proudhon's followers, the mutualists, opposed Marx's state socialism, advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings.[80][81] In 1868, following their unsuccessful participation in the League of Peace and Freedom (LPF), Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin and his collectivist anarchist associates joined the First International (which had decided not to get involved with the LPF).[82] They allied themselves with the federalist socialist sections of the International,[83] who advocated the revolutionary overthrow of the state and the collectivization of property. At first, the collectivists worked with the Marxists to push the First International in a more revolutionary socialist direction. Subsequently, the International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads.[84] Bakunin characterised Marx's ideas as centralist and predicted that, if a Marxist party came to power, its leaders would simply take the place of the ruling class they had fought against.[85] In 1872, the conflict climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress, where Bakunin and James Guillaume were expelled from the International and its headquarters were transferred to New York. In response, the federalist sections formed their own International at the St. Imier Congress, adopting a revolutionary anarchist program.[49] Woodcock also reports that the American individualist anarchists Lysander Spooner and William B. Greene had been members of the First International.[86]

The emergence of anarcho-communism[edit]

Peter Kropotkin, a prominent anarchocommunist thinker tried to found Anarchism on a scientific base[87]

Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution,[88] but was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International.[89] The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin and Errico Malatesta took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organizationalist and insurrectionary anti-organizationalist sections.[90]

As anarcho-communism emerged in the mid-19th century it had an intense debate with Bakuninist collectivism and as such within the anarchist movement over participation in syndicalism and the workers movement as well as on other issues.[90]In the theory of the revolution of anarcho-communism as elaborated by Peter Kropotkin and others, "it is the risen people who are the real agent and not the working class organised in the enterprise (the cells of the capitalist mode of production) and seeking to assert itself as labour power, as a more 'rational' industrial body or social brain (manager) than the employers".[90]

Between 1880 and 1890, as Alain Pengam notes, the perspective of a revolution was thought to be closed, anarcho-communists were opposing political and trade union struggles (such as the eight-hour day) as being overly reformist. Apart from that they was an anti-organisational tendency and in some cases they favored acts of terrorism .[90] Finding themselves increasingly isolated, the opted to join the worker's movements after 1890.[90]

20th century[edit]

Organised labour and anarcho-syndicalism[edit]

A sympathetic engraving by Walter Crane of the executed anarchists of Chicago after the Haymarket affair, which is generally considered the most significant event for the origin of international May Day observances

The anti-authoritarian sections of the First International were the precursors of the anarcho-syndicalists, seeking to "replace the privilege and authority of the State" with the "free and spontaneous organization of labor."[91] In 1886, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions (FOTLU) of the United States and Canada unanimously set 1 May 1886, as the date by which the eight-hour work day would become standard.[citation needed][vague]

In response, unions across the United States prepared a general strike in support of the event.[92]On 3 May, in Chicago, a fight broke out when strikebreakers attempted to cross the picket line, and two workers died when police opened fire upon the crowd.[93] The next day, 4 May, anarchists staged a rally at Chicago's Haymarket Square.[94] A bomb was thrown from a side alley[95] In the ensuing panic, police opened fire on the crowd and each other. [96] Seven police officers and at least four workers were killed.[97] Eight anarchists directly and indirectly related to the organisers of the rally were arrested and charged with the murder of the deceased officer. The men became international political celebrities among the labour movement. Four of the men were executed and a fifth committed suicide prior to his own execution. The incident became known as the Haymarket affair, and was a setback for the labour movement and the struggle for the eight-hour day. In 1890 a second attempt, this time international in scope, to organise for the eight-hour day was made. The event also had the secondary purpose of memorializing workers killed as a result of the Haymarket affair.[98] Although it had initially been conceived as a once-off event, by the following year the celebration of International Workers' Day on May Day had become firmly established as an international worker's holiday.[92]

In 1907, the International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam gathered delegates from almost every European country, USA, Japan and Latin America.[99] A central debate concerned the relation between anarchism and syndicalism (or trade unionism).[100]Malatesta and Monatte were in particular disagreement themselves on this issue, as the latter thought that syndicalism was revolutionary and would create the conditions of a social revolution, while Malatesta did not consider syndicalism by itself sufficient.[101][102] He thought that the trade-union movement was reformist and even conservative, citing as essentially bourgeois and anti-worker the phenomenon of professional union officials. Malatesta warned that the syndicalists aims were in perpetuating syndicalism itself, whereas anarchists must always have anarchy as their end and consequently refrain from committing to any particular method of achieving it.[103]

The Spanish Workers Federation in 1881 was the first major anarcho-syndicalist movement; anarchist trade union federations were of special importance in Spain. The most successful was the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour: CNT), founded in 1910. Before the 1940s, the CNT was the major force in Spanish working class politics, attracting 1.58 million members at one point and playing a major role in the Spanish Civil War.[104] The CNT was affiliated with the International Workers Association, a federation of anarcho-syndicalist trade unions founded in 1922, with delegates representing two million workers from 15 countries in Europe and Latin America. In Latin America in particular "The anarchists quickly became active in organizing craft and industrial workers throughout South and Central America, and until the early 1920s most of the trade unions in Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Argentina were anarcho-syndicalist in general outlook; the prestige of the Spanish C.N.T. as a revolutionary organization was undoubtedly to a great extent responsible for this situation. The largest and most militant of these organizations was the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina...it grew quickly to a membership of nearly a quarter of a million, which dwarfed the rival socialdemocratic unions."[61]

By the early 20th century, anarcho-syndicalism and anarchism were spread all over the world, from Latin America to eastern Europe and Asia, most of its activity actually was taking place outside of Western Europe [105]

Propaganda of the deed and illegalism[edit]

Italian-American anarchist Luigi Galleani whose followers, known as Galleanists, carried out a series of bombings and assassination attempts from 1914 to 1932 in what they saw as attacks on "tyrants" and "enemies of the people"

Some anarchists, such as Johann Most, advocated publicizing violent acts of retaliation against counter-revolutionaries because "we preach not only action in and for itself, but also action as propaganda."[106] By the 1880s, the slogan "propaganda of the deed" had begun to be used both within and outside of the anarchist movement to refer to individual bombings, regicides and tyrannicides. From 1905 onwards, the Russian counterparts of these anti-syndicalist anarchist-communists become partisans of economic terrorism and illegal ‘expropriations’."[107] Illegalism as a practice emerged and within it "The acts of the anarchist bombers and assassins ("propaganda by the deed") and the anarchist burglars ("individual reappropriation") expressed their desperation and their personal, violent rejection of an intolerable society. Moreover, they were clearly meant to be exemplary, invitations to revolt.".[108] France's Bonnot Gang was the most famous group to embrace illegalism.

However, as soon as 1887, important figures in the anarchist movement distanced themselves from such individual acts. Peter Kropotkin thus wrote that year in Le Révolté that "a structure based on centuries of history cannot be destroyed with a few kilos of dynamite".[109] A variety of anarchists advocated the abandonment of these sorts of tactics in favor of collective revolutionary action, for example through the trade union movement. The anarcho-syndicalist, Fernand Pelloutier, argued in 1895 for renewed anarchist involvement in the labor movement on the basis that anarchism could do very well without "the individual dynamiter."[110]

State repression (including the infamous 1894 French lois scélérates) of the anarchist and labor movements following the few successful bombings and assassinations may have contributed to the abandonment of these kinds of tactics, although reciprocally state repression, in the first place, may have played a role in these isolated acts. The dismemberment of the French socialist movement, into many groups and, following the suppression of the 1871 Paris Commune, the execution and exile of many communards to penal colonies, favored individualist political expression and acts.[111]

Numerous heads of state were assassinated between 1881 and 1914 by members of the anarchist movement. On 6 September 1901, the American anarchist Leon Czolgosz went armed with a .32 caliber Iver Johnson "Safety Automatic" revolver (serial #463344[112][113]) he had purchased four days earlier for $4.50 and assassinated the President of the United States William McKinley. Czolgosz was convicted on 24 September 1901 after the jury deliberated for only one hour. On 26 September, the jury unanimously recommended the death penalty and was electrocuted by three jolts, each of 1800 volts, in Auburn Prison[114] on 29 October 1901, just 45 days after his victim's death.[115] Emma Goldman was arrested on suspicion of being involved in the assassination, but was released, due to insufficient evidence. She later incurred a great deal of negative publicity when she published "The Tragedy at Buffalo". In the article, she compared Czolgosz to Marcus Junius Brutus, the killer of Julius Caesar, and called McKinley the "president of the money kings and trust magnates."[116] Other anarchists and radicals were unwilling to support Goldman's effort to aid Czolgosz, believing that he had harmed the movement.[117] Bombings were associated in the media with anarchists because international terrorism arose during this time period with the widespread distribution of dynamite. This image remains to this day.

Propaganda of the deed was abandoned by the vast majority of the anarchist movement after World War I (1914–1918) and the 1917 October Revolution.

European individualist anarchism and anarchist influence in bohemia and the arts[edit]

European individualist anarchism proceeded from the roots laid by William Godwin,[118] Pierre Joseph Proudhon and Max Stirner. Individualist anarchism expanded and diversified through Europe, incorporating influences from North American individualist anarchism.

Autonomie Individuelle was a French individualist anarchist publication that ran from 1887 to 1888. It was edited by Jean-Baptiste Louiche, Charles Schæffer and Georges Deherme.[119] Later this tradition continued with such intellectuals as Albert Libertad, André Lorulot, Emile Armand, Victor Serge, Zo d'Axa and Rirette Maitrejean developed theory in the main individualist anarchist journal in France, L’Anarchie in 1905. Outside this journal, Han Ryner wrote Petit Manuel individualiste (1903). Later appeared the journal L'EnDehors created by Zo d'Axa in 1891. Anarchist naturism was promoted by Henri Zisly, Emile Gravelle[120] and Georges Butaud. Anarcho-naturism advocated vegetarianism, nudism, hiking and an ecological world view within anarchist groups and outside them.[121][122] Freethought as a philosophical position and as activism was important in European individualist anarchism and it emphasized criticism of religious dogmas and of the church.[123] This tendencies will continue in French individualist anarchism in the work and activism of Charles-Auguste Bontemps and others. "In this sense, the theoretical positions and the vital experiences of french individualism are deeply iconoclastic and scandalous, even within libertarian circles. The call of nudist naturism, the strong defence of birth control methods, the idea of "unions of egoists" with the sole justification of sexual practices, that will try to put in practice, not without difficulties, will establish a way of thought and action, and will result in sympathy within some, and a strong rejection within others.".[124]

In Italy, individualist anarchism had a strong tendency towards illegalism and violent propaganda by the deed similar to French individualist anarchism but perhaps more extreme.[125] The theoretical seeds of current Insurrectionary anarchism were already laid out at the end of 19th century Italy in a combination of individualist anarchism criticism of permanent groups and organization with a socialist class struggle worldview.[126] During the early 20th century it is important the intellectual work of individualist anarchist Renzo Novatore. Novatore collaborated in the individualist anarchist journal Iconoclasta! alongside the young stirnerist illegalist Bruno Filippi[127]

Spain received the influence of American individualist anarchism but most importantly it was related to the French currents. Around the start of the 20th century, individualism in Spain takes force through the efforts of people such as Dorado Montero, Ricardo Mella, Federico Urales and J. Elizalde who will translatre French and American individualists.[124] Important in this respect were also magazines such as La Idea Libre, La revista blanca, Etica, Iniciales, Al margen and Nosotros. In Germany the Scottish-German John Henry McKay became the most important propagandist for individualist anarchist ideas. Adolf Brand (1874–1945) was a German writer, stirnerist anarchist and pioneering campaigner for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality. Brand published a German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene in 1896.

Another important tendency within individualist anarchist currents emphasizes individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions. Individualist anarchist philosophy attracted "amongst artists, intellectuals and the well-read, urban middle classes in general."[128] As such Murray Bookchin describes a lot of individualist anarchism as people who "expressed their opposition in uniquely personal forms, especially in fiery tracts, outrageous behavior, and aberrant lifestyles in the cultural ghettos of fin de siecle New York, Paris, and London. As a credo, individualist anarchism remained largely a bohemian lifestyle, most conspicuous in its demands for sexual freedom ('free love') and enamored of innovations in art, behavior, and clothing.".[129] In this way free love[69][124] currents and other radical lifestyles such as naturism[120][124] had popularity among individualist anarchists. The Irish anarchist writer of the Decadent movement Oscar Wilde influenced individualist anarchists such as Renzo Novatore[130] and gained the admiration of Benjamin Tucker.[131] Oscar Wilde "stated in an interview that he believed he was ‘something of an Anarchist’, but previously said, ‘In the past I was a poet and a tyrant. Now I am an anarchist and artist.’"[132]

For anarchist historian David Goodway:

Revolutionary wave[edit]

Nestor Makhno (center in black) with members of the anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine

Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were suspected anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during the armed robbery of a shoe factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts, United States in 1920. After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on 23 August 1927.[134] Since their deaths, critical opinion has overwhelmingly felt that the two men were convicted largely on their anarchist political beliefs and unjustly executed.[135][136] In 1977, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis issued a proclamation that Sacco and Vanzetti had been unfairly tried and convicted and that "any disgrace should be forever removed from their names." Many famous socialists and intellectuals campaigned for a retrial without success. John Dos Passos came to Boston to cover the case as a journalist, stayed to author a pamphlet called Facing the Chair,[137] and was arrested in a demonstration on 10 August 1927, along with Dorothy Parker.[138]

After being arrested while picketing the State House, Edna St. Vincent Millay pleaded her case to the governor in person and then wrote an appeal: "I cry to you with a million voices: answer our doubt...There is need in Massachusetts of a great man tonight."[139] Others who wrote to Fuller or signed petitions included Albert Einstein, George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells.[140] The president of the American Federation of Labor cited "the long period of time intervening between the commission of the crime and the final decision of the Court" as well as "the mental and physical anguish which Sacco and Vanzetti must have undergone during the past seven years" in a telegram to the governor.[141] In August 1927, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) called for a three-day nationwide walkout to protest the pending executions.[142] The most notable response came in the Walsenburg coal district of Colorado, where 1,132 out of 1,167 miners participated, which led directly to the Colorado coal strike of 1927.[143] Italian anarchist Severino Di Giovanni, one of the most vocal supporters of Sacco and Vanzetti in Argentina, bombed the American embassy in Buenos Aires a few hours after Sacco and Vanzetti were condemned to death.[144] A few days after the executions, Sacco's widow thanked Di Giovanni by letter for his support and added that the director of the tobacco firm Combinados had offered to produce a cigarette brand named "Sacco & Vanzetti".[144] On 26 November 1927, Di Giovanni and others bombed a Combinados tobacco shop.[144]

Anarchists participated alongside the Bolsheviks in both February and October revolutions, and were initially enthusiastic about the Bolshevik revolution.[145] However, the Bolsheviks soon turned against the anarchists and other left-wing opposition, a conflict that culminated in the 1921 Kronstadt rebellion which the new government repressed. Anarchists in central Russia were either imprisoned, driven underground or joined the victorious Bolsheviks; the anarchists from Petrograd and Moscow fled to the Ukraine.[146] There, in the Free Territory, they fought in the civil war against the Whites (a grouping of monarchists and other opponents of the October Revolution) and then the Bolsheviks as part of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno, who established an anarchist society in the region for a number of months.

The Modern Schools, also called Ferrer Schools, were United States schools, established in the early 20th century, that were modeled after the Escuela Moderna of Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia, the Catalan educator and anarchist. They were an important part of the anarchist, free schooling, socialist, and labor movements in the U.S., intended to educate the working-classes from a secular, class-conscious perspective. The Modern Schools imparted day-time academic classes for children, and night-time continuing-education lectures for adults. The first, and most notable, of the Modern Schools was founded in New York City, in 1911, two years after Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia's execution for sedition in monarchist Spain on 18 October 1909. Commonly called the Ferrer Center, it was founded by notable anarchists—including Leonard Abbott, Alexander Berkman, Voltairine de Cleyre and Emma Goldman—first meeting on St. Mark's Place, in Manhattan's Lower East Side, but twice moved elsewhere, first within lower Manhattan, then to Harlem. Besides Berkman and Goldman, the Ferrer Center faculty included the Ashcan School painters Robert Henri and George Bellows, and its guest lecturers included writers and political activists such as Margaret Sanger, Jack London, and Upton Sinclair.[147] Student Magda Schoenwetter, recalled that the school used Montessori methods and equipment, and emphasised academic freedom rather than fixed subjects, such as spelling and arithmetic.[148]

The Modern School magazine originally began as a newsletter for parents, when the school was in New York City, printed with the manual printing press used in teaching printing as a profession. After moving to the Stelton Colony, New Jersey, the magazine's content expanded to poetry, prose, art, and libertarian education articles; the cover emblem and interior graphics were designed by Rockwell Kent. Acknowledging the urban danger to their school, the organizers bought 68 acres (275,000 m2) in Piscataway Township, New Jersey, and moved there in 1914, becoming the center of the Stelton Colony. Moreover, beyond New York City, the Ferrer Colony and Modern School was founded (c. 1910–1915) as a Modern School-based community, that endured some forty years. In 1933, James and Nellie Dick, who earlier had been principals of the Stelton Modern School,[149] founded the Modern School in Lakewood, New Jersey,[150] which survived the original Modern School, the Ferrer Center, becoming the final surviving such school, lasting until 1958.[151]

Expelled American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman were amongst those agitating in response to Bolshevik policy and the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising, before they left Russia. Both wrote accounts of their experiences in Russia, criticizing the amount of control the Bolsheviks exercised. For them, Bakunin's predictions about the consequences of Marxist rule that the rulers of the new "socialist" Marxist state would become a new elite had proved all too true.[152][153] The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist movements internationally. Many workers and activists saw Bolshevik success as setting an example; Communist parties grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the United States, for example, members of the major syndicalist movements of the CGT and IWW left the organizations and joined the Communist International.[154]

The revolutionary wave of 1917–23 saw the active participation of anarchists in varying degrees of protagonism. In the German uprising known as the German Revolution of 1918–1919 the Bavarian Soviet Republic the anarchists Gustav Landauer, Silvio Gesell and Erich Mühsam had important leadership positions within the revolutionary councilist structures.[155][156] In the Italian events known as the biennio rosso the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Unione Sindacale Italiana "grew to 800,000 members and the influence of the Italian Anarchist Union (20,000 members plus Umanita Nova, its daily paper) grew accordingly...Anarchists were the first to suggest occupying workplaces.[157] In the Mexican Revolution the Mexican Liberal Party was established and during the early 1910s it led a series of military offensives leading to the conquest and occupation of certain towns and districts in Baja California with the leadership of anarcho-communist Ricardo Flores Magón.[158]

In Paris, the Dielo Truda group of Russian anarchist exiles, which included Nestor Makhno, concluded that anarchists needed to develop new forms of organisation in response to the structures of Bolshevism. Their 1926 manifesto, called the Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft),[159] was supported. Platformist groups active today include the Workers Solidarity Movement in Ireland and the North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists of North America. Synthesis anarchism emerged as an organizational alternative to platformism which tries to join anarchists of different tendencies under the principles of anarchism without adjectives.[160] In the 1920s this form found as its main proponents Volin and Sebastien Faure.[160] It is the main principle behind the anarchist federations grouped around the contemporary global International of Anarchist Federations.[160]

The rise of fascism[edit]

In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of fascism in Europe transformed anarchism's conflict with the state. Italy saw the first struggles between anarchists and fascists. Italian anarchists played a key role in the anti-fascist organisation Arditi del Popolo, which was strongest in areas with anarchist traditions, and achieved some success in their activism, such as repelling Blackshirts in the anarchist stronghold of Parma in August 1922.[161] The veteran Italian anarchist, Luigi Fabbri, was one of the first critical theorists of fascism, describing it as "the preventive counter-revolution." [3] In France, where the far right leagues came close to insurrection in the February 1934 riots, anarchists divided over a united front policy.[162]

In Spain, the CNT initially refused to join a popular front electoral alliance, and abstention by CNT supporters led to a right wing election victory. In 1936, the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring the popular front back to power. Months later, the former ruling class responded with an attempted coup causing the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).[163] In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land.[164] However, even before the fascist victory in 1939 the anarchists were losing ground in a bitter struggle with the Stalinists, who controlled the distribution of military aid to the Republican cause from the Soviet Union. Stalinist-led troops suppressed the collectives and persecuted both dissident Marxists and anarchists.[165]

Anarchists in France[166] and Italy[167] were active in the Resistance during World War II. In Germany Erich Mühsam was arrested on charges unknown in the early morning hours of 28 February 1933, within a few hours after the Reichstag fire in Berlin. Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi propaganda minister, labelled him as one of "those Jewish subversives." It is alleged that Mühsam was planning to flee to Switzerland within the next day. Over the next seventeen months, he would be imprisoned in the concentration camps at Sonnenburg, Brandenburg and finally, Oranienburg. On 2 February 1934, Mühsam was transferred to the concentration camp at Oranienburg. The beatings and torture continued, until finally on the night of 9 July 1934, Mühsam was tortured and murdered by the guards, his battered corpse found hanging in a latrine the next morning.[168] An official Nazi report dated 11 July stated that Erich Mühsam committed suicide, hanging himself while in "protective custody" at Oranienburg. However, a report from Prague on 20 July 1934 in The New York Times stated otherwise:

His widow declared this evening that, when she was first allowed to visit her husband after his arrest, his face was so swollen by beating that she could not recognise him. He was assigned to the task of cleaning toilets and staircases and Storm Troopers amused themselves by spitting in his face, she added. On 8 July, last, she saw him for the last time alive. Despite the tortures he had undergone for fifteen months, she declared, he was cheerful, and she knew at once when his "suicide" was reported to her three days later that it was untrue. When she told the police that they had "murdered" him, she asserted they shrugged their shoulders and laughed. A post mortem examination was refused, according to Frau Mühsam, but Storm Troopers, incensed with their new commanders, showed her the body which bore unmistakable signs of strangulation, with the back of the skull shattered as if Herr Mühsam had been dragged across the parade ground.[169]

The Spanish Revolution[edit]

Camillo Berneri, Italian anarchist and volunteer against fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War, was killed in Spain by members of the Spanish Communist Party

The Iberian Anarchist Federation was founded in Valencia in 1927 (after a preliminary meeting the previous year in Marseille, France), to campaign for keeping the CNT on an anarchist path by challenging the bureaucracy of the CNT - which it viewed as having grown to become a mediating link between labour and capital, rather than a representative of the working class. This issue was becoming especially tense as Miguel Primo de Rivera's dictatorial regime took over in Spain and engineered a crackdown on labour movements.

In Spain, the national anarcho-syndicalist trade union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo initially refused to join a popular front electoral alliance, and abstention by CNT supporters led to a right wing election victory. But in 1936, the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring the popular front back to power. Months later, the former ruling class responded with an attempted coup causing the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).[170] In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land.[171][172] But even before the fascist victory in 1939, the anarchists were losing ground in a bitter struggle with the Stalinists, who controlled the distribution of military aid to the Republican cause from the Soviet Union. The events known as the Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Levante. Much of Spain's economy was put under worker control; in anarchist strongholds like Catalonia, the figure was as high as 75%, but lower in areas with heavy Communist Party of Spain influence, as the Soviet-allied party actively resisted attempts at collectivization enactment. Factories were run through worker committees, agrarian areas became collectivised and run as libertarian communes. Anarchist historian Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or at least indirectly in the Spanish Revolution,[173] which he claimed "came closer to realizing the ideal of the free stateless society on a vast scale than any other revolution in history."[174]

Spanish Communist Party-led troops suppressed the collectives and persecuted both dissident Marxists and anarchists.[165] The prominent Italian anarchist Camillo Berneri, who volunteered to fight against Franco, was killed instead in Spain by gunmen associated with the Spanish Communist Party. So "When clashes with the Communist Party broke out, his house, where he lived with other anarchists, was attacked on 4th May 1937.... Leaving Radio Barcelona, Berneri set off for the Plaça de la Generalitat, where some Stalinists shouted after him. Before he could turn and look, they opened fire with machine guns, and left his dead body there on the street.".[175][176][177]

Libertarian possibilism was a political current within the early 20th century Spanish anarchist movement which advocated achieving the anarchist ends of ending the state and capitalism with participation inside structures of contemporary parliamentary democracy.[178] The name of this political position appeared for the first time between 1922-1923 within the discourse of Catalan anarcho-syndicalist Salvador Segui when he said "We have to intervene in politics in order to take over the positions of the bourgoise"[179] During autumn of 1931 the "Manifesto of the 30" was published by militants of the anarchist trade union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. Among those who signed it there was the CNT General Secretary (1922-1923) Joan Peiro, Angel Pestaña CNT (General Secretary in 1929), and juan Lopez Sanchez. They were called treintismo and they were calling for a more moderate political line within the Spanish anarchist movement. In 1932 they establish the Syndicalist Party which participates in the 1936 Spanish general elections and proceed to be a part of the leftist coalition of parties known as the Popular Front obtaining 2 congressmen (Pestaña and Benito Pabon). In November 1936 the Popular Front government appointed the prominent anarcha-feminist Federica Montseny as Minister of Health. In doing so, she became the first woman in Spanish history to be a cabinet minister.[180] When the republican forces lost the Spanish Civil War, the city of Madrid was turned over to the francoist forces in 1939 by the last non-francoist mayor of the city, the anarchist Melchor Rodríguez García.[181]

Post-war years[edit]

Anarchism sought to reorganize itself after the war. The Mexican Anarchist Federation was established on 1945 after the Anarchist Federation of the Center united with the Anarchist Federation of the Federal District.[182] In the early 1940s Antifascist International Solidarity and Federation of Anarchist Groups of Cuba merge into the large national organization Asociación Libertaria de Cuba (Cuban Libertarian Association).[183] From 1944 to 1947, the Bulgarian Anarchist Communist Federation reemerges as part of a factory and workplace committee movement, but is repressed by the new Communist regime.[184] In 1945 in France the Fédération Anarchiste is established and the also synthesist Federazione Anarchica Italiana is founded in Italy. Korean anarchists form the League of Free Social Constructors in September 1945[184] and in 1946 the Japanese Anarchist Federation is founded.[185] An International Anarchist Congress with delegates from across Europe is held in Paris in May 1948.[184] In 1956 the Uruguayan Anarchist Federation is founded.[186] In 1955 the Anarcho-Communist Federation of Argentina renames itself as the Argentine Libertarian Federation.

After World War II, an appeal in the Fraye Arbeter Shtime detailing the plight of German anarchists and called for Americans to support them.[187] By February 1946, the sending of aid parcels to anarchists in Germany was a large-scale operation. In 1947, Rudolf Rocker published Zur Betrachting der Lage in Deutschland (Regarding the Portrayal of the Situation in Germany) about the impossibility of another anarchist movement in Germany. It became the first post-World War II anarchist writing to be distributed in Germany. Rocker thought young Germans were all either totally cynical or inclined to fascism and awaited a new generation to grow up before anarchism could bloom once again in the country. Nevertheless, the Federation of Libertarian Socialists (FFS) was founded in 1947 by former FAUD members. Rocker wrote for its organ, Die Freie Gesellschaft, which survived until 1953.[188] In 1949, Rocker published another well-known work. On 10 September 1958, Rocker died in the Mohegan Colony. The Syndicalist Workers' Federation was a syndicalist group in active in post-war Britain,[189] and one of the Solidarity Federation's earliest predecessors. It was formed in 1950 by members of the dissolved Anarchist Federation of Britain.[189] Unlike the AFB, which was influenced by anarcho-syndicalist ideas but ultimately not syndicalist itself, the SWF decided to pursue a more definitely syndicalist, worker-centred strategy from the outset.[189]

The debate on the issue of organization within anarchism took importance once again in this period especially in the anarchist movements of Italy and France. The Fédération Anarchiste (FA) was founded in Paris on 2 December 1945, and elected the platformist anarcho-communist George Fontenis as its first secretary the next year. It was composed of a majority of activists from the former FA (which supported Voline's Synthesis) and some members of the former Union Anarchiste, which supported the CNT-FAI support to the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War, as well as some young Resistants. Within the synthesist anarchist organization, the Fédération Anarchiste, there existed an individualist anarchist tendency alongside anarcho-communist and anarchosyndicalist currents.[190] Individualist anarchists participating inside the Fédération Anarchiste included Charles-Auguste Bontemps, Georges Vincey and André Arru.[191]

In 1950, a clandestin group formed within the FA called Organisation Pensée Bataille (OPB) led by George Fontenis.[190] The OPB pushed for a move which saw the FA change its name into the Fédération Communiste Libertaire (FCL) after the 1953 Congress in Paris, while an article in Le Libertaire indicated the end of the cooperation with the French Surrealist Group led by André Breton. The new decision making process was founded on unanimity: each person has a right of veto on the orientations of the federation. The FCL published the same year the Manifeste du communisme libertaire. Several groups quit the FCL in December 1955, disagreeing with the decision to present "revolutionary candidates" to the legislative elections. On 15–20 August 1954, the Ve intercontinental plenum of the CNT took place. A group called Entente anarchiste appeared which was formed of militants who didn't like the new ideological orientation that the OPB was giving the FCL seeing it was authoritarian and almost marxist.[192] The FCL lasted until 1956 just after it participated in state legislative elections with 10 candidates. This move alienated some members of the FCL and thus produced the end of the organization.[190] A group of militants who didn't agree with the FA turning into FCL reorganized a new Federation Anarchiste which was established on December 1953.[190] This included those who formed L'Entente anarchiste who joined the new FA and then dissolved L'Entente. The new base principles of the FA were written by the individualist anarchist Charles-Auguste Bontemps and the non-platformist anarcho-communist Maurice Joyeux which established an organization with a plurality of tendencies and autonomy of group organized around synthesist principles.[190] According to historian Cédric Guérin, "the unconditional rejection of Marxism became from that moment onwards an identity element of the new Federation Anarchiste" and this was motivated in a big part after the previous conflict with George Fontenis and his OPB.[190]

In Italy the Italian Anarchist Federation was founded in 1945 in Carrara. It adopted an "Associative Pact" and the "Anarchist Program" of Errico Malatesta. It decided to publish the weekly Umanità Nova retaking the name of the journal published by Errico Malatesta. Inside the FAI a tendency grouped as (GAAP – Anarchist Groups of Proletarian Action) led by Pier Carlo Masini was founded which "proposed a Libertarian Party with an anarchist theory and practice adapted to the new economic, political and social reality of post-war Italy, with an internationalist outlook and effective presence in the workplaces...The GAAP allied themselves with the similar development within the French Anarchist movement" as led by George Fontenis.[193] In Italy in 1945, during the Founding Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation, there was a group of individualist anarchists led by Cesare Zaccaria[194] who was an important anarchist of the time.[195] A tendency which didn't identify either with the more classical FAI or with the GAAP started to emerge as local groups. These groups emphasized direct action, informal affinity groups and expropriation for financing anarchist activity.[196] From within these groups the influential insurrectionary anarchist Alfredo Maria Bonanno will emerge influenced by the practice of the Spanish exiled anarchist José Lluis Facerías.[196]

Anarchism continued to be influential in important literary and intellectual personalities of the time such as Albert Camus, Herbert Read, Paul Goodman, Dwight Macdonald, Allen Ginsberg, Julian Beck and the French Surrealist group led by André Breton which now openly embraced anarchism and collaborated in the Fédération Anarchiste.[197] In 1952 Breton wrote "It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself."[198] "Breton was consistent in his support for the francophone Anarchist Federation and he continued to offer his solidarity after the Platformists around Fontenis transformed the Fédération anarchiste into the Federation Communiste Libertaire. He was one of the few intellectuals who continued to offer his support to the FCL during the Algerian war when the FCL suffered severe repression and was forced underground. He sheltered Fontenis whilst he was in hiding. He refused to take sides on the splits in the French anarchist movement and both he and Peret expressed solidarity as well with the new Fédération anarchiste set up by the synthesist anarchists and worked in the Antifascist Committees of the 60s alongside the Fédération anarchiste."[198]

Anarcho-pacifism became influential in the Anti-nuclear movement and anti war movements of the time[199][200] as can be seen in the activism and writings of the English anarchist member of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Alex Comfort or the similar activism of the American catholic anarcho-pacifists Ammon Hennacy and Dorothy Day. Anarcho-pacifism became a "basis for a critique of militarism on both sides of the Cold War."[201] The resurgence of anarchist ideas during this period is well documented in Robert Graham's Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume Two: The Emergence of the New Anarchism (1939–1977).[184]

Late 20th century[edit]

A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred in western nations during the 1960s and 1970s.[202] Anarchism was influential in the Counterculture of the 1960s[203][204][205] and anarchists actively participated in the late sixties students and workers revolts.[206] During the IX Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara in 1965, a group decided to split off from this organization and created the Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica. In the seventies, it was mostly composed of "veteran individualist anarchists with an of pacifism orientation, naturism, etc, ...".[207] In 1968 in Carrara, Italy the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile.[208][209] During the events of May 68 the anarchist groups active in France were Fédération anarchiste, Mouvement communiste libertaire, Union fédérale des anarchistes, Alliance ouvrière anarchiste], Union des groupes anarchistes communistes, Noir et Rouge, Confédération nationale du travail, Union anarcho-syndicaliste, Organisation révolutionnaire anarchiste, Cahiers socialistes libertaires, À contre-courant, La Révolution prolétarienne, and the publications close to Émile Armand.[190]

English punk rock band Crass (in 1984), founders of the anarcho-punk movement with a banner of their anarchist slogan: "There´s no authority but yourself"

In the United Kingdom in the 1970s this was associated with the punk rock movement, as exemplified by bands such as Crass and the Sex Pistols.[210] The housing and employment crisis in most of Western Europe led to the formation of communes and squatter movements like that of Barcelona, Spain. In Denmark, squatters occupied a disused military base and declared the Freetown Christiania, an autonomous haven in central Copenhagen.

Since the revival of anarchism in the mid-20th century,[211] a number of new movements and schools of thought emerged. Although feminist tendencies have always been a part of the anarchist movement in the form of anarcha-feminism, they returned with vigour during the second wave of feminism in the 1960s. The American Civil Rights Movement and the movement against the war in Vietnam also contributed to the revival of North American anarchism. European anarchism of the late 20th century drew much of its strength from the labour movement, and both have incorporated animal rights activism.

In the early 1970s, a platformist tendency emerged within the Italian Anarchist Federation which argued for more strategic coherence and social insertion in the workers movement while rejecting the syntesist "Associative Pact" of Malatesta which the FAI adhered to. These groups started organizing themselves outside the FAI in organizations such as O.R.A. from Liguria which organized a Congress attended by 250 delegates of grupos from 60 locations. This movement was influential in the autonomia movements of the 1970s. They published Fronte Libertario della lotta di classe in Bologna and Comunismo libertario from Modena.[207] The Federation of Anarchist Communists (Federazione dei Comunisti Anarchici), or FdCA, was established in 1985 in Italy from the fusion of the Organizzazione Rivoluzionaria Anarchica (Revolutionary Anarchist Organisation) and the Unione dei Comunisti Anarchici della Toscana (Tuscan Union of Anarchist Communists). In the 1970s in France the Fédération Anarchiste evolved into a joining of the principles of both synthesis anarchism and platformism[190] but later the platformist organizations Libertarian Communist Organization (France) in 1976 and Alternative libertaire in 1991 appeared with this last one existing until today alongside the synthesist Fédération Anarchiste.

The Direct Action Movement was formed in 1979, when the one remaining SWF branch, along with other smaller anarchist groups, decided to form a new organisation of anarcho-syndicalists in Britain.[212] The DAM was highly involved in the Miners' Strike as well as a series of industrial disputes later in the 1980s, including the Ardbride dispute in Ardrossan, Scotland, involving a supplier to Laura Ashley, for which the DAM received international support. From 1988 in Scotland, then England and Wales, the DAM was active in opposing the Poll Tax.[213] In 1994 it adopted its current name, having previously been the Direct Action Movement since 1979, and before that the Syndicalist Workers' Federation since 1950. In March 1994, DAM changed its name to the Solidarity Federation. Presently, the Solidarity Federation publishes the quarterly magazine Direct Action (presently on hiatus) and the newspaper Catalyst. Several locals and networks also publish their own newsletters. Along with the Anarchist Federation it is one of the two national anarchist federations active in the UK at the present time. The Anarchist Federation (AF) is a federation of anarcho-communists in Great Britain and Ireland. The Federation was founded as the Anarchist Communist Federation in March 1986 by the Anarchist Communist Discussion Group, which had coalesced around two anarcho-communists who had returned from France and began selling the pamphlets of the defunct Libertarian Communist Group tendency, and members of Syndicalist Fight. The Anarchist Federation is a member organisation of the Anarchist International of Anarchist Federations (IAF-IFA),[214] but also has its own secretariat responsible for regions of the world that do not have IAF-IFA members.

21st century[edit]

Anarchist anthropologist David Graeber and anarchist historian Andrej Grubačić have posited a rupture between generations of anarchism, with those "who often still have not shaken the sectarian habits" of the 19th century contrasted with the younger activists who are "much more informed, among other elements, by indigenous, feminist, ecological, and cultural-critical ideas", and who around the start of the 21st century formed "by far the majority" of anarchists.[215]

May Day 2010 demonstration of Spanish anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT in Bilbao, Basque Country

Around the start of the 21st century, anarchism grew in popularity and influence as part of the anti-war, anti-capitalist, and anti-globalisation movements.[216] Anarchists became known for their involvement in protests against the meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO), Group of Eight and the World Economic Forum. Some anarchist factions at these protests engaged in rioting, property destruction, and violent confrontations with police. These actions were precipitated by ad hoc, leaderless, anonymous cadres known as black blocs; other organisational tactics pioneered in this time include security culture, affinity groups and the use of decentralised technologies such as the internet.[216] A significant event of this period was the confrontations at WTO conference in Seattle in 1999.[216] According to anarchist scholar Simon Critchley, "contemporary anarchism can be seen as a powerful critique of the pseudo-libertarianism of contemporary neo-liberalism[.] [...] One might say that contemporary anarchism is about responsibility, whether sexual, ecological, or socio-economic; it flows from an experience of conscience about the manifold ways in which the West ravages the rest; it is an ethical outrage at the yawning inequality, impoverishment, and disenfranchisement that is so palpable locally and globally".[217]

International anarchist federations in existence include the International of Anarchist Federations, the International Workers' Association, and International Libertarian Solidarity. The largest organised anarchist movement today is in Spain, in the form of the Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT) and the CNT. CGT membership was estimated to be around 100,000 for 2003.[218] Other active syndicalist movements include in Sweden the Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden and the Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation; the CNT-AIT in France; the Union Sindicale Italiana in Italy; in the United States Workers Solidarity Alliance and the United Kingdom Solidarity Federation. The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World, claiming 2,000 paying members, and the International Workers Association, an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First International, also remain active. The Informal Anarchist Federation (not to be confused with the synthesist Italian Anarchist Federation, also FAI) is an Italian insurrectionary anarchist organization.[219] It has been described by Italian intelligence sources as a "horizontal" structure of various anarchist terrorist groups, united in their beliefs in revolutionary armed action. In 2003, the group claimed responsibility for a bomb campaign targeting several European Union institutions.[220][221]

During the first years of the 2000s, the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth in Spain started to evolve towards insurrectionary anarchist positions and its differences with anarcho-syndicalism became more evident due to the influence of the Black block in alterglobalization protests and the examples of developments from Italy and Greece.[222] In 2007, it re-established itself as the FIJL since it did not have news from the other insurrectionist organization, but after finding out of a communique by the insurrectionist organization[222] it decided to name itself Iberian Federation of Anarchist Youth (Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Anarquistas or FIJA), but knowing that they are the continuing organization to the previous FIJL from the 1990s to the past.[223] They publish a newspaper called El Fuelle. In March 2012, the FIJL of insurrectionist tendencies decides to not continue[224] and so the FIJA goes to call itself again FIJL.[225]

Related pages[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^
    • Woodcock states: "ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies."Woodcock 1967
    • According to Kropotkin:In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions.Kropotkin 1910
    • According to Orowder "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable."Orowder 2005, p. 14
  2. ^
    • Judith Suissa states "as many anarchists have stressed, it is not government as such that they find objectionable, but the hierarchical forms of government associated with the nation state."(Suissa 2006, p. 7)
    • Peter Kropotkin wrote "That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organisation and preaches free agreement — at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist."(Kropotkin 1910)
    • The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective: "anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy — hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society"(The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective 2009)
    • International of Anarchist Federations:"The IAF – IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual"(International of Anarchist Federations 2012)
  3. ^
    • The entry Anarchism in Encyclopedia Britannica starts as "Anarchism, cluster of doctrines and attitudes centred on the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary. "CITEREFEncyclopedia_Britannica2018
    • "Anarchism". The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: 14. 2005. Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable. The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy:
    • Mclaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 59. ISBN 0-7546-6196-2.
    • Johnston, R. (2000). The Dictionary of Human Geography. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 0-631-20561-6.
    • Slevin, Carl (2003). "Anarchism". In Iain McLean; Alistair McMillan. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280276-7.
  4. ^ McLaughlin 2007, p. 28: "Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short."
  5. ^
    • "My use of the word hierarchy in the subtitle of this work is meant to be provocative. There is a strong theoretical need to contrast hierarchy with the more widespread use of the words class and State; careless use of these terms can produce a dangerous simplification of social reality. To use the words hierarchy, class, and State interchangeably, as many social theorists do, is insidious and obscurantist. This practice, in the name of a "classless" or "libertarian" society, could easily conceal the existence of hierarchical relationships and a hierarchical sensibility, both of which-even in the absence of economic exploitation or political coercion-would serve to perpetuate unfreedom." Murray Bookchin. The Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence And Dissolution of Hierarchy. Cheshire Books, Palo Alto. 1982. p. 3.
    • "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation." Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism. Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1.
  6. ^ a b Encarta 2006.
  7. ^ Skirda 2002, p. 191.
  8. ^ Catalan historian Xavier Diez reports that the Spanish individualist anarchist press was widely read by members of anarcho-communist groups and by members of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT. There were also the cases of prominent individualist anarchists such as Federico Urales and Miguel Gimenez Igualada who were members of the CNT and J. Elizalde who was a founding member and first secretary of the Iberian Anarchist Federation. Xavier Diez. El anarquismo individualista en España: 1923–1938. ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6
  9. ^ Within the synthesist anarchist organization, the Fédération Anarchiste, there existed an individualist anarchist tendency alongside anarcho-communist and anarchosyndicalist currents. Individualist anarchists participating inside the Fédération Anarchiste included Charles-Auguste Bontemps, Georges Vincey and André Arru. "Pensée et action des anarchistes en France : 1950–1970" by Cédric GUÉRIN
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Graham 2005, p. xi-xiv.
  11. ^ Barclay 1982.
  12. ^ Kropotkin 1910.
  13. ^ Woodcock 1962, p. 38.
  14. ^ Histories IX, 23, quote (in ancient greek)=ἐδόκεε δέ σφι ἀναρχίης ἐούσης ἀπελαύνειν παρὰ Μαρδόνιον
  15. ^ Jun & Wahl 2010, p. 68: Iliad II, 703. , quote (in ancient greek) = "οὐδὲ μὲν οὐδ᾽ οἳ ἄναρχοι ἔσαν, πόθεόν γε μὲν ἀρχόν"
  16. ^ Jun & Wahl 2010, p. 68-70.
  17. ^ a b Marshall 1993, p. 68.
  18. ^ a b Fiala 2017.
  19. ^ Schofield 1991.
  20. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 67.
  21. ^ a b Goodway 2006, p. 5.
  22. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 86.
  23. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 86-89: Marshall mentions the “‘’English Peasants' Revolt in 1381, the Hussite Revolution in Bohemia at Tabor in 1419-21, the German Peasants' Revolt by Thomas Munzer in 1525, and Munster Commune του 1534’’”
  24. ^ Nettlau 1996, p. 8.
  25. ^ Joll 1975, p. 23.
  26. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 108-114.
  27. ^ Russel 2004, p. 8.
  28. ^ Lehning 2003.
  29. ^ Foster 1886.
  30. ^ Rothbard 2006.
  31. ^ Rothbard 2005.
  32. ^ Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. pg. 85
  33. ^ Netlau 1999, p. 30-31.
  34. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 432.
  35. ^ Sheehan 2004, p. 85-86.
  36. ^ Everhart 1982, p. 115.
  37. ^ Philip 2006.
  38. ^ Adams 2001, p. 116.
  39. ^ Guerin 1970.
  40. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 433-34.
  41. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. "Chapter 3. Labour as the efficient cause of the domain of property" from "What is Property?", 1840
  42. ^ Edwards 1969, p. 33.
  43. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. The General Idea of the Revolution, p. 281
  44. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 239.
  45. ^ Kropotkin, Peter. Chapter 13 The Collectivist Wages System from The Conquest of Bread, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London, 1906.
  46. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 241-42.
  47. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 434.
  48. ^ Joseph Déjacque, De l'être-humain mâle et femelle – Lettre à P.J. Proudhon par Joseph Déjacque (in French)
  49. ^ a b c Graham 2005.
  50. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 434-35.
  51. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 436.
  52. ^ Goodway 2006, p. 99.
  53. ^ a b Leopold 2006.
  54. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana, p. 176.
  55. ^ David Miller 1987, Anarchims.
  56. ^ Ossar 1980, p. 27: "What my might reaches is my property; and let me claim as property everything I feel myself strong enough to attain, and let me extend my actual property as fas as I entitle, that is, empower myself to take..."
  57. ^ Nyberg 2012, p. 13.
  58. ^ Thomas 1985, p. 142.
  59. ^ Carlson 1972.
  60. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 286.
  61. ^ a b Woodcock 1962.
  62. ^ a b Woodcock 1962, p. 288-90.
  63. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 435.
  64. ^ Fiala 2013, Emerson and Thoreau on Anarchy and Civil Disobedience.
  65. ^ Marshall, 1993 & 496-97.
  66. ^ Marshall & 1993 497.
  67. ^ Marshall & 1993 498.
  68. ^ Marshall & 1993 499.
  69. ^ a b McElroy 1996.
  70. ^ Sochen 1972.
  71. ^ Katz 1976.
  72. ^ Tucker, Instead of a Book, p. 350
  73. ^ McElroy 1981.
  74. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 301-03.
  75. ^ Graham 2005, p. 98.
  76. ^ Woodcock 1962, p. 178-181.
  77. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica 2018, Anarchism in Spain.
  78. ^ a b Woodcock 1962, p. 357.
  79. ^ Breuning 1977.
  80. ^ Dodson 2002, p. 312.
  81. ^ Thomas 1985, p. 187.
  82. ^ Thomas 1980, p. 304.
  83. ^ Bak 1991, p. 336.
  84. ^ Engel 2000, p. 140.
  85. ^ Bakunin 1873.
  86. ^ Woodcock 1962, p. 460.
  87. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 309.
  88. ^ Graham 2005, "Chapter 41: The "Anarchists".
  89. ^ Pernicone 2009, p. 111-13.
  90. ^ a b c d e Pengam 1987, p. 60-82.
  91. ^ Graham 2005, p. 100, Resolutions from the St. Imier Congress.
  92. ^ a b Foner 1986, p. 56.
  93. ^ Avrich 1984, p. 190.
  94. ^ Avrich 1984, p. 193.
  95. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 499
  96. ^ Avrich 1984, p. 209: Avrich is quoting Chicago Tribune, 27 June 1886
  97. ^ Chicago Historical Society.
  98. ^ Foner 1986, p. 42.
  99. ^ Woodcock 1962, p. 266.
  100. ^ Graham & 2005 206.
  101. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 444.
  102. ^ Graham, 2005 & 206-08.
  103. ^ Skirda 2002, p. 89.
  104. ^ Beevor 2006, p. 24.
  105. ^ Lucien van der Walt 2009.
  106. ^ ""Action as Propaganda" by Johann Most, July 25, 1885". Dwardmac.pitzer.edu. 21 April 2003. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  107. ^ "Anarchist-Communism" by Alain Pengam
  108. ^ ""The "illegalists" by Doug Imrie. From "Anarchy: a Journal Of Desire Armed", Fall-Winter, 1994–95". Recollectionbooks.com. 28 August 1954. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  109. ^ quoted in Billington, James H. 1998. Fire in the minds of men: origins of the revolutionary faith New Jersey: Transaction Books, p 417.
  110. ^ "Table of Contents". Blackrosebooks.net. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  111. ^ Historian Benedict Anderson thus writes:

    "In March 1871 the Commune took power in the abandoned city and held it for two months. Then Versailles seized the moment to attack and, in one horrifying week, executed roughly 20,000 Communards or suspected sympathizers, a number higher than those killed in the recent war or during Robespierre's 'Terror' of 1793–1794. More than 7,500 were jailed or deported to places like New Caledonia. Thousands of others fled to Belgium, England, Italy, Spain and the United States. In 1872, stringent laws were passed that ruled out all possibilities of organizing on the left. Not till 1880 was there a general amnesty for exiled and imprisoned Communards. Meanwhile, the Third Republic found itself strong enough to renew and reinforce Louis Napoleon's imperialist expansion– in Indochina, Africa, and Oceania. Many of France's leading intellectuals and artists had participated in the Commune (Courbet was its quasi-minister of culture, Rimbaud and Pissarro were active propagandists) or were sympathetic to it. The ferocious repression of 1871 and thereafter, was probably the key factor in alienating these milieux from the Third Republic and stirring their sympathy for its victims at home and abroad." (in Anderson, Benedict (July–August 2004). "In the world-shadow of Bismarck and Nobel". New Left Review. New Left Review. II (28).

    )

    According to some analysts, in post-war Germany, the prohibition of the Communist Party (KDP) and thus of institutional far-left political organization may also, in the same manner, have played a role in the creation of the Red Army Faction.
  112. ^ Taylerson, A. W. F. (1971), The Revolver, 1889-1914, Crown Publishers, p. 60
  113. ^ Johns, A. Wesley (1970), The man who shot McKinley, A. S. Barnes, p. 97
  114. ^ 1901 video of his execution
  115. ^ "The Execution of Leon Czolgosz — "Lights Out in the City of Light" — Anarchy and Assassination at the Pan-American Exposition". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  116. ^ "The Tragedy at Buffalo" Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  117. ^ Goldman 1931, pp. 311–319.
  118. ^ Woodcock, George. 2004. Anarchism: A History Of Libertarian Ideas And Movements. Broadview Press. p. 20.
  119. ^ Autonomie Individuelle (1887 —1888)
  120. ^ a b The daily bleed
  121. ^ EL NATURISMO LIBERTARIO EN LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA (1890–1939) by Jose Maria Rosello Archived 2 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  122. ^ "Les anarchistes individualistes du début du siècle l'avaient bien compris, et intégraient le naturisme dans leurs préoccupations. Il est vraiment dommage que ce discours se soit peu à peu effacé, d'antan plus que nous assistons, en ce moment, à un retour en force du puritanisme (conservateur par essence).""Anarchisme et naturisme, aujourd'hui." by Cathy Ytak Archived 25 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  123. ^ Díez, Xavier (2007). El anarquismo individualista en España 1923-1938. Barcelona: Virus Editorial. p. 143. ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6. "Anticlericalism, just as in the rest of the libertarian movement, in another of the frequent elements which will gain relevance related to the measure in which the (French) Republic begins to have conflicts with the church...Anti-clerical discourse, frequently called for by the french individualist André Lorulot, will have its impacts in Estudios (a Spanish individualist anarchist publication). There will be an attack on institutionalized religion for the responsibility that it had in the past on negative developments, for its irrationality which makes it a counterpoint of philosophical and scientific progress. There will be a criticism of proselitism and ideological manipulation which happens on both believers and agnostics."
  124. ^ a b c d "La insumisión voluntaria. El anarquismo individualista español durante la dictadura y la Segunda República" by Xavier Díez
  125. ^ "anarco-individualismo" in italian anarchopedia
  126. ^ "Essa trova soprattutto in America del Nord un notevole seguito per opera del Galleani che esprime una sintesi fra l'istanza puramente individualista di stampo anglosassone e americano (ben espressa negli scritti di Tucker) e quella profondamente socialista del movimento anarchico di lingua italiana. Questa commistione di elementi individualisti e comunisti — che caratterizza bene la corrente antiorganizzatrice — rappresenta lo sforzo di quanti avvertirono in modo estremamente sensibile l'invadente burocratismo che pervadeva il movimento operaio e socialista.""anarchismo insurrezionale" in italian anarchopedia
  127. ^ The rebel's dark laughter: the writings of Bruno Filippi
  128. ^ Richard Parry. The Bonnot Gang: The Story of the French Illegalists
  129. ^ "2. Individualist Anarchism and Reaction" in Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism – An Unbridgeable Chasm
  130. ^ "We must kill the christian philosophy in the most radical sense of the word. How much mostly goes sneaking inside the democratic civilization (this most cynically ferocious form of christian depravity) and it goes more towards the categorical negation of human Individuality. “Democracy! By now we have comprised it that it means all that says Oscar Wilde Democracy is the people who govern the people with blows of the club for love of the people”." "Towards the Hurricane" by Renzo Novatore
  131. ^ "When Oscar Wilde's plea for penal reform, The Ballad of Reading Gaol, was widely criticized, Tucker enthusiastically endorsed the poem, urging all of his subscribers to read it. Tucker, in fact, published an American edition. From its early championing of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass to a series of short stories by Francis du Bosque in its last issues, Liberty was a vehicle of controversial, avant-garde literature.""Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order" by Wendy McElroy
  132. ^ Goodway 2006, p. 11.
  133. ^ Goodway 2006, p. 9.
  134. ^ New York Times, 23 August 1927
  135. ^ Montgomery 1960 p. v.
  136. ^ Young & Kaiser 1985 preface.
  137. ^ Watson, 277, 294
  138. ^ Watson, 331
  139. ^ Watson, 345
  140. ^ Watson, 294
  141. ^ The New York Times: "Green Begs Fuller to Extend Clemency to Sacco," 9 August 1927, accessed 24 July 2010
  142. ^ Donald J. McClurg, "The Colorado Coal Strike of 1927 – Tactical Leadership of the IWW," Labor History, vol. 4, no. 1, Winter 1963, 71
  143. ^ Donald J. McClurg, The Colorado Coal Strike of 1927 -- Tactical Leadership of the IWW, Labor History, Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter, 1963, page 72. See also Charles J. Bayard, "The 1927–1928 Colorado Coal Strike," Pacific Historical Review, vol. 32, no. 3, August 1963, 237-8
  144. ^ a b c Felipe Pigna, Los Mitos de la historia argentina, ed. Planeta, 2006, chapter IV "Expropriando al Capital", esp. 105-114
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  147. ^ Avrich, Paul, The Modern School Movement, AK Press (2005), p.212: At the Ferrer Center, Berkman was called "The Pope", Goldman was called "The Red Queen".
  148. ^ Avrich, Paul, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, "Interview with Magda Schoenwetter", AK Press (2005), ISBN 1-904859-27-5, ISBN 978-1-904859-27-7, p.230: "What everybody is yowling about now — freedom in education — we had then, though I still can’t spell or do multiplication."
  149. ^ Avrich, Paul, The Modern School Movement, AK Press (2005), p.341
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  151. ^ AERO-GRAMME #11: The Alternative Education Resource Organization Newsletter Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
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  153. ^ Goldman, Emma (2003). "Preface". My Disillusionment in Russia. New York: Dover Publications. p. xx. ISBN 0-486-43270-X. My critic further charged me with believing that "had the Russians made the Revolution à la Bakunin instead of à la Marx" the result would have been different and more satisfactory. I plead guilty to the charge. In truth, I not only believe so; I am certain of it.
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  155. ^ "The Munich Soviet (or “Council Republic”) of 1919 exhibited certain features of the TAZ, even though – like most revolutions – its stated goals were not exactly “temporary.” Gustav Landauer's participation as Minister of Culture along with Silvio Gesell as Minister of Economics and other anti-authoritarian and extreme libertarian socialists such as the poet/playwrights Erich Mªhsam and Ernst Toller, and Ret Marut (the novelist B. Traven), gave the Soviet a distinct anarchist flavor." Hakim Bey. "T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism"
  156. ^ "Die erste Räterepublik: Literaten an der Macht". Bayerischer Rundfunk. 24 November 2008.
  157. ^ "1918–1921: The Italian factory occupations – Biennio Rosso"
  158. ^ "The Magonista Revolt in Baja California Capitalist Conspiracy or Rebelion de los Pobres?" by Lawrence D. Taylor
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  162. ^ Berry, David. "Fascism or Revolution." Le Libertaire. August 1936.
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  164. ^ Bolloten, Burnett (15 November 1984). The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution. University of North Carolina Press. p. 1107. ISBN 978-0-8078-1906-7.
  165. ^ a b Birchall, Ian (2004). Sartre Against Stalinism. Berghahn Books. p. 29. ISBN 1-57181-542-2.
  166. ^ "Anarchist Activity in France during World War Two" Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  167. ^ "1943–1945: Anarchist partisans in the Italian Resistance"
  168. ^ Mühsam, Erich (2001). David A. Shepherd, ed. Thunderation!/Alle Wetter!: Folk Play With Song and Dance/Volksstuck Mit Gesang Und Tanz. Bucknell University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8387-5416-0.
  169. ^ The New York Times, 20 July 1934, quoted in "Erich Mühsam (1868–1934)" in MAN! A Journal of the Anarchist Ideal and Movement. Vol. 2, No. 8 (August 1934).
  170. ^ Beevor, Antony (2006). The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-297-84832-5.
  171. ^ Bolloten, Burnett (15 November 1984). The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution. University of North Carolina Press. p. 1107. ISBN 978-0-8078-1906-7.
  172. ^ Bolloten, Burnett (15 November 1984). The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution. University of North Carolina Press. p. 1107. ISBN 978-0-8078-1906-7.
  173. ^ Dolgoff, S. (1974), The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, ISBN 978-0-914156-03-1
  174. ^ Dolgoff (1974), p. 5
  175. ^ "Berneri, Luigi Camillo, 1897–1937" at libcom.com
  176. ^ Paul Avrich. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. AK Press. 2005. pg. 516
  177. ^ "Spain: Return to "normalization" in Barcelona. The Republican government had sent troops to take over the telephone exchange on 3 May, pitting the anarchists & Poumists on one side against the Republican government & the Stalinist Communist Party on the other, in pitched street battles, resulting in 500 anarchists killed. Squads of Communist Party members took to the streets on 6 May to assassinate leading anarchists. Today, among those found murdered, was the Italian anarchist Camillo Berneri""Camillo Berneri" at The Anarchist Encyclopedia: A Gallery of Saints & Sinners ... Archived 19 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  178. ^ Jesus Ruiz. Posibilismo libertario.Felix Morga, Alcalde de Najera (1891-1936). El Najerilla-Najera. 2003.
  179. ^ César M. Lorenzo. Les Anarchistes espagnols et le pouvoir. 1868-1969. Éditions du Seuil. 1969. page 58.
  180. ^ Thomas, Hugh (2001). The Spanish Civil War. London: Penguin Books. p. 458. ISBN 978-0-14-101161-5.
  181. ^ "Sí se ha aprobado por unanimidad, también a propuesta de Ciudadanos, dedicar una calle al anarquista Melchor Rodríguez García, el último alcalde de Madrid republicano, ante "el gran consenso social y político" al respecto y por "su gran relevancia para la reconciliación y la concordia tras la Guerra Civil". El País. Madrid sustituirá las calles franquistas por víctimas del terrorismo
  182. ^ "Regeneración y la Federación Anarquista Mexicana (1952–1960)" by Ulises Ortega Aguilar
  183. ^ "The surviving sectors of the revolutionary anarchist movement of the 1920–1940 period, now working in the SIA and the FGAC, reinforced by those Cuban militants and Spanish anarchists fleeing now-fascist Spain, agreed at the beginning of the decade to hold an assembly with the purpose of regrouping the libertarian forces inside a single organization. The guarantees of the 1940 Constitution permitted them to legally create an organization of this type, and it was thus that they agreed to dissolve the two principal Cuban anarchist organizations, the SIA and FGAC, and create a new, unified group, the Asociación Libertaria de Cuba (ALC), a sizable organization with a membership in the thousands."Cuban Anarchism: The History of A Movement by Frank Fernandez
  184. ^ a b c d "Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume Two: The Emergence of the New Anarchism (1939-1977) | Robert Graham's Anarchism Weblog". robertgraham.wordpress.com. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  185. ^ THE ANARCHIST MOVEMENT IN JAPAN Anarchist Communist Editions § ACE Pamphlet No. 8 Archived 26 July 2012 at Archive.today
  186. ^ "50 años de la Federación Anarquista Uruguaya"
  187. ^ * Vallance, Margaret (July 1973). "Rudolf Rocker — a biographical sketch". Journal of Contemporary History. London/Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. 8 (3): 75–95. doi:10.1177/002200947300800304. ISSN 0022-0094. OCLC 49976309. Vallance 1973, pp. 77–78
  188. ^ Vallance 1973, pp. 94–95
  189. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations'. United Kingdom: Pinter Publishers. 2000. ISBN 978-1855672642.
  190. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pensée et action des anarchistes en France : 1950–1970" by Cédric GUÉRIN
  191. ^ Ibid. "Le courant individualiste, qui avait alors peu de rapport avec les théories de Charles-Auguste Bontemps, est une tendance représentée à l’époque par Georges Vincey et avec des nuances par A.Arru"
  192. ^ "Si la critique de la déviation autoritaire de la FA est le principal fait de ralliement, on peut ressentir dès le premier numéro un état d'esprit qui va longtemps coller à la peau des anarchistes français. Cet état d'esprit se caractérise ainsi sous une double forme : d'une part un rejet inconditionnel de l'ennemi marxiste, d'autre part des questions sur le rôle des anciens et de l'évolution idéologique de l'anarchisme. C'est Fernand Robert qui attaque le premier : "Le LIB est devenu un journal marxiste. En continuant à le soutenir, tout en reconnaissant qu’il ne nous plaît pas, vous faîtes une mauvaise action contre votre idéal anarchiste. Vous donnez la main à vos ennemis dans la pensée. Même si la FA disparaît, même si le LIB disparaît, l'anarchie y gagnera. Le marxisme ne représente plus rien. Il faut le mettre bas ; je pense la même chose des dirigeants actuels de la FA. L'ennemi se glisse partout." Cédric Guérin. "Pensée et action des anarchistes en France : 1950–1970"
  193. ^ Masini, Pier Carlo, 1923–1998
  194. ^ http://ita.anarchopedia.org/Storia_del_movimento_libertario_in_Italia "Storia del movimento libertario in Italia" in anarchopedia in Italian
  195. ^ http://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/73n6nh Cesare Zaccaria (19 August 1897 – October 1961) Pier Carlo Masini and Paul Sharkey
  196. ^ a b "Vivir la Anarquía .Artículo en solidaridad con Alfredo Bonanno y Christos Stratigopoulos" Archived 28 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  197. ^ "It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself," wrote André Breton in "The Black Mirror of Anarchism," Selection 23 in Robert Graham, ed., Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume Two: The Emergence of the New Anarchism (1939–1977)[1]. Breton had returned to France in 1947 and in April of that year Andre Julien welcomed his return in the pages of Le Libertaire the weekly paper of the Federation Anarchiste""1919–1950: The politics of Surrealism" by Nick Heath
  198. ^ a b "1919–1950: The politics of Surrealism by Nick Heath". Libcom.org. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  199. ^ "In the forties and fifties, anarchism, in fact if not in name, began to reappear, often in alliance with pacifism, as the basis for a critique of militarism on both sides of the Cold War.[2] The anarchist/pacifist wing of the peace movement was small in comparison with the wing of the movement that emphasized electoral work, but made an important contribution to the movement as a whole. Where the more conventional wing of the peace movement rejected militarism and war under all but the most dire circumstances, the anarchist/pacifist wing rejected these on principle.""Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization Movement" by Barbara Epstein
  200. ^ "In the 1950s and 1960s anarcho-pacifism began to gel, tough-minded anarchists adding to the mixture their critique of the state, and tender-minded pacifists their critique of violence. Its first practical manifestation was at the level of method: nonviolent direct action, principled and pragmatic, was used widely in both the Civil Rights movement in the USA and the campaign against nuclear weapons in Britain and elsewhere."Geoffrey Ostergaard. Resisting the Nation State. The pacifist and anarchist tradition
  201. ^ "Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization Movement" by Barbara Epstein
  202. ^ Thomas 1985, p. 4
  203. ^ ""These groups had their roots in the anarchist resurgence of the nineteen sixties. Young militants finding their way to anarchism, often from the anti-bomb and anti-Vietnam war movements, linked up with an earlier generation of activists, largely outside the ossified structures of 'official' anarchism. Anarchist tactics embraced demonstrations, direct action such as industrial militancy and squatting, protest bombings like those of the First of May Group and Angry Brigade – and a spree of publishing activity.""Islands of Anarchy: Simian, Cienfuegos, Refract and their support network" by John Patten". Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  204. ^ "Farrell provides a detailed history of the Catholic Workers and their founders Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin. He explains that their pacifism, anarchism, and commitment to the downtrodden were one of the important models and inspirations for the 60s. As Farrell puts it, "Catholic Workers identified the issues of the sixties before the Sixties began, and they offered models of protest long before the protest decade.""The Spirit of the Sixties: The Making of Postwar Radicalism" by James J. Farrell
  205. ^ "While not always formally recognized, much of the protest of the sixties was anarchist. Within the nascent women's movement, anarchist principles became so widespread that a political science professor denounced what she saw as "The Tyranny of Structurelessness." Several groups have called themselves "Amazon Anarchists." After the Stonewall Rebellion, the New York Gay Liberation Front based their organization in part on a reading of Murray Bookchin's anarchist writings." "Anarchism" by Charley Shively in Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. pg. 52
  206. ^ "Within the movements of the sixties there was much more receptivity to anarchism-in-fact than had existed in the movements of the thirties...But the movements of the sixties were driven by concerns that were more compatible with an expressive style of politics, with hostility to authority in general and state power in particular...By the late sixties, political protest was intertwined with cultural radicalism based on a critique of all authority and all hierarchies of power. Anarchism circulated within the movement along with other radical ideologies. The influence of anarchism was strongest among radical feminists, in the commune movement, and probably in the Weather Underground and elsewhere in the violent fringe of the anti-war movement." "Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization Movement" by Barbara Epstein
  207. ^ a b "Los anarco-individualistas, G.I.A...Una escisión de la FAI producida en el IX Congreso (Carrara, 1965) se pr odujo cuando un sector de anarquistas de tendencia humanista rechazan la interpretación que ellos juzgan disciplinaria del pacto asociativo" clásico, y crean los GIA (Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica). Esta pequeña federación de grupos, hoy nutrida sobre todo de veteranos anarco-individualistas de orientación pacifista, naturista, etcétera defiende la autonomía personal y rechaza a rajatabla toda forma de intervención en los procesos del sistema, como sería por ejemplo el sindicalismo. Su portavoz es L'Internazionale con sede en Ancona. La escisión de los GIA prefiguraba, en sentido contrario, el gran debate que pronto había de comenzar en el seno del movimiento""El movimiento libertario en Italia" by Bicicleta. REVISTA DE COMUNICACIONES LIBERTARIAS Year 1 No. Noviembre, 1 1977 Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  208. ^ London Federation of Anarchists involvement in Carrara conference, 1968 International Institute of Social History, Accessed 19 January 2010
  209. ^ Short history of the IAF-IFA A-infos news project, Accessed 19 January 2010
  210. ^ McLaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 10. ISBN 0-7546-6196-2.
  211. ^ Williams, Leonard (September 2007). "Anarchism Revived". New Political Science. 29 (3): 297–312. doi:10.1080/07393140701510160.
  212. ^ "The Direct Action Movement". katesharpleylibrary.net. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  213. ^ Meltzer, Albert (2001). I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels. United Kingdom: AK Press. ISBN 978-1873176931.
  214. ^ "IAF-IFA membership of the AF". Archived from the original on 25 April 2013.
  215. ^ David Graeber and Andrej Grubacic, "Anarchism, Or The Revolutionary Movement Of The Twenty-first Century Archived 17 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.", ZNet. Retrieved 13 December 2007. or Graeber, David and Grubacic, Andrej(2004)Anarchism, Or The Revolutionary Movement Of The Twenty-first Century Retrieved 2010-07-26 Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  216. ^ a b c Rupert, Mark (2006). Globalization and International Political Economy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 66. ISBN 0-7425-2943-6.
  217. ^ Infinitely Demanding by Simon Critchley. Verso. 2007. p. 125.
  218. ^ Carley, Mark "Trade union membership 1993–2003" (International:SPIRE Associates 2004).
  219. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  220. ^ "Bologna mail blocked after bombs". BBC News. 31 December 2003.
  221. ^ "Italy acts over EU letter bombs". CNN. 31 December 2003.
  222. ^ a b Comunicado de la FIJL
  223. ^ "Nace la Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Anarquistas". alasbarricadas.org. 11 August 2007. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  224. ^ Comunicado de disolución de la Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL)
  225. ^ "Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias – F.I.J.L". nodo50.org. 5 April 2012. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2014.

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