|An adult human male (left) and female (right) from the Akha tribe in Northern Thailand|
|Homo sapiens population density|
Humans (Homo sapiens) are a species of highly intelligent primates. They are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina and—together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans—are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). Humans are terrestrial animals, characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other primates; and highly advanced and organized societies.
Several early hominins used fire and occupied much of Eurasia. Early modern humans are thought to have diverged in Africa from an earlier hominin around 300,000 years ago, with the earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens also appearing around 300,000 years ago in Africa. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity at least by about 100,000–70,000 years ago (and possibly earlier). In several waves of migration, H. sapiens ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world. The spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected the biosphere and millions of species worldwide. Among the key advantages that explain this evolutionary success is the presence of a larger, well-developed brain, which enables advanced abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning. Humans use tools more frequently and effectively than any other animal: they are the only extant species to build fires, cook food, clothe themselves, and create and use numerous other technologies and arts.
Humans uniquely use systems of symbolic communication such as language and art to express themselves and exchange ideas, as well as to organize themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together undergird human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, philosophy, mythology, religion, and other fields of knowledge.
Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies, many human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization. These human societies subsequently expanded, establishing various forms of government and culture around the world, and unifying people within regions to form states and empires. The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of more efficient medical tools and healthier lifestyles, resulting in increased lifespans and causing the human population to rise exponentially.[better source needed] The global human population is about 7.8 billion in 2021.
Etymology and definition
Although it can be applied to other members of the genus Homo, in common usage the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species—Homo sapiens. The definition of H. sapiens itself is debated. Some paleoanthropologists include fossils that others have allocated to different species, while the majority assign only fossils that align anatomically with the species as it exists today.
The English word "human" is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the adjectival form of homō ("man" - in the sense of humankind). The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males. It may also refer to individuals of either sex, though this latter form is less common in contemporary English.
The species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. The generic name "Homo" is a learned 18th-century derivation from Latin homō, which refers to humans of either sex. The species name "sapiens" means "wise", "sapient", "knowledgeable" (Latin sapiens is the singular form, plural is sapientes).
The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa several million years ago, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids (great apes) branch of the primates. Modern humans, specifically the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia 125,000–60,000 years ago, Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago, and remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter Island, Madagascar, and New Zealand between the years 300 and 1280.
The closest living relatives of humans are chimpanzees and bonobos (genus Pan), as well as gorillas (genus Gorilla). The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the lineage leading to humans, then gorillas, and finally, chimpanzees. The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed 4–8 million years ago, during the late Miocene epoch. During this split, chromosome 2 was formed from the joining of two other chromosomes, leaving humans with only 23 pairs of chromosomes, compared to 24 for the other apes.
The earliest fossils that have been proposed as members of the hominin lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis, dating from ; Orrorin tugenensis, dating from ; and Ardipithecus kadabba, dating to . From these early species, the australopithecines arose around , diverging into robust (Paranthropus) and gracile (Australopithecus) branches, possibly one of which—such as A. garhi, dating to —is a direct ancestor of the genus Homo.
The earliest members of Homo evolved around  H. habilis has been considered the first species for which there is clear evidence of the use of stone tools. Nonetheless, the brains of H. habilis were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee, and their main adaptation was bipedalism. During the next million years a process of encephalization began, and with the arrival of Homo erectus in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled. H. erectus were the first of the hominina to leave Africa, between . One population, also sometimes classified as a separate species Homo ergaster, stayed in Africa and evolved into Homo sapiens. It is believed that these species were the first to use fire and complex tools..
The earliest transitional fossils between H. ergaster/erectus and archaic humans are from Africa, such as Homo rhodesiensis, but seemingly transitional forms have also been found in Dmanisi, Georgia. These descendants of H. erectus spread through Eurasia c. 500,000 years ago, evolving into H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis. Fossils of anatomically modern humans that date from the Middle Paleolithic (about 200,000 years ago) include the Omo-Kibish I remains of Ethiopia and the fossils of Herto Bouri, Ethiopia. Earlier remains now classified as early Homo sapiens, such as the Jebel Irhoud remains from Morocco and the Florisbad Skull from South Africa, have been dated to about 300,000 and 259,000 years old respectively. Fossil records of archaic Homo sapiens from Skhul in Israel and Southern Europe begin around 90,000 years ago.
Human evolution is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The most significant of these adaptations are 1. bipedalism, 2. increased brain size, 3. lengthened ontogeny (gestation and infancy), 4. decreased sexual dimorphism (neoteny). The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate. Other significant morphological changes included the evolution of a power and precision grip, a change first occurring in H. erectus.
Bipedalism is the basic adaption of the hominin line, and it is considered the main cause behind a suite of skeletal changes shared by all bipedal hominins. The earliest bipedal hominin is considered to be either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin, with Ardipithecus, a full bipedal, coming somewhat later. The knuckle walkers, the gorilla and chimpanzee, diverged around the same time, and either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be humans' last shared ancestor with those animals. The early bipedals eventually evolved into the australopithecines and later the genus Homo. There are several theories of the adaptational value of bipedalism. It is possible that bipedalism was favored because it freed up the hands for reaching and carrying food, because it saved energy during locomotion, because it enabled long-distance running and hunting, or as a strategy for avoiding hyperthermia by reducing the surface exposed to direct sun.
The human species developed a much larger brain than that of other primates—typically 1,330 cm3 (81 cu in) in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of encephalization started with Homo habilis which at approximately 600 cm3 (37 cu in) had a brain slightly larger than chimpanzees, and continued with Homo erectus (800–1,100 cm3 (49–67 cu in)), and reached a maximum in Neanderthals with an average size of 1,200–1,900 cm3 (73–116 cu in), larger even than Homo sapiens (but less encephalized). The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. However, the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes may be even more significant than differences in size. The increase in volume over time has affected different areas within the brain unequally—the temporal lobes, which contain centers for language processing have increased disproportionately, as has the prefrontal cortex which has been related to complex decision making and moderating social behavior. Encephalization has been tied to an increasing emphasis on meat in the diet, or with the development of cooking, and it has been proposed  that intelligence increased as a response to an increased necessity for solving social problems as human society became more complex.
The reduced degree of sexual dimorphism is primarily visible in the reduction of the male canine tooth relative to other ape species (except gibbons). Another important physiological change related to sexuality in humans was the evolution of hidden estrus. Humans are the only ape in which the female is intermittently fertile year round, and in which no special signals of fertility are produced by the body (such as genital swelling during estrus). Nonetheless humans retain a degree of sexual dimorphism in the distribution of body hair and subcutaneous fat, and in the overall size, males being around 25% larger than females. These changes taken together have been interpreted as a result of an increased emphasis on pair bonding as a possible solution to the requirement for increased parental investment due to the prolonged infancy of offspring.
As early Homo sapiens dispersed, it encountered varieties of archaic humans both in Africa and in Eurasia, in Eurasia notably Homo neanderthalensis. Since 2010, evidence for gene flow between archaic and modern humans during the period of roughly 100,000 to 30,000 years ago has been discovered. This includes modern human admixture in Neanderthals, Neanderthal admixture in all modern humans outside Africa, Denisova hominin admixture in Melanesians as well as admixture from unnamed archaic humans to some Sub-Saharan African populations.
The "out of Africa" migration of Homo sapiens took place in at least two waves, the first around 130,000 to 100,000 years ago, the second (Southern Dispersal) around 70,000 to 50,000 years ago, resulting in the colonization of Australia around 65–50,000 years ago, This recent out of Africa migration derived from East African populations, which had become separated from populations migrating to Southern, Central and Western Africa at least 100,000 years earlier. Modern humans subsequently spread globally, replacing archaic humans (either through competition or hybridization). By the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period (50,000 BP), and likely significantly earlier behavioral modernity, including language, music and other cultural universals had developed. They inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 years ago, and the Americas at least 14,500 years ago.
Until about 12,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, generally in small nomadic groups known as band societies, often in caves. The Neolithic Revolution (the invention of agriculture) took place beginning about 10,000 years ago, first in the Fertile Crescent, spreading through large parts of the Old World over the following millennia, and independently in Mesoamerica about 6,000 years ago. Access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools for the first time in history.
Agriculture and sedentary lifestyle led to the emergence of early civilizations (the development of urban development, complex society, social stratification and writing) from about 5,000 years ago (the Bronze Age), first beginning in Mesopotamia. The Scientific Revolution, Technological Revolution and the Industrial Revolution brought such discoveries as imaging technology, major innovations in transport, such as the airplane and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity. With the advent of the Information Age at the end of the 20th century, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. Human population growth and industrialisation has led to environmental destruction and pollution significantly contributing to the ongoing mass extinction of other forms of life called the Holocene extinction, which may be further accelerated by global warming in the future.
Habitat and population
|World population||7.8 billion|
|Population density||15/km2 (40/sq mi) by total area|
53/km2 (136/sq mi) by land area
|Largest cities||Tokyo, Delhi, Shanghai, Mumbai, São Paulo, Beijing, Mexico City, Osaka, Cairo, New York-Newark, Dhaka, Karachi, Buenos Aires, Kolkata, Istanbul, Chongqing, Lagos, Manila, Guangzhou, Rio de Janeiro, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Moscow, Kinshasa, Tianjin, Paris, Shenzhen, Jakarta, Bangalore, London, Chennai, Lima|
Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and—depending on the lifestyle—other natural resources used for subsistence, such as populations of animal prey for hunting and arable land for growing crops and grazing livestock. Modern humans, however, have a great capacity for altering their habitats by means of technology, irrigation, urban planning, construction, deforestation and desertification. Human settlements continue to be vulnerable to natural disasters, especially those placed in hazardous locations and with low quality of construction. Deliberate habitat alteration is often done with the goals of increasing comfort or material wealth, increasing the amount of available food, improving aesthetics, or improving ease of access to resources or other human settlements. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places, these factors are no longer a driving force behind the success of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change.
The human body's ability to adapt to different environmental stresses allows humans to acclimatize to a wide variety of temperatures, humidity, and altitudes. As a result, humans are a cosmopolitan species found in almost all regions of the world, including tropical rainforest, arid desert, extremely cold arctic regions, and heavily polluted cities. Most other species are confined to a few geographical areas by their limited adaptability. The human population is not, however, uniformly distributed on the Earth's surface, because the population density varies from one region to another and there are large areas almost completely uninhabited, like Antarctica. Most humans (61%) live in Asia; the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%), Europe (11%), and Oceania (0.5%).
Within the last century, humans have explored challenging environments such as Antarctica, the deep sea, and outer space. Human habitation within these hostile environments is restrictive and expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Human presence on other celestial bodies has been the case mainly with human-made robotic spacecraft and with humans solely on the Moon, two at a time for brief intervals between 1969 and 1972. Long-term continuous human presence in space has been the case in orbit around Earth, uninterrupted since the initial crew of the International Space Station, arriving on 31 October 2000, with peaks of thirteen humans at the same time in space.
Since 1800, the human population has increased from one billion to over seven billion. The combined biomass of the carbon of all the humans on Earth in 2018 was estimated at 60 million tons, about 10 times larger than that of all non-domesticated mammals.
In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime, especially in inner city and suburban slums. Both overall population numbers and the proportion residing in cities are expected to increase significantly in the coming decades.
Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. They are apex predators, being rarely preyed upon by other species. Currently, through land development, combustion of fossil fuels, and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change. If this continues at its current rate, it is predicted that climate change will wipe out half of all plant and animal species over the next century.
Anatomy and physiology
Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology. The human body consists of the legs, the torso, the arms, the neck, and the head. An adult human body consists of about 100 trillion (1014) cells. The most commonly defined body systems in humans are the nervous, the cardiovascular, the circulatory, the digestive, the endocrine, the immune, the integumentary, the lymphatic, the musculoskeletal, the reproductive, the respiratory, and the urinary system.
Humans, like most of the other apes, lack external tails, have several blood type systems, have opposable thumbs, and are sexually dimorphic. The comparatively minor anatomical differences between humans and chimpanzees are largely a result of human bipedalism and larger brain size. One difference is that humans have a far faster and more accurate throw than other animals. Humans are also among the best long-distance runners in the animal kingdom, but slower over short distances. Humans' thinner body hair and more productive sweat glands help avoid heat exhaustion while running for long distances.
As a consequence of bipedalism, human females have narrower birth canals. The construction of the human pelvis differs from other primates, as do the toes. A trade-off for these advantages of the modern human pelvis is that childbirth is more difficult and dangerous than in most mammals, especially given the larger head size of human babies compared to other primates. Human babies must turn around as they pass through the birth canal while other primates do not, which makes humans the only species where females usually require help from their conspecifics (other members of their own species) to reduce the risks of birthing. As a partial evolutionary solution, human fetuses are born less developed and more vulnerable. Chimpanzee babies are cognitively more developed than human babies until the age of six months, when the rapid development of human brains surpasses chimpanzees.
Apart from bipedalism, humans differ from chimpanzees mostly in smelling, hearing, digesting proteins, brain size, and the ability of language. Humans' brains are about three times bigger than in chimpanzees. More importantly, the brain to body ratio is much higher in humans than in chimpanzees, and humans have a significantly more developed cerebral cortex, with a larger number of neurons. The mental abilities of humans are remarkable compared to other apes. Humans' ability of speech is unique among primates. Humans are able to create new and complex ideas, and to develop technology, which is unprecedented among other organisms on Earth.
It is estimated that the worldwide average height for an adult human male is about 171 cm (5 ft 7 in), while the worldwide average height for adult human females is about 159 cm (5 ft 3 in). Shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals, but tends to be typical in the extremely aged. Through history human populations have universally become taller, probably as a consequence of better nutrition, healthcare, and living conditions. The average mass of an adult human is 59 kg (130 lb) for females and 77 kg (170 lb) for males. Like many other conditions, body weight and body type is influenced by both genetic susceptibility and environment and varies greatly among individuals. (see obesity)
Humans have a density of hair follicles comparable to other apes. However, human body hair is vellus hair, most of which is so short and wispy as to be practically invisible. In contrast (and unusually among species), a follicle of terminal hair on the human scalp can grow for many years before falling out. Humans have about 2 million sweat glands spread over their entire bodies, many more than chimpanzees, whose sweat glands are scarce and are mainly located on the palm of the hand and on the soles of the feet. Humans have the largest number of eccrine sweat glands among species.
The dental formula of humans is: 126.96.36.199. Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short, relatively flush canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young individuals. Humans are gradually losing their third molars, with some individuals having them congenitally absent.
Like most animals, humans are a diploid eukaryotic species. Each somatic cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent; gametes have only one set of chromosomes, which is a mixture of the two parental sets. Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY.
No two humans—not even monozygotic twins—are genetically identical. Genes and environment influence human biological variation in visible characteristics, physiology, disease susceptibility and mental abilities. The exact influence of genes and environment on certain traits is not well understood. Compared to the great apes, human gene sequences—even among African populations—are remarkably homogeneous. On average, genetic similarity between any two humans is 99.5%-99.9%. There is about 2–3 times more genetic diversity within the wild chimpanzee population than in the entire human gene pool.
A rough and incomplete human genome was assembled as an average of a number of humans in 2003, and currently efforts are being made to achieve a sample of the genetic diversity of the species (see International HapMap Project). By present estimates, humans have approximately 22,000 genes. The variation in human DNA is very small compared to other species, possibly suggesting a population bottleneck during the Late Pleistocene (around 100,000 years ago), in which the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs. By comparing mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited only from the mother, geneticists have concluded that the last female common ancestor whose genetic marker is found in all modern humans, the so-called mitochondrial Eve, must have lived around 90,000 to 200,000 years ago.
As with other mammals, human reproduction takes place by internal fertilization via sexual intercourse. Typically the gestation period is 38 weeks (9 months). At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend various levels of personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus.
Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting 24 hours or more are not uncommon and sometimes lead to the death of the mother, the child or both. This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis. The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times greater than in developed countries.
In developed countries, infants are typically 3–4 kg (7–9 lb) in weight and 50–60 cm (20–24 in) in height at birth.[failed verification] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions. Both the mother and the father provide care for human offspring, in contrast to other primates, where parental care is mostly restricted to mothers. Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21.
The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%, with no pronounced spurt. The presence of the growth spurt is probably necessary to keep children physically small until they are psychologically mature.
Humans are one of the few species in which females undergo menopause and become infertile decades before the end of their lives. All species of non-human apes are capable of giving birth until death. It has been proposed that menopause increases a woman's overall reproductive success by allowing her to invest more time and resources in her existing offspring, and in turn their children (the grandmother hypothesis), rather than by continuing to bear children into old age.
Evidence-based studies indicate that the life span of an individual depends on two major factors, genetics and lifestyle choices. For various reasons, including biological/genetic causes, women live on average about four years longer than men. As of 2018[update], the global average life expectancy at birth of a girl is estimated to be 74.9 years compared to 70.4 for a boy. There are significant geographical variations in human life expectancy, mostly correlated with economic development—for example life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong is 84.8 years for girls and 78.9 for boys, while in Eswatini, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes. The developed world is generally aging, with the median age around 40 years. In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older. The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.
Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal material. Human groups have adopted a range of diets from purely vegan to primarily carnivorous. In some cases, dietary restrictions in humans can lead to deficiency diseases; however, stable human groups have adapted to many dietary patterns through both genetic specialization and cultural conventions to use nutritionally balanced food sources. The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science.
Until the development of agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago, Homo sapiens employed a hunter-gatherer method as their sole means of food collection. This involved combining stationary food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms, insect larvae and aquatic mollusks) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It has been proposed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food since the time of Homo erectus. Around ten thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture, which substantially altered their diet. This change in diet may also have altered human biology; with the spread of dairy farming providing a new and rich source of food, leading to the evolution of the ability to digest lactose in some adults. Agriculture led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, have varied widely by time, location, and culture.
In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. About 36 million humans die every year from causes directly or indirectly related to starvation. Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease. However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased rapidly, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. Worldwide over one billion people are obese, while in the United States 35% of people are obese, leading to this being described as an "obesity epidemic." Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, so excessive weight gain is usually caused by an energy-dense diet.
There is biological variation in the human species—with traits such as blood type, genetic diseases, cranial features, facial features, organ systems, eye color, hair color and texture, height and build, and skin color varying across the globe. The typical height of an adult human is between 1.4 and 1.9 m (4 ft 7 in and 6 ft 3 in), although this varies significantly depending on sex, ethnic origin, and family bloodlines. Body size is partly determined by genes and is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet, exercise, and sleep patterns. Adult height for each sex in a particular ethnic group approximately follows a normal distribution.
There is evidence that populations have adapted genetically to various external factors. The genes that allow adult humans to digest lactose are present in high frequencies in populations that have long histories of cattle domestication and are more dependent on cow milk. Sickle cell anemia, which may provide increased resistance to malaria, is frequent in populations where malaria is endemic. Similarly, populations that have for a long time inhabited specific climates, such as arctic or tropical regions or high altitudes, tend to have developed specific phenotypes that are beneficial for conserving energy in those environments—short stature and stocky build in cold regions, tall and lanky in hot regions, and with high lung capacities at high altitudes. Some populations have evolved highly unique adaptations to very specific environmental conditions, such as those advantageous to ocean-dwelling lifestyles and freediving in the Bajau. Skin color tends to vary clinally and general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation in a particular geographic area, with darker skin mostly around the equator.
Human skin color can range from darkest brown to lightest peach, or even nearly white or colorless in cases of albinism. Human hair ranges in color from white to red to blond to brown to black, which is the most frequent. Hair color depends on the amount of melanin, with concentrations fading with increased age, leading to grey or even white hair. Most researchers believe that skin darkening is an adaptation that evolved as protection against ultraviolet solar radiation. Light skin pigmentation protects against depletion of vitamin D, which requires sunlight to make. Human skin also has a capacity to darken (tan) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
There is relatively little variation between human geographical populations, and most of the variation that occurs is at the individual level. Of the 0.1%-0.5% of human genetic differentiation, 85% exists within any randomly chosen local population. Genetic data shows that no matter how population groups are defined, two people from the same population group are almost as different from each other as two people from any two different population groups.
Current genetic research has demonstrated that human populations native to the African continent are the most genetically diverse. Human genetic diversity decreases in native populations with migratory distance from Africa, and this is thought to be the result of bottlenecks during human migration. Humans have lived in Africa for the longest period of time, but only a part of Africa's population migrated out of the continent into Eurasia, bringing with them just a portion of the original African genetic variety. Non-African populations, however, acquired new genetic inputs from local admixture with archaic populations, and thus have much greater variation from Neanderthals and Denisovans than is found in Africa. African populations also harbour the highest number of private genetic variants, or those not found in other places of the world. While many of the common variants found in populations outside of Africa are also found on the African continent, there are still large numbers which are private to these regions, especially Oceania and the Americas. Furthermore, recent studies have found that populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and particularly West Africa, have ancestral genetic variation which predates modern humans and has been lost in most non-African populations. This ancestry is thought to originate from admixture with an unknown archaic hominin that diverged before the split of Neanderthals and modern humans.
The greatest degree of genetic variation exists between males and females. While the nucleotide genetic variation of individuals of the same sex across global populations is no greater than 0.1%-0.5%, the genetic difference between males and females is between 1% and 2%. Males on average are 15% heavier and 15 cm (6 in) taller than females. On average, men have about 40–50% more upper body strength and 20–30% more lower body strength than women. Women generally have a higher body fat percentage than men. Women have lighter skin than men of the same population; this has been explained by a higher need for vitamin D in females during pregnancy and lactation. As there are chromosomal differences between females and males, some X and Y chromosome related conditions and disorders only affect either men or women. After allowing for body weight and volume, the male voice is usually an octave deeper than the female voice. Women have a longer life span in almost every population around the world.
Human variation is highly non-concordant: many of the genes do not cluster together and are not inherited together. Skin and hair color are mostly not correlated to height, weight, or athletic ability. Humans do not share the same patterns of variation through geography. Dark-skinned populations that are found in Africa, Australia, and South Asia are not closely related to each other. Individuals with the same morphology do not necessarily cluster with each other by lineage, and a given lineage does not include only individuals with the same trait complex. Due to practices of endogamy, allele frequencies cluster by geographic, national, ethnic, cultural and linguistic boundaries. Despite this, genetic boundaries around local populations do not biologically mark off any fully discrete groups of humans. Much of human variation is continuous, often with no clear points of demarcation.
The human brain, the focal point of the central nervous system in humans, controls the peripheral nervous system. In addition to controlling "lower," involuntary, or primarily autonomic activities such as respiration and digestion, it is also the locus of "higher" order functioning such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction. These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology.
Humans have a larger and more developed prefrontal cortex than other primates, the region of the brain associated with higher cognition. This has led humans to proclaim themselves to be more intelligent than any other known species. Objectively defining intelligence is difficult, with other animals adapting senses and excelling in areas that humans are unable to.
There are some traits that, although not strictly unique, do set humans apart from other animals. Humans may be the only animals who have episodic memory and who can engage in "mental time travel". Even compared with other social animals, humans have an unusually high degree of flexibility in their facial expressions. Humans are the only animals known to cry emotional tears. Humans are one of the few animals able to self-recognize in mirror tests and there is also debate over what extent humans are the only animals with a theory of mind.
Sleep and dreaming
Humans are generally diurnal. The average sleep requirement is between seven and nine hours per day for an adult and nine to ten hours per day for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Having less sleep than this is common among humans, even though sleep deprivation can have negative health effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including reduced memory, fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort.
During sleep humans dream, where they experience sensory images and sounds. Dreaming is stimulated by the pons and mostly occurs during the REM phase of sleep. The length of a dream can vary, from a few seconds up to 30 minutes. Humans have three to five dreams per night, and some may have up to seven; however most dreams are immediately or quickly forgotten. They are more likely to remember the dream if awakened during the REM phase. The events in dreams are generally outside the control of the dreamer, with the exception of lucid dreaming, where the dreamer is self-aware. Dreams can at times make a creative thought occur or give a sense of inspiration.
Consciousness and thought
Human consciousness, at its simplest, is "sentience or awareness of internal or external existence". Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being "at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". The only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience. It is sometimes synonymous with 'the mind', and at other times, an aspect of it. Historically it is associated with introspection, private thought, imagination and volition. It now often includes some kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be 'awareness', or 'awareness of awareness', or self-awareness. There might be different levels or orders of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
The process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses is known as cognition. The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes' underlying behavior. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Psychologists have developed intelligence tests and the concept of intelligence quotient in order to assess the relative intelligence of human beings and study its distribution among population.
Motivation and emotion
Human motivation is not yet wholly understood. From a psychological perspective, Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a well-established theory which can be defined as the process of satisfying certain needs in ascending order of complexity. From a more general, philosophical perspective, human motivation can be defined as a commitment to, or withdrawal from, various goals requiring the application of human ability. Furthermore, incentive and preference are both factors, as are any perceived links between incentives and preferences. Volition may also be involved, in which case willpower is also a factor. Ideally, both motivation and volition ensure the selection, striving for, and realization of goals in an optimal manner, a function beginning in childhood and continuing throughout a lifetime in a process known as socialization.
Emotions are biological states associated with the nervous system brought on by neurophysiological changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure. They are often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, creativity, and motivation. Emotion has a significant influence on human behavior and their ability to learn. Acting on extreme or uncontrolled emotions can lead to social disorder and crime, with studies showing criminals usually have a lower emotional intelligence than normal.
Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as joy, interest or contentment, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like anxiety, sadness, anger, and despair. Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some define as experiencing the feeling of positive emotionial affects, while avoiding the negative ones. Others see it as an appraisal of life satisfaction, such as of quality of life. Recent research suggests that being happy might involve experiencing some negative emotions when humans feel they are warranted.
Sexuality and love
For humans, sexuality involves biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social, or spiritual feelings and behaviors. Because it is a broad term, which has varied with historical contexts over time, it lacks a precise definition. The biological and physical aspects of sexuality largely concern the human reproductive functions, including the human sexual response cycle. Sexuality also affects and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moral, ethical, and religious aspects of life. Sexual desire, or libido, is a basic mental state present at the beginning of sexual behavior. Studies show that men desire sex more than women and masturbate more often.
Humans can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation, although most humans are heterosexual. While homosexual behavior occurs in many other animals, only humans and domestic sheep have so far been found to exhibit exclusive preference for same-sex relationships. Most evidence supports nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation, as cultures that are very tolerant of homosexuality do not have significantly higher rates of it. Research in neuroscience and genetics suggests that other aspects of human sexuality are biologically influenced as well.
Love most commonly refers to a feeling of strong attraction or emotional attachment. It can be impersonal (the love of an object, ideal, or strong political or spiritual connection) or interpersonal (love between two humans). Different forms of love have been described, including familial love (love for family), platonic love (love for friends), romantic love (sexual passion) and guest love (hospitality). Romantic love has been shown to elicit brain responses similar to an addiction. When in love dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and other chemicals stimulate the brain's pleasure center, leading to side effects such as increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement.
|Human society statistics|
|Most widely spoken native languages||Chinese, Spanish, English, Hindi, Arabic, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Japanese, Javanese, German, Lahnda, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, French, Vietnamese, Korean, Urdu, Italian, Indonesian, Persian, Turkish, Polish, Oriya, Burmese, Thai|
|Most popular religions||Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Judaism|
Humanity's unprecedented set of intellectual skills were a key factor in the species' eventual technological advancement and concomitant domination of the biosphere. Disregarding extinct hominids, humans are the only animals known to teach generalizable information, innately deploy recursive embedding to generate and communicate complex concepts, engage in the "folk physics" required for competent tool design, or cook food in the wild. Teaching and learning preserves the cultural and ethnographic identity of all the diverse human societies. Other traits and behaviors that are mostly unique to humans, include starting fires, phoneme structuring and vocal learning.
The division of humans into male and female gender roles has been marked culturally by a corresponding division of norms, practices, dress, behavior, rights, duties, privileges, status, and power. Cultural differences by gender have often been believed to have arisen naturally out of a division of reproductive labor; the biological fact that women give birth led to their further cultural responsibility for nurturing and caring for children. Gender roles have varied historically, and challenges to predominant gender norms have recurred in many societies.
While many species communicate, language is unique to humans, a defining feature of humanity, and a cultural universal. Unlike the limited systems of other animals, human language is open—an infinite number of meanings can be produced by combining a limited number of symbols. Human language also has the capacity of displacement, using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but reside in the shared imagination of interlocutors.
Language differs from other forms of communication in that it is modality independent; the same meanings can be conveyed through different media, auditively in speech, visually by sign language or writing, and even through tactile media such as braille. Language is central to the communication between humans, and to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. There are approximately six thousand different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are extinct.
Art is a defining characteristics of humans and there is evidence for a relationship between creativity and language. The earliest evidence of art was shell engravings made by Homo erectus 300,000 years before humans evolved. Human art existed at least 75,000 years ago, with jewellery and drawings found in caves in South Africa. There are various hypothesis's as to why humans have adapted to the arts. These include allowing them to better problem solve issues, providing a means to control or influence other humans, encouraging cooperation and contribution within a society or increasing the chance of attracting a potential mate. The use of imagination developed through art, combined with logic may have given early humans an evolutionary advantage.
Evidence of humans engaging in musical activities predates cave art and so far music has been practised by all human cultures. There exists a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics; with humans musical abilities being related to other abilities, including complex social human behaviours. It has been shown that human brains respond to music by becoming synchronised with the rhythm and beat, a process called entrainment. Dance is also a form of human expression found in all cultures and may have evolved as a way to help early humans communicate. Listening to music and observing dance stimulates the orbitofrontal cortex and other pleasure sensing areas of the brain.
Unlike speaking, reading and writing does not come naturally to humans and must be taught. Still literature has been present before the invention of words and language, with 30 000 year old paintings on walls inside some caves portraying a series of dramatic scenes. One of the oldest surviving works of literature is the Epic of Gilgamesh, first engraved on ancient Babylonian tablets about 4,000 years ago. Beyond simply passing down knowledge the use and sharing of imaginative fiction through stories might have helped develop humans capabilities for communication and increased the likelihood of securing a mate. As well as entertainment, storytelling may also have been used as a way to provide the audience with moral lessons and encourage cooperation.
Tools and technologies
Stone tools were used by proto-humans at least 2.5 million years ago. The use and manufacture of tools has been put forward as the ability that defines humans more than anything else and has historically been seen as an important evolutionary step. The technology became much more sophisticated about 1.8 million years ago, with the controlled use of fire beginning around 1 million years ago. The development of more complex tools and technologies allowed land to be cultivated and animals to be domesticated, thus proving essential in the development of agriculture—what is known as the Neolithic Revolution. Another wave of technological expansion brought about the Industrial Revolution, where the invention of automated machines brought major changes to humans lifestyles. Throughout history, humans have altered their appearance by wearing clothing. It has been suggested humans started wearing clothing when they migrated north away from Africa's warm climate.
Religion and spirituality
Religion is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred or divine, and practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. Some religions also have a moral code. The evolution and the history of the first religions have recently become areas of active scientific investigation. While no other animals show religious behaviour, the empathy and imagination shown by chimpanzees could be a precursor to the evolution of human religion. While the exact time when humans first became religious remains unknown, research shows credible evidence of religious behaviour from around the Middle Paleolithic era (45-200 thousand years ago). It may have evolved to play a role in helping enforce and encourage cooperation between humans.
There is no accepted academic definition of what constitutes religion. Religion has taken on many forms that vary by culture and individual perspective in alignment with the geographic, social, and linguistic diversity of the planet. Religion can include a belief in life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life, the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source for answers to these questions are beliefs in transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic.
Although the exact level of religiosity can be hard to measure, a majority of humans professes some variety of religious or spiritual belief. In 2015 the majority were Christian followed by Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists, although Islam is growing the most rapidly and likely to overtake Christianity by 2035. In 2015 16% or slightly under 1.2 billion humans are irreligious. This includes humans who have no religious beliefs or do not identify with any religion.
An aspect unique to humans is their ability to transmit knowledge from one generation to the next and to continually build on this information to develop tools, scientific laws and other advances to pass on further. This accumulated knowledge can be tested to answer questions or make predictions about how the universe functions and has been very successful in advancing human ascendancy. Historians have identified two major scientific revolutions in human history. The first coincides with the Hellenistic period and the second with the Renaissance. A chain of events and influences led to the development of the scientific method, a process of observation and experimentation that is used to differentiate science from pseudoscience. An understanding of mathematics is unique to humans, although other species of animal have some numerical cognition.
All of science can be divided into three major branches, the formal sciences (e.g., logic and mathematics), which are concerned with formal systems, the applied sciences (e.g., engineering, medicine), which are focused on practical applications, and the empirical sciences, which are based on empirical observation and are in turn divided into natural sciences (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology) and social sciences (e.g., psychology, economics, sociology).
Philosophy is a field of study where humans seek to understand fundamental truths about themselves and the world in which they live. Philosophical inquiry has been a major feature in the development of humans intellectual history. It has been described as the "no man's land" between the definitive scientific knowledge and the dogmatic religious teachings. Philosophy relies on reason and evidence unlike religion, but does not require the empirical observations and experiments provided by science. Major fields of philosophy include metaphysics, epistemology, rationality, and axiology (which includes ethics and aesthetics).
Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. Humans are highly social beings and tend to live in large complex social groups. They can be divided into different groups according to their income, wealth, power, reputation and other factors. The structure of social stratification and the degree of social mobility differs, especially between modern and traditional societies. Human groups range from the size of families to nations. The first forms of human social organization were families living in band societies as hunter-gatherers.
All human societies organize, recognize and classify types of social relationships based on relations between parents, children and other descendants (consanguinity), and relations through marriage (affinity). There is also a third type applied to godparents or adoptive children (fictive). These culturally defined relationships are referred to as kinship. In many societies it is one of the most important social organizing principle and plays a role in transmitting status and inheritance. All societies have rules of incest taboo, according to which marriage between certain kinds of kin relations are prohibited and some also have rules of preferential marriage with certain kin relations.
Human ethnic groups are a social category who identify together as a group based on shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. These can be a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. Ethnicity is separate from the concept of race, which is based on physical characteristics, although both are socially constructed. Assigning ethnicity to certain population is complicated as even within common ethnic designations there can be a diverse range of subgroups and the makeup of these ethnic groups can change over time at both the collective and individual level. Also there is no generally accepted definition on what constitutes an ethnic group. Ethnic groupings can play a powerful role in the social identity and solidarity of ethno-political units. This has been closely tied to the rise of the nation state as the predominant form of political organization in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Government and politics
The early distribution of political power was determined by the availability of fresh water, fertile soil, and temperate climate of different locations. As farming populations gathered in larger and denser communities, interactions between these different groups increased. This led to the development of governance within and between the communities. As communities got bigger the need for some form of governance increased, as all large societies without a government have struggled to function. Humans have evolved the ability to change affiliation with various social groups relatively easily, including previously strong political alliances, if doing so is seen as providing personal advantages. This cognitive flexibility allows individual humans to change their political ideologies, with those with higher flexibility less likely to support authoritarian and nationalistic stances.
Governments create laws and policies that affect the citizens that they govern. There have been multiple forms of government throughout human history, each having various means of obtaining power and ability to exert diverse controls on the population. As of 2017, more than half of all national governments are democracies, with 13% being autocracies and 28% containing elements of both. Many countries have formed international political alliances, the largest being the United Nations with 193 member states.
Trade and economics
Trade, the voluntary exchange of goods and services, is seen as a characteristic that differentiates humans from other animals and has been cited as a practice that gave Homo sapiens a major advantage over other hominids. Evidence suggests early H. sapiens made use of long-distance trade routes to exchange goods and ideas, leading to cultural explosions and providing additional food sources when hunting was sparse, while such trade networks did not exist for the now extinct Neanderthals. Early trade likely involved materials for creating tools like obsidian. The first truly international trade routes were around the spice trade through the Roman and medieval periods. Other important trade routes to develop around this time include the Silk Road, Incense Route, Amber road, Tea Horse Road, Salt Route, Trans-Saharan Trade Route and the Tin Route.
Early human economies were more likely to be based around gift giving instead of a bartering system. Early money consisted of commodities; the oldest being in the form of cattle and the most widely used being cowrie shells. Money has since evolved into governmental issued coins, paper and electronic money. Human study of economics is a social science that looks at how societies distribute scarce resources among different people. There are massive inequalities in the division of wealth among humans; the eight richest humans are worth the same monetary value as the poorest half of all the human population.
Humans willingness to kill other members of their species en masse though organised conflict has long been the subject of debate. One school of thought is that it has evolved as a means to eliminate competitors and has always been an innate human characteristic. The other suggests that war is a relatively recent phenomenon and appeared due to changing social conditions. While not settled the current evidence suggests warlike predispositions only became common about 10,000 years ago, and in many places much more recently than that. War has had a high cost on human life; it is estimated that during the 20th century, between 167 million and 188 million people died as a result of war.
- Early modern human
- Human nature
- Holocene calendar
- Human impact on the environment
- List of human evolution fossils
- Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
- Global Mammal Assessment Team (2008). "Homo sapiens". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T136584A4313662. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T136584A4313662.en. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- Goodman M, Tagle D, Fitch D, Bailey W, Czelusniak J, Koop B, Benson P, Slightom J (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". J Mol Evol. 30 (3): 260–66. Bibcode:1990JMolE..30..260G. doi:10.1007/BF02099995. PMID 2109087. S2CID 2112935.
- "Hominidae Classification". Animal Diversity Web @ UMich. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 25 September 2006.
- Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Thomas, Mark G.; Manica, Andrea; Gunz, Philipp; Stock, Jay T.; Stringer, Chris; Grove, Matt; Groucutt, Huw S.; Timmermann, Axel; Rightmire, G. Philip; d’Errico, Francesco (1 August 2018). "Did Our Species Evolve in Subdivided Populations across Africa, and Why Does It Matter?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 33 (8): 582–594. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2018.05.005. ISSN 0169-5347. PMC 6092560. PMID 30007846.
- Henshilwood, C. S.; d'Errico, F.; Yates, R.; Jacobs, Z.; Tribolo, C.; Duller, G. A. T.; Mercier, N.; Sealy, J. C.; Valladas, H.; Watts, I.; Wintle, A. G. (2002). "Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa". Science. 295 (5558): 1278–1280. Bibcode:2002Sci...295.1278H. doi:10.1126/science.1067575. PMID 11786608. S2CID 31169551.
- Backwell, Lucinda; d'Errico, Francesco; Wadley, Lyn (2008). "Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa". Journal of Archaeological Science. 35 (6): 1566–1580. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2007.11.006. ISSN 0305-4403.
- McBrearty, Sally; Brooks, Allison (2000). "The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior". Journal of Human Evolution. 39 (5): 453–563. doi:10.1006/jhev.2000.0435. PMID 11102266.
- Henshilwood, Christopher; Marean, Curtis (2003). "The Origin of Modern Human Behavior: Critique of the Models and Their Test Implications". Current Anthropology. 44 (5): 627–651. doi:10.1086/377665. PMID 14971366. S2CID 11081605.
- Brown, Kyle S.; Marean, Curtis W.; Herries, Andy I.R.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Tribolo, Chantal; Braun, David; Roberts, David L.; Meyer, Michael C.; Bernatchez, J. (14 August 2009), "Fire as an Engineering Tool of Early Modern Humans", Science, 325 (5942): 859–862, Bibcode:2009Sci...325..859B, doi:10.1126/science.1175028, PMID 19679810, S2CID 43916405
- McHenry, H.M (2009). "Human Evolution". In Michael Ruse; Joseph Travis (eds.). Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3.
- Neubauer, Simon; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp (1 January 2018). "The evolution of modern human brain shape". Science Advances. 4 (1): eaao5961. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.5961N. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aao5961. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 5783678. PMID 29376123.
- Marshall T. Poe A History of Communications: Media and Society from the Evolution of Speech to the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-521-17944-7
- "Hunting and gathering culture" Archived 16 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopædia Britannica (online). Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016.
- "Neolithic Archived 17 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited. 2014.
- http://www.futuresplatform.com/blog/will-we-live-longer-future#:~:text=Overall%2C%20when%20we%20are%20comparing,condition%2C%20and%20advance%20medical%20treatments. Retrieved 16 November 2020. Missing or empty
- Hamilton, Ian-Stuart (2 January 2013). "Why We Live Longer These Days, and Why You Should Worry". Psychology Today. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- http://www.census.gov/popclock/. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "File POP/1-1: Total population (both sexes combined) by major area, region and country, annually for 1950-2100: Medium fertility variant, 2015–2100". World Population Prospects, the 2015 Revision. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, Population Estimates and Projections Section. July 2015. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- "Homo sapiens | Meaning & Stages of Human Evolution". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- OED, s.v. "human."
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Man, "Definition 2" Archived 22 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 14 September 2017
- Spamer, Earle E (29 January 1999). "Know Thyself: Responsible Science and the Lectotype of Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 149 (1): 109–14. JSTOR 4065043.
- Porkorny (1959) s.v. "g'hðem" pp. 414–16; "Homo." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 23 September 2008. "Homo". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2008.
- "Homo sapiens Etymology". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- Tattersall Ian; Schwartz Jeffrey (2009). "Evolution of the Genus Homo". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 37 (1): 67–92. Bibcode:2009AREPS..37...67T. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.100202.
- Armitage, S. J; Jasim, S. A; Marks, A. E; Parker, A. G; Usik, V. I; Uerpmann, H.-P (2011). "Hints of Earlier Human Exit From Africa". Science. 331 (6016): 453–56. Bibcode:2011Sci...331..453A. doi:10.1126/science.1199113. PMID 21273486. S2CID 20296624. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Paul Rincon Humans 'left Africa much earlier' Archived 9 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 27 January 2011
- Lowe, David J. (2008). "Polynesian settlement of New Zealand and the impacts of volcanism on early Maori society: an update" (PDF). University of Waikato. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- Appenzeller Tim (2012). "Human migrations: Eastern odyssey". Nature. 485 (7396): 24–26. Bibcode:2012Natur.485...24A. doi:10.1038/485024a. PMID 22552074.
- Diogo, R.; Molnar, J.; Wood, B. (4 April 2017). "Bonobo anatomy reveals stasis and mosaicism in chimpanzee evolution, and supports bonobos as the most appropriate extant model for the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 608. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7..608D. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00548-3. PMC 5428693. PMID 28377592.
- Prüfer, K.; Munch, K.; Hellmann, I. (13 June 2012). "The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes". Nature. 486 (1): 527–531. Bibcode:2012Natur.486..527P. doi:10.1038/nature11128. PMC 3498939. PMID 22722832.
- Wood, Bernard; Richmond, Brian G. (2000). "Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology". Journal of Anatomy. 197 (1): 19–60. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710019.x. PMC 1468107. PMID 10999270.
- Ruvolo M (1997). "Genetic Diversity in Hominoid Primates". Annual Review of Anthropology. 26: 515–40. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.515.
- Ruvolo, Maryellen (1997). "Molecular phylogeny of the hominoids: inferences from multiple independent DNA sequence data sets". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (3): 248–65. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025761. PMID 9066793.
- Human Chromosome 2 is a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Alec MacAndrew; accessed 18 May 2006.
- McHenry, Henry M.; Coffing, Katherine (2000). "Australopithecus to Homo: Transformations in Body and Mind". Annual Review of Anthropology. 29: 125–46. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.125.
- Villmoare, Brian; Kimbel, William H.; Seyoum, Chalachew; Campisano, Christopher J.; DiMaggio, Erin N.; Rowan, John; Braun, David R.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Reed, Kaye E. (20 March 2015). "Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia". Science. 347 (6228): 1352–55. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1352V. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1343. PMID 25739410.
- Ghosh, Pallab (4 March 2015). "'First human' discovered in Ethiopia". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2015.
- Harmand, Sonia; Lewis, Jason E.; Feibel, Craig S.; Lepre, Christopher J.; Prat, Sandrine; Lenoble, Arnaud; Boës, Xavier; Quinn, Rhonda L.; Brenet, Michel; Arroyo, Adrian; Taylor, Nicholas; Clément, Sophie; Daver, Guillaume; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Leakey, Louise; Mortlock, Richard A.; Wright, James D.; Lokorodi, Sammy; Kirwa, Christopher; Kent, Dennis V.; Roche, Hélène (2015). "3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya". Nature. 521 (7552): 310–15. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..310H. doi:10.1038/nature14464. PMID 25993961. S2CID 1207285.
- Hammond, Ashley S.; Royer, Danielle F.; Fleagle, John G. (July 2017). "The Omo-Kibish I pelvis". Journal of Human Evolution. 108: 199–219. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.04.004. ISSN 1095-8606. PMID 28552208.
- Fleagle, John G.; Brown, Francis H.; McDougall, Ian (17 February 2005). "Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia". Nature. 433 (7027): 733–736. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..733M. doi:10.1038/nature03258. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 15716951. S2CID 1454595.
- López, Saioa; van Dorp, Lucy; Hellenthal, Garrett (21 April 2016). "Human Dispersal Out of Africa: A Lasting Debate". Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online. 11 (Suppl 2): 57–68. doi:10.4137/EBO.S33489. ISSN 1176-9343. PMC 4844272. PMID 27127403.
- Stringer, C. (2016). "The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 371 (1698): 20150237. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0237. PMC 4920294. PMID 27298468.
- White, Tim D.; Asfaw, B.; DeGusta, D.; Gilbert, H.; Richards, G. D.; Suwa, G.; Howell, F. C. (2003). "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia". Nature. 423 (6491): 742–47. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..742W. doi:10.1038/nature01669. PMID 12802332. S2CID 4432091.
- Callaway, Ewan (7 June 2017). "Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species' history". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22114. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Sample, Ian (7 June 2017). "Oldest Homo sapiens bones ever found shake foundations of the human story". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Bailey, Shara E.; Freidline, Sarah E.; Neubauer, Simon; Skinner, Matthew M.; Bergmann, Inga; Le Cabec, Adeline; Benazzi, Stefano; Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp (2017). "New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens" (PDF). Nature. 546 (7657): 289–292. Bibcode:2017Natur.546..289H. doi:10.1038/nature22336. PMID 28593953.
- Trinkaus, E. (1993). "Femoral neck-shaft angles of the Qafzeh-Skhul early modern humans, and activity levels among immature near eastern Middle Paleolithic hominids". Journal of Human Evolution. 25 (5): 393–416. doi:10.1006/jhev.1993.1058. ISSN 0047-2484. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012.
- Boyd, Robert; Silk, Joan B. (2003). How Humans Evolved. New York City: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-97854-4.
- Brues, Alice M.; Snow, Clyde C. (1965). Physical Anthropology. Biennial Review of Anthropology. 4. pp. 1–39. ISBN 978-0-8047-1746-5. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016.
- Brunet, Michel; Guy, Franck; Pilbeam, David; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Ahounta, Djimdoumalbaye; Beauvilain, Alain; Blondel, Cécile; Bocherens, Hervé; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; De Bonis, Louis; Coppens, Yves; Dejax, Jean; Denys, Christiane; Duringer, Philippe; Eisenmann, Véra; Fanone, Gongdibé; Fronty, Pierre; Geraads, Denis; Lehmann, Thomas; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Louchart, Antoine; Mahamat, Adoum; Merceron, Gildas; Mouchelin, Guy; Otero, Olga; Campomanes, Pablo Pelaez; De Leon, Marcia Ponce; Rage, Jean-Claude; Sapanet, Michel; Schuster, Mathieu; Sudre, Jean; Tassy, Pascal; Valentin, Xavier; Vignaud, Patrick; Viriot, Laurent; Zazzo, Antoine; Zollikofer, Christoph (2002). "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature. 418 (6894): 145–51. Bibcode:2002Natur.418..145B. doi:10.1038/nature00879. PMID 12110880. S2CID 1316969.
- White, Tim D.; Lovejoy, C. Owen; Asfaw, Berhane; Carlson, Joshua P.; Suwa, Gen (April 2015), "Neither chimpanzee nor human, Ardipithecus reveals the surprising ancestry of both", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112 (16): 4877–84, Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.4877W, doi:10.1073/pnas.1403659111, PMC 4413341, PMID 25901308.
- P. Thomas Schoenemann (2006). "Evolution of the Size and Functional Areas of the Human Brain". Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 35: 379–406. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.35.081705.123210.
- H. neanderthalensis is a widely known but poorly understood hominid ancestor Archived 8 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Archaeologyinfo.com. Retrieved on 24 May 2014.
- Park, Min S.; Nguyen, Andrew D.; Aryan, Henry E.; U, Hoi Sang; Levy, Michael L.; Semendeferi, Katerina (2007). "Evolution of the human brain: changing brain size and the fossil record". Neurosurgery. 60 (3): 555–62. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000249284.54137.32. PMID 17327801. S2CID 19610624.
- Bruner, Emiliano (2007). "Cranial shape and size variation in human evolution: structural and functional perspectives". Child's Nervous System. 23 (12): 1357–65. doi:10.1007/s00381-007-0434-2. PMID 17680251. S2CID 16163137.
- Potts Richard (2012). "Evolution and Environmental Change in Early Human Prehistory". Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 41: 151–67. doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145754.
- Leonard William R.; Snodgrass J. Josh; Robertson Marcia L. (2007). "Effects of Brain Evolution on Human Nutrition and Metabolism". Annu. Rev. Nutr. 27: 311–27. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.27.061406.093659. PMID 17439362.
- "Meat-eating was essential for human evolution, says UC Berkeley anthropologist specializing in diet". Berkeley.edu. 14 June 1999. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
- "Meat in the human diet: an anthropological perspective". Thefreelibrary.com. 1 September 2007. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
- Organ, Chris (22 August 2011). "Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo". PNAS. 108 (35): 14555–59. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10814555O. doi:10.1073/pnas.1107806108. PMC 3167533. PMID 21873223.
- Dunbar, Robin I.M. (1998). "The Social Brain Hypothesis" (PDF). Evolutionary Anthropology. 6 (5): 178–190. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1998)6:5<178::AID-EVAN5>3.0.CO;2-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Brown, Terence A. (8 April 2010). "Human evolution: Stranger from Siberia". Nature. 464 (7290): 838–39. Bibcode:2010Natur.464..838B. doi:10.1038/464838a. PMID 20376137. S2CID 4320406.
- Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Kircher, Martin; Delfin, Frederick; Nandineni, Madhusudan R.; Pugach, Irina; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Ko, Ying-Chin; Jinam, Timothy A.; Phipps, Maude E.; Saitou, Naruya; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Pääbo, Svante; Stoneking, Mark (2011). "Denisova Admixture and the First Modern Human Dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (4): 516–28. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005. PMC 3188841. PMID 21944045. Hebsgaard MB, Wiuf C, Gilbert MT, Glenner H, Willerslev E (2007). "Evaluating Neanderthal genetics and phylogeny". J. Mol. Evol. 64 (1): 50–60. Bibcode:2007JMolE..64...50H. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.174.8969. doi:10.1007/s00239-006-0017-y. PMID 17146600. S2CID 2746487.
- Zimmer, Carl (17 March 2016). "Humans Interbred With Hominins on Multiple Occasions, Study Finds". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- Hammer; et al. (2011). "Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (37): 15123–15128. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10815123H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1109300108. PMC 3174671. PMID 21896735.
- Posth C, Renaud G, Mittnik M, Drucker DG, Rougier H, Cupillard C, et al. (2016). "Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe". Current Biology. 26 (6): 827–833. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.037. hdl:2440/114930. PMID 26853362. S2CID 140098861.
- Karmin M, Saag L, Vicente M, Wilson Sayres MA, Järve M, Talas UG, et al. (April 2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–66. doi:10.1101/gr.186684.114. PMC 4381518. PMID 25770088.
- Clarkson, Chris; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley; Smith, Mike; Roberts, Richard G.; Hayes, Elspeth; Lowe, Kelsey; Carah, Xavier; Florin, S. Anna; McNeil, Jessica; Cox, Delyth; Arnold, Lee J.; Hua, Quan; Huntley, Jillian; Brand, Helen E. A.; Manne, Tiina; Fairbairn, Andrew; Shulmeister, James; Lyle, Lindsey; Salinas, Makiah; Page, Mara; Connell, Kate; Park, Gayoung; Norman, Kasih; Murphy, Tessa; Pardoe, Colin (2017). "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago". Nature. 547 (7663): 306–310. Bibcode:2017Natur.547..306C. doi:10.1038/nature22968. hdl:2440/107043. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 28726833. S2CID 205257212.. St. Fleu, Nicholas (19 July 2017). "Humans First Arrived in Australia 65,000 Years Ago, Study Suggests". New York Times.
- Wood R (2 September 2017). "Comments on the chronology of Madjedbebe". Australian Archaeology. 83 (3): 172–174. doi:10.1080/03122417.2017.1408545. ISSN 0312-2417. S2CID 148777016.
- O'Connell JF, Allen J, Williams MA, Williams AN, Turney CS, Spooner NA, et al. (August 2018). "Homo sapiens first reach Southeast Asia and Sahul?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115 (34): 8482–8490. doi:10.1073/pnas.1808385115. PMC 6112744. PMID 30082377.
- Vigilant; et al. (1991). "African populations and the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA". Science. 253 (5027): 1503–07. Bibcode:1991Sci...253.1503V. doi:10.1126/science.1840702. PMID 1840702.
- Sahle, Y.; Hutchings, W. K.; Braun, D. R.; Sealy, J. C.; Morgan, L. E.; Negash, A.; Atnafu, B. (2013). Petraglia, Michael D (ed.). "Earliest Stone-Tipped Projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift Date to >279,000 Years Ago". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e78092. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...878092S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078092. PMC 3827237. PMID 24236011.
- Yong, Ed (15 March 2018). "A Cultural Leap at the Dawn of Humanity - New finds from Kenya suggest that humans used long-distance trade networks, sophisticated tools, and symbolic pigments right from the dawn of our species". The Atlantic. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Brooks AS, Yellen JE, Potts R, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Leslie DE, Ambrose SH, Ferguson JR, d'Errico F, Zipkin AM, Whittaker S, Post J, Veatch EG, Foecke K, Clark JB (2018). "Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age". Science. 360 (6384): 90–94. Bibcode:2018Sci...360...90B. doi:10.1126/science.aao2646. PMID 29545508.
- Nowell April (2010). "Defining Behavioral Modernity in the Context of Neandertal and Anatomically Modern Human Populations". Annual Review of Anthropology. 39: 437–52. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.012809.105113.
- Francesco d'Errico; Chris B (2011). "Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 366 (1567): 1060–69. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0340. PMC 3049097. PMID 21357228.
- Wolman, David (3 April 2008). "Fossil Feces Is Earliest Evidence of N. America Humans". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008.
- Wood B (1996). "Human evolution". BioEssays. 18 (12): 945–54. doi:10.1002/bies.950181204. PMID 8976151. S2CID 221464189.
- Thomas F. X. Noble; Barry Strauss; Duane Osheim; Kristen Neuschel; Elinor Accamp (2013). Cengage Advantage Books: Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries. ISBN 978-1-285-66153-7. Retrieved 11 July 2015. Spielvogel, Jackson (1 January 2014). Western Civilization: Volume A: To 1500. Cenpage Learning. ISBN 978-1-285-98299-1. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015. Thornton, Bruce (2002). Greek Ways: How the Greeks Created Western Civilization. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books. pp. 1–14. ISBN 978-1-893554-57-3.
- "Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century". greatachievements.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Pimm, S.; Raven, P.; Peterson, A.; Sekercioglu, C. H.; Ehrlich, P. R. (2006). "Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (29): 10941–46. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10310941P. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604181103. PMC 1544153. PMID 16829570.
*Barnosky AD, Koch PL, Feranec RS, Wing SL, Shabel AB (2004). "Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents". Science. 306 (5693): 70–75. Bibcode:2004Sci...306...70B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.574.332. doi:10.1126/science.1101476. PMID 15459379. S2CID 36156087.
- Lewis, O. T. (2006). "Climate change, species-area curves and the extinction crisis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 361 (1465): 163–71. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1712. PMC 1831839. PMID 16553315.
- "World". The World Factbook. CIA. 17 May 2016. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- "How People Modify the Environment" (PDF). Westerville City School District. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Natural disasters and the urban poor" (PDF). World Bank. October 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2017.
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Human Biological Adaptability; Overview". Palomar College. Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Gammon, Katharine (22 April 2011). "The 10 purest places on Earth". NBC. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017.
- "Population distribution and density". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Bunn SE, Arthington AH (2002). "Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity". Environmental Management. 30 (4): 492–507. doi:10.1007/s00267-002-2737-0. hdl:10072/6758. PMID 12481916. S2CID 25834286.
- "Mission to Mars: Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on 18 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "Touchdown! Rosetta's Philae probe lands on comet". European Space Agency. 12 November 2014. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "NEAR-Shoemaker". NASA. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Kraft, Rachel (11 December 2010). "JSC celebrates ten years of continuous human presence aboard the International Space Station". JSC Features. Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- Nancy Atkinson (26 March 2009). "Soyuz Rockets to Space; 13 Humans Now in Orbit". Universetoday.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "World's population reaches six billion". BBC News. 5 August 1999. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
- "UN population estimates". Population Division, United Nations. Archived from the original on 7 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Bar-On, Yinon M.; Phillips, Rob; Milo, Ron (19 June 2018). "The biomass distribution on Earth". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (25): 6506–11. doi:10.1073/pnas.1711842115. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6016768. PMID 29784790.
- Whitehouse, David (19 May 2005). "Half of humanity set to go urban". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 July 2017.
- [permanent dead link] Urban, Suburban, and Rural Victimization, 1993–98 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,. Accessed 29 October 2006
- "World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision". Population Division, United Nations. Archived from the original on 9 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Scientific American (1998). Evolution and General Intelligence: Three hypotheses on the evolution of general intelligence Archived 13 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis". grida.no/. Archived from the original on 1 June 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science. Foreword Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. AAAS Atlas of Population & Environment.
- Wilson, E.O. (2002). The Future of Life.
- p. 21 Archived 10 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine Inside the human body: using scientific and exponential notation. Author: Greg Roza. Edition: Illustrated. Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4042-3362-1, ISBN 978-1-4042-3362-1. Length: 32 pages
- "Human Anatomy". Inner Body. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Parker-Pope, Tara (27 October 2009). "The Human Body Is Built for Distance". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015.
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Humans". Primates. Palomar College. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- John, Brenman. "What is the role of sweating glands in balancing body temperature when running a marathon?". Livestrong.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Roser, Max; Appel, Cameron; Ritchie, Hannah (8 October 2013). "Human Height". Our World in Data.
- "Senior Citizens Do Shrink – Just One of the Body Changes of Aging". News. Senior Journal. Archived from the original on 19 February 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Bogin B, Rios L (September 2003). "Rapid morphological change in living humans: implications for modern human origins". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 136 (1): 71–84. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(02)00294-5. PMID 14527631.
- "Human weight". Articleworld.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- "Mass Of An Adult". The Physics Factbook: An Encyclopedia of Scientific Essays. Archived from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- Kushner, Robert (2007). Treatment of the Obese Patient (Contemporary Endocrinology). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-59745-400-1. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
- Adams JP, Murphy PG (2000). "Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 85 (1): 91–108. doi:10.1093/bja/85.1.91. PMID 10927998.
- "How to be Human: The reason we are so scarily hairy". New Scientist. 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- Sandel, Aaron A. (September 2013). "Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 152 (1): 145–150. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22333. hdl:2027.42/99654. PMID 23900811.
- Kirchweger, Gina. "The Biology of Skin Color: Black and White". Evolution: Library. PBS. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Collins, Desmond (1976). The Human Revolution: From Ape to Artist. p. 208.
- Therman, Eeva (1980). Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, Effects. Springer US. pp. 112–24. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0107-3. ISBN 978-1-4684-0109-7. S2CID 36686283.
- Edwards, JH; T Dent; J Kahn (June 1966). "Monozygotic twins of different sex". Journal of Medical Genetics. 3 (2): 117–23. doi:10.1136/jmg.3.2.117. PMC 1012913. PMID 6007033.
- Machin, GA (January 1996). "Some causes of genotypic and phenotypic discordance in monozygotic twin pairs". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 61 (3): 216–28. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960122)61:3<216::AID-AJMG5>3.0.CO;2-S. PMID 8741866.
- Race, Ethnicity; Genetics Working Group (2005). "The use of racial, ethnic, and ancestral categories in human genetics research". American Journal of Human Genetics. 77 (4): 519–32. doi:10.1086/491747. PMC 1275602. PMID 16175499.
- Dr. Shafer, Aaron. "Understanding Genetics". The Tech. Stanford University. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
The DNA sequence in your genes is on average 99.9% identical to ANY other human being.
- "Genetic – Understanding Human Genetic Variation". Human Genetic Variation. National Institute of Health (NIH). Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
Between any two humans, the amount of genetic variation—biochemical individuality—is about 0.1%.
- "First Individual Diploid Human Genome Published By Researchers at J. Craig Venter Institute". J. Craig Venter Institute. 3 September 2007. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- Levy S, Sutton G, Ng PC, Feuk L, Halpern AL, Walenz BP, et al. (September 2007). "The diploid genome sequence of an individual human". PLOS Biology. 5 (10): e254. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050254. PMC 1964779. PMID 17803354.
- "Understanding Genetics: Human Health and the Genome". The Tech Museum of Innovation. 24 January 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "First Diploid Human Genome Sequence Shows We're Surprisingly Different". Science Daily. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "Human Diversity – Go Deeper". Power of an Illusion. PBS. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Chimps show much greater genetic diversity than humans". Media. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
- Roberts, Dorothy (2011). Fatal Invention. London, New York: The New Press.
- Pertea, Mihaela; Salzberg, Steven L. (2010). "Between a chicken and a grape: estimating the number of human genes". Genome Biology. 11 (5): 206. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. PMC 2898077. PMID 20441615.
- Harpending, H. C.; Batzer, M. A.; Gurven, M.; Jorde, L. B.; Rogers, A. R.; Sherry, S. T. (1998). "Genetic traces of ancient demography". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95 (4): 1961–67. Bibcode:1998PNAS...95.1961H. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.4.1961. PMC 19224. PMID 9465125.
- Jorde LB, Rogers AR, Bamshad M, Watkins WS, Krakowiak P, Sung S, Kere J, Harpending HC (1997). "Microsatellite diversity and the demographic history of modern humans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (7): 3100–03. Bibcode:1997PNAS...94.3100J. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.7.3100. PMC 20328. PMID 9096352.
- Cann, Rebecca L.; Stoneking, Mark; Wilson, Allan C. (1987). "Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution". Nature. 325 (6099): 31–36. Bibcode:1987Natur.325...31C. doi:10.1038/325031a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 3025745. S2CID 4285418.
- Soares P, Ermini L, Thomson N, et al. (June 2009), "Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock", Am. J. Hum. Genet., 84 (6): 740–59, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001, PMC 2694979, PMID 19500773. University of Leeds – New 'molecular clock' aids dating of human migration history Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Poznik GD, Henn BM, Yee MC, Sliwerska E, Euskirchen GM, Lin AA, Snyder M, Quintana-Murci L, Kidd JM, Underhill PA, Bustamante CD (August 2013). "Sequencing Y chromosomes resolves discrepancy in time to common ancestor of males versus females". Science. 341 (6145): 562–65. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..562P. doi:10.1126/science.1237619. PMC 4032117. PMID 23908239.
- Wade, Nicholas (7 March 2007). "Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- According to 2 July 2007 Newsweek magazine, a woman dies in childbirth every minute, most often due to uncontrolled bleeding and infection, with the world's poorest women most vulnerable. The lifetime risk is 1 in 16 in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to 1 in 2,800 in developed countries.
- LaVelle, M. (1995). "Natural selection and developmental sexual variation in the human pelvis". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 98 (1): 59–72. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330980106. PMID 8579191.
- Correia, H.; Balseiro, S.; De Areia, M. (2005). "Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis: testing a new hypothesis" (PDF). Homo. 56 (2): 153–60. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2005.05.003. hdl:10316/3763. PMID 16130838.
- Rush, David (2000). "Nutrition and maternal mortality in the developing world". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 72 (1 Suppl): 212S–40S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/72.1.212S. PMID 10871588. Archived from the original on 18 June 2016.
- "Low Birthweight". Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
- Khor, G. (2003). "Update on the prevalence of malnutrition among children in Asia". Nepal Medical College Journal. 5 (2): 113–22. PMID 15024783.
- Laland, Kevin N.; Brown, Gillian (2011). Sense and Nonsense: Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behaviour. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-958696-7.
- Leakey, Richard; Lewin, Roger (1993). Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human. New York City: Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-385-46792-6.
- Diamond, Jared (1997). Why is Sex Fun? The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York City: Basic Books. pp. 167–70. ISBN 978-0-465-03127-6.
- Peccei, Jocelyn Scott (2001). "Menopause: Adaptation or epiphenomenon?". Evolutionary Anthropology. 10 (2): 43–57. doi:10.1002/evan.1013. S2CID 1665503.
- Marziali, Carl (7 December 2010). "Reaching Toward the Fountain of Youth". USC Trojan Family Magazine. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- Kalben, Barbara Blatt (2002). "Why Men Die Younger: Causes of Mortality Differences by Sex". Society of Actuaries. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013.
- "Life expectancy at birth, female (years)". World Bank. 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- "Life expectancy at birth, male (years)". World Bank. 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- "Human Development Report 2006," Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine United Nations Development Programme, pp. 363–66, 9 November 2006
- The World Factbook Archived 12 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 April 2005.
- "U.N. Statistics on Population Ageing". United Nations. 28 February 2002. Archived from the original on 8 December 2005. Retrieved 2 April 2005.
- Haenel H (1989). "Phylogenesis and nutrition". Nahrung. 33 (9): 867–87. PMID 2697806.
- Cordain, Loren (2007). "Implications of Plio-pleistocene diets for modern humans". In Peter S. Ungar (ed.). Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown and the unknowable. pp. 264–65.
"Since the evolutionary split between hominins and pongids approximately 7 million years ago, the available evidence shows that all species of hominins ate an omnivorous diet composed of minimally processed, wild-plant, and animal foods.
- American Dietetic, Association; Dietitians Of, Canada (2003). "Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748–65. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049.
- Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, et al. (February 2005). "Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81 (2): 341–54. doi:10.1093/ajcn.81.2.341. PMID 15699220.
- Ulijaszek SJ (November 2002). "Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context". Proc Nutr Soc. 61 (4): 517–26. doi:10.1079/PNS2002180. PMID 12691181.
- Earliest agriculture in the Americas Archived 3 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Earliest cultivation of barley Archived 16 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine Earliest cultivation of figs Archived 2 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 19 February 2007
- Krebs JR (September 2009). "The gourmet ape: evolution and human food preferences". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90 (3): 707S–11S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462B. PMID 19656837.
- Holden C, Mace R (October 1997). "Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults". Hum. Biol. 69 (5): 605–28. PMID 9299882.
- United Nations Information Service. "Independent Expert On Effects Of Structural Adjustment, Special Rapporteur On Right To Food Present Reports: Commission Continues General Debate On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights" Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. United Nations, 29 March 2004, p. 6. "Around 36 million people died from hunger directly or indirectly every year.".
- Murray C, Lopez A (1997). "Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study". Lancet. 349 (9063): 1436–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07495-8. PMID 9164317. S2CID 2569153.
- Haslam DW, James WP (October 2005). "Obesity". Lancet. 366 (9492): 1197–209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769. S2CID 208791491.
- Catenacci VA, Hill JO, Wyatt HR (September 2009). "The obesity epidemic". Clin. Chest Med. 30 (3): 415–44, vii. doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2009.05.001. PMID 19700042.
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Adapting to Climate Extremes". Human Biological Adaptability. Palomar College. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- de Beer H (2004). "Observations on the history of Dutch physical stature from the late-Middle Ages to the present". Econ Hum Biol. 2 (1): 45–55. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2003.11.001. PMID 15463992.
- Ilardo, M. A.; Moltke, I.; Korneliussen, T. S.; Cheng, J.; Stern, A. J.; Racimo, F.; de Barros Damgaard, P.; Sikora, M.; Seguin-Orlando, A.; Rasmussen, S.; van den Munckhof, I. C. L.; ter Horst, R.; Joosten, L. A. B.; Netea, M. G.; Salingkat, S.; Nielsen, R.; Willerslev, E. (18 April 2018). "Physiological and Genetic Adaptations to Diving in Sea Nomads". Cell. 173 (3): 569–580.e15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.054. PMID 29677510.
- Hedrick PW (2011). "Population genetics of malaria resistance in humans". Heredity. 107 (4): 283–304. doi:10.1038/hdy.2011.16. PMC 3182497. PMID 21427751.
- Weatherall DJ (2008). "Genetic variation and susceptibility to infection: The red cell and malaria". British Journal of Haematology. 141 (3): 276–86. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07085.x. PMID 18410566. S2CID 28191911.
- Beja-Pereira A, et al. (2003). "Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes". Nat Genet. 35 (4): 311–13. doi:10.1038/ng1263. PMID 14634648. S2CID 20415396.
- Nina, Jablonski (2004). "The evolution of human skin and skin color". Annual Review of Anthropology. 33: 585–623. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143955.
- Rogers, Alan R.; Iltis, David; Wooding, Stephen (2004). "Genetic variation at the MC1R locus and the time since loss of human body hair". Current Anthropology. 45 (1): 105–08. doi:10.1086/381006.
- Jablonski, N.G. & Chaplin, G. (2000). "The evolution of human skin coloration" Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine (pdf), Journal of Human Evolution 39: 57–106.
- Harding RM, Healy E, Ray AJ, et al. (April 2000). "Evidence for variable selective pressures at MC1R". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66 (4): 1351–61. doi:10.1086/302863. PMC 1288200. PMID 10733465.
- Robin, Ashley (1991). Biological Perspectives on Human Pigmentation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Muehlenbein, Michael (2010). Human Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 192–213.
- "The Science Behind the Human Genome Project". Human Genome Project. US Department of Energy. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
Almost all (99.9%) nucleotide bases are exactly the same in all people.
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Ethnicity and Race: Overview". Palomar College. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Genetic – Understanding Human Genetic Variation". Human Genetic Variation. National Institute of Health (NIH). Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
In fact, research results consistently demonstrate that about 85 percent of all human genetic variation exists within human populations, whereas about only 15 percent of variation exists between populations.
- Goodman, Alan. "Interview with Alan Goodman". Race Power of and Illusion. PBS. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Marks, J. (2010). "Ten facts about human variation". In Muehlenbein, M. (ed.). Human Evolutionary Biology (PDF). New York: Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Jorde, L.; Watkins, W; Bamshad, M; Dixon, M; Ricker, C.; Seielstad, M.; Batzer, M. (2000). "The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data". American Journal of Human Genetics. 66 (3): 979–88. doi:10.1086/302825. PMC 1288178. PMID 10712212.
- "New Research Proves Single Origin Of Humans In Africa". Science Daily. 19 July 2007. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- Manica, A; Amos, W; Balloux, F; Hanihara, T (2007). "The effect of ancient population bottlenecks on human phenotypic variation". Nature. 448 (7151): 346–48. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..346M. doi:10.1038/nature05951. PMC 1978547. PMID 17637668.
- Bergström, A; McCarthy, S; Hui, R; Almarri, M; Ayub, Q (2020). "Insights into human genetic variation and population history from 929 diverse genomes". Science. 367 (6484): eaay5012. doi:10.1126/science.aay5012. PMC 7115999. PMID 32193295. "Populations in central and southern Africa, the Americas, and Oceania each harbor tens to hundreds of thousands of private, common genetic variants. Most of these variants arose as new mutations rather than through archaic introgression, except in Oceanian populations, where many private variants derive from Denisovan admixture."
- Bergström, A; McCarthy, S; Hui, R; Almarri, M; Ayub, Q (2020). "Insights into human genetic variation and population history from 929 diverse genomes". Science. 367 (6484): eaay5012. doi:10.1126/science.aay5012. PMC 7115999. PMID 32193295. "An analysis of archaic sequences in modern populations identifies ancestral genetic variation in African populations that likely predates modern humans and has been lost in most non-African populations."
- Durvasula, A; Sankararaman, S (2020). "Recovering signals of ghost archaic introgression in African populations". Science Advances. 6 (7): eaax5097. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax5097. PMC 7015685. PMID 32095519. "Our analyses of site frequency spectra indicate that these populations derive 2 to 19% of their genetic ancestry from an archaic population that diverged before the split of Neanderthals and modern humans."
- Gustafsson A, Lindenfors P (2004). "Human size evolution: no allometric relationship between male and female stature". Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (4): 253–66. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.07.004. PMID 15454336.
- "Ogden et al (2004). Mean Body Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index, United States 1960–2002 Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, Number 347, October 27, 2004" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- Miller, AE; MacDougall, JD; Tarnopolsky, MA; Sale, DG (1993). "Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics". European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 66 (3): 254–62. doi:10.1007/BF00235103. hdl:11375/22586. PMID 8477683. S2CID 206772211.
- Dominance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in human voice pitch Puts, David Andrew and Gaulin, Steven J.C and Verdolini, Katherine; Evolution and Human Behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, 2006, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp. 283–96
- Gender, women, and health Archived 25 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine Reports from WHO 2002–2005
- Marks, Jonathan. "Interview with Jonathan Marks". Race – The Power of an Illusion. PBS. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. Lay summary.
- Goodman, Alan. "Background Readings". Race – Power of an Illusion. PBS. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Nina, Jablonski (2004). "The evolution of human skin and skin color". Annual Review of Anthropology. 33: 585–623. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143955.
genetic evidence [demonstrate] that strong levels of natural selection acted about 1.2 mya to produce darkly pigmented skin in early members of the genus Homo
- Bower, C.; Stanley (1992). "The role of nutritional factors in the aetiology of neural tube defects". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 28 (1): 12–16. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.1992.tb02610.x. PMID 1554510. S2CID 45104826.
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Overview". Modern Human Variation. Palomar College. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Keita, S O Y; Kittles, R A; Royal, C D M; Bonney, G E; Furbert-Harris, P; Dunston, G M; Rotimi, C N (2004). "Conceptualizing human variation". Nature Genetics. 36 (11 Suppl): S17–20. doi:10.1038/ng1455. PMID 15507998.
- "Census, race and science". Nature Genetics. 24 (2): 97–98. 2000. doi:10.1038/72884. PMID 10655044.
That race (...) is not a scientific term is generally agreed upon by scientists—and a message that cannot be repeated often enough.
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Models of Classification". Modern Human Variation. Palomar College. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Harrison, Guy (2010). Race and Reality. Amherst: Prometheus Books.
Race is a poor empirical description of the patterns of difference that we encounter within our species. The billions of humans alive today simply do not fit into neat and tidy biological boxes called races. Science has proven this conclusively. The concept of race (...) is not scientific and goes against what is known about our ever-changing and complex biological diversity.
- Roberts, Dorothy (2011). Fatal Invention. London, New York: The New Press.
The genetic differences that exist among populations are characterized by gradual changes across geographic regions, not sharp, categorical distinctions. Groups of people across the globe have varying frequencies of polymorphic genes, which are genes with any of several differing nucleotide sequences. There is no such thing as a set of genes that belongs exclusively to one group and not to another. The clinal, gradually changing nature of geographic genetic difference is complicated further by the migration and mixing that human groups have engaged in since prehistory. Genetic studies have substantiated the absence of clear biological borders; thus the term "race" is rarely used in scientific terminology, either in biological anthropology and in human genetics. Race has no genetic or biological basis. Human beings do not fit the zoological definition of race. Race is not a biological category that is politically charged. It is a political category that has been disguised as a biological one.
- Goodman, Alan. "Interview with Alan Goodman". Race Power of and Illusion. PBS. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. Lay summary.
There's no biological basis for race. And that is in the facts of biology, the facts of non-concordance, the facts of continuous variation, the recentness of our evolution, the way that we all commingle and come together, and how genes flow. (...) There's no generalizability to race. There is no center there (...). It's fluid.
- Steve Olson, Mapping Human History: Discovering the Past Through Our Genes, Boston, 2002
- Jablonski, Nina (2004). "The evolution of human skin and skin color". Annual Review of Anthropology. 33: 585–623. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143955.
- Palmié, Stephan (May 2007). "Genomics, divination, 'racecraft'". American Ethnologist. 34 (2): 205–22. doi:10.1525/ae.2007.34.2.205.
- 3-D Brain Anatomy Archived 5 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Secret Life of the Brain, Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 3 April 2005.
- Stern, Peter (22 June 2018). "The human prefrontal cortex is special". Science. 360 (6395): 1311–1312. Bibcode:2018Sci...360S1311S. doi:10.1126/science.360.6395.1311-g. ISSN 0036-8075.
- Erickson, Robert (22 September 2014). "Are Humans the Most Intelligent Species?". Journal of Intelligence. 2 (3): 119–121. doi:10.3390/jintelligence2030119. ISSN 2079-3200.
- "Humans not smarter than animals, just different, experts say". phys.org. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Robson, David. "We've got human intelligence all wrong". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- "Many Animals—Including Your Dog—May Have Horrible Short-Term Memories". National Geographic News. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- Schmidt, Karen L.; Cohn, Jeffrey F. (2001). "Human facial expressions as adaptations: Evolutionary questions in facial expression research". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 116 (S33): 3–24. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20001. PMC 2238342. PMID 11786989.
- "Tears in Her Eyes: A Turnoff for Guys?". ABC News (American). 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Deleniv, Sofia (2018). "The 'me' illusion: How your brain conjures up your sense of self". New Scientist. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- "Can We Really Know What Animals Are Thinking?". Snopes.com. 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Perlis, Michael L.; Pack, Allan I. (2010). "Problems associated with short sleep: bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological studies". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 14 (4): 239–47. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.08.001. PMC 2888649. PMID 19896872.
- Ann, Lee (27 January 2005). "HowStuffWorks "Dreams: Stages of Sleep"". Science.howstuffworks.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Cite error: The named reference
Hobsonwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Empson, J. (2002). Sleep and dreaming (3rd ed.)., New York: Palgrave/St. Martin's Press
- Cherry, Kendra. (2015). "10 Facts About Dreams: What Researchers Have Discovered About Dreams Archived 2016-02-21 at the Wayback Machine." About Education: Psychology. About.com.
- Lite, Jordan (29 July 2010). "How Can You Control Your Dreams?". Scientific America. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015.
- Domhoff, W. (2002). The scientific study of dreams. APA Press
- "consciousness". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- Robert van Gulick (2004). "Consciousness". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
- Susan Schneider; Max Velmans (2008). "Introduction". In Max Velmans; Susan Schneider (eds.). The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-75145-9.
- John Searle (2005). "Consciousness". In Honderich T (ed.). The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926479-7.
- Ned Block: On a Confusion about a Function of Consciousness in: The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1995.
- Jaynes, Julian (2000) . The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (PDF). Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-05707-2.
- Rochat, Philippe (2003). "Five levels of self-awareness as they unfold early in life" (PDF). Consciousness and Cognition. 12 (4): 717–731. doi:10.1016/s1053-8100(03)00081-3. PMID 14656513. S2CID 10241157.
- Peter Carruthers (15 August 2011). "Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Michael V. Antony (2001). "Is consciousness ambiguous?". Journal of Consciousness Studies. 8: 19–44.
- "Cognition". Lexico. Oxford University Press and Dictionary.com. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Glattfelder, James B. (2019), Glattfelder, James B. (ed.), "The Consciousness of Reality", Information—Consciousness—Reality: How a New Understanding of the Universe Can Help Answer Age-Old Questions of Existence, The Frontiers Collection, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 515–595, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-03633-1_14, ISBN 978-3-030-03633-1, retrieved 25 October 2020
- "American Psychological Association (2013). Glossary of psychological terms". Apa.org. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Developmental Psychology Studies Human Development Across the Lifespan". www.apa.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
- Burman E (2017). Deconstructing Developmental Psychology. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-84695-1.
- Intelligence test at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Saul McLeod (20 March 2020). "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs". Simplypsychology.org. Simply Scholar Limited. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up.
- Heckhausen, J.; Heckhausen, H. (28 March 2018). Motivation and Action. Introduction and Overview: Springer, Cham. p. 1. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-65094-4_1. ISBN 978-3-319-65093-7.
- Damasio AR (May 1998). "Emotion in the perspective of an integrated nervous system". Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 26 (2–3): 83–86. doi:10.1016/s0165-0173(97)00064-7. PMID 9651488. S2CID 8504450.
- Ekman, Paul; Davidson, Richard J. (1994). The Nature of emotion : fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 291–93. ISBN 978-0-19-508944-8.
Emotional processing, but not emotions, can occur unconsciously.
- Cabanac, Michel (2002). "What is emotion?" Behavioural Processes 60(2): 69-83. "[E]motion is any mental experience with high intensity and high hedonic content (pleasure/displeasure)."
- Scirst, =Daniel L. (2011). Psychology Second Edition. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-4292-3719-2.
- Averill, James R. (February 1999). "Individual Differences in Emotional Creativity: Structure and Correlates". Journal of Personality. 67 (2): 331–371. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00058. ISSN 0022-3506. PMID 10202807.
- Tyng, Chai M.; Amin, Hafeez U.; Saad, Mohamad N. M.; Malik, Aamir S. (2017). "The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory". Frontiers in Psychology. 8: 1454. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01454. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 5573739. PMID 28883804.
- Van Gelder, Jean-Louis (November 2016). "Emotions in Criminal Decision Making". In Wright, Richard (ed.). Oxford Bibliographies in Criminology. Oxford University Press.
- Sharma, Neelu; Prakash, Om; Sengar, K. S.; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Singh, Amool R. (2015). "The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals". Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 24 (1): 54–58. doi:10.4103/0972-6748.160934. ISSN 0972-6748. PMC 4525433. PMID 26257484.
- Fredrickson, Barbara L. (2001). "The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology". The American Psychologist. 56 (3): 218–226. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218. ISSN 0003-066X. PMC 3122271. PMID 11315248.
- Dan Haybron (http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/philos/site/people/faculty/Haybron/ Archived 2019-08-30 at the Wayback Machine, http://www.happinessandwellbeing.org/project-team/ Archived 2018-10-12 at the Wayback Machine); "I would suggest that when we talk about happiness, we are actually referring, much of the time, to a complex emotional phenomenon. Call it emotional well-being. Happiness as emotional well-being concerns your emotions and moods, more broadly your emotional condition as a whole. To be happy is to inhabit a favorable emotional state.... On this view, we can think of happiness, loosely, as the opposite of anxiety and depression. Being in good spirits, quick to laugh and slow to anger, at peace and untroubled, confident and comfortable in your own skin, engaged, energetic and full of life." http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/13/happiness-and-its-discontents/ Archived 2018-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Haybron has also used the term thymic, by which he means 'overall mood state' in this context; http://philpapers.org/rec/HAYHAE Archived 2018-10-18 at the Wayback Machine Xavier Landes <http://www.sseriga.edu/landes-xavier Archived 2019-08-30 at the Wayback Machine> has described a similar concept of mood. http://www.satori.lv/article/kas-ir-laime Archived 2019-05-13 at the Wayback Machine
- Graham, Michael C. (2014). Facts of Life: ten issues of contentment. Outskirts Press. pp. 6–10. ISBN 978-1-4787-2259-5.
- "Secret to happiness may include more unpleasant emotions: Research contradicts idea that people should always seek pleasure to be happy". ScienceDaily. American Psychological Association. 14 August 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Bruess, Clint E.; Oswalt, Sara B. (2016). Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 4–10. ISBN 978-1-284-08154-1. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
Human sexuality is a part of your total personality. It involves the interrelationship of biological, psychological, and sociocultural dimensions. [...] It is the total of our physical, emotional, and spiritual responses, thoughts, and feelings.
- Bolin, Anne; Whelehan, Patricia (2009). Human Sexuality: Biological, Psychological, and Cultural Perspectives. Taylor & Francis. pp. 32–42. ISBN 978-0-7890-2671-2.
- Younis, Ihab; Abdel-Rahman, Sherine H. (2013). "Sex difference in libido". Human Andrology. 3 (4): 85–89. doi:10.1097/01.XHA.0000432482.01760.b0. S2CID 147235090.
- "Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality". American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- Bailey, J. Michael; Vasey, Paul; Diamond, Lisa; Breedlove, S. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc (2016). "Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 17 (2): 45–101. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. PMID 27113562.
- LeVay, Simon (2017). Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press. pp. 8, 19. ISBN 978-0-19-975296-6.
- Balthazart, Jacques (2012). The Biology of Homosexuality. Oxford University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-19-983882-0.
- Buss, David M. (2003). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. Revised Edition. New York City: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00802-5.
- Fromm, Erich; The Art of Loving, Harper Perennial (5 September 2000), Original English Version, ISBN 978-0-06-095828-2
- A, Gct (14 February 2020). "The 8 Ancient Greek Words For Love". Greek City Times. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- Wang, Chuan; Song, Sensen; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Zilverstand, Anna; Song, Hongwen; Chen, Hong; Zou, Zhiling (2 January 2020). "Altered brain network organization in romantic love as measured with resting-state fMRI and graph theory". Brain Imaging and Behavior. 14 (6): 2771–2784. doi:10.1007/s11682-019-00226-0. ISSN 1931-7565. PMID 31898089. S2CID 209528407.
- "Love, Actually: The science behind lust, attraction, and companionship". Science in the News. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Statistical Summaries". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity. Hachette Books. 2020. ISBN 978-0-316-48489-3.
Homo sapiens and our close relatives may have some unique physical attributes, such as our dextrous hands, upright walking and resonant voices. However, these on their own cannot explain our success. They went together with our intelligence...
- Goldman, Jason G. (2012). "Pay attention… time for lessons at animal school". bbc.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Winkler, M.; Mueller, J. L.; Friederici, A. D.; Männel, C. (21 November 2018). "Infant cognition includes the potentially human-unique ability to encode embedding". Science Advances. 4 (11): eaar8334. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8334W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aar8334. PMC 6248967. PMID 30474053.
- Johnson-Frey, Scott H (July 2003). "What's So Special about Human Tool Use?". Neuron. 39 (2): 201–204. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00424-0. PMID 12873378. S2CID 18437970.
- Emery, Nathan J; Clayton, Nicola S (February 2009). "Tool use and physical cognition in birds and mammals". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 19 (1): 27–33. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2009.02.003. PMID 19328675. S2CID 18277620.
In short, the evidence to date that animals have an understanding of folk physics is at best mixed.
- "Chimps Can't Cook, But Maybe They'd Like To". National Geographic News. 2 June 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Vakhitova, Tina; Gadelshina, Landysh (2 June 2015). "The Role and Importance of the Study of Economic Subjects in the Implementation of the Educational Potential of Education". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. The Proceedings of 6th World Conference on educational Sciences. 191: 2565–2567. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.690. ISSN 1877-0428.
- "The Book of Humans by Adam Rutherford review – a pithy homage to our species". the Guardian. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Nicholls, Henry (29 June 2015). "Babblers speak to the origin of language". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Dasgupta, Shreya (2015). "Can any animals talk and use language like humans?". bbc.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
Most animals are not vocal learners.
- Ridgeway, C.L. (2001). International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. ISBN 978-0-08-043076-8.
- "The Past, Present and Future of Gender Norms". Time. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- "Why is language unique to humans? | Royal Society". royalsociety.org. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Pagel, Mark (24 July 2017). "Q&A: What is human language, when did it evolve and why should we care?". BMC Biology. 15 (1): 64. doi:10.1186/s12915-017-0405-3. ISSN 1741-7007. PMC 5525259. PMID 28738867.
- Fitch, W. Tecumseh (4 December 2010). "Language evolution: How to hear words long silenced". New Scientist. 208 (2789): ii–iii. Bibcode:2010NewSc.208D...2F. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(10)62961-2. ISSN 0262-4079.
- Lian, Arild (2016), Lian, Arild (ed.), "The Modality-Independent Capacity of Language: A Milestone of Evolution", Language Evolution and Developmental Impairments, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 229–255, doi:10.1057/978-1-137-58746-6_7, ISBN 978-1-137-58746-6, retrieved 24 October 2020
- "Culture | United Nations For Indigenous Peoples". www.un.org. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Comrie, Bernard; Polinsky, Maria; Matthews, Stephen (1996). The Atlas of Languages: The Origin and Development of Languages Throughout the World. New York City: Facts on File. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-0-8160-3388-1.
- Morriss-Kay, Gillian M (2010). "The evolution of human artistic creativity". Journal of Anatomy. 216 (2): 158–176. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01160.x. ISSN 0021-8782. PMC 2815939. PMID 19900185.
- Joordens, Josephine C. A.; d’Errico, Francesco; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Munro, Stephen; de Vos, John; Wallinga, Jakob; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Reimann, Tony; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Mücher, Herman J. (2015). "Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving". Nature. 518 (7538): 228–231. Bibcode:2015Natur.518..228J. doi:10.1038/nature13962. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25470048. S2CID 4461751.
- St. Fleur, Nicholas (12 September 2018). "Oldest Known Drawing by Human Hands Discovered in South African Cave". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- Radford, Tim (16 April 2004). "World's oldest jewellery found in cave". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Dissanayake, Ellen (2008). "THE ARTS AFTER DARWIN: DOES ART HAVE AN ORIGIN AND ADAPTIVE FUNCTION?". In Zijlmans, K; van Damme, W (eds.). World Art Studies: Exploring Concepts and Approaches. Amsterdam: Valiz. pp. 241–263.
- I, Morley (2014). "A multi-disciplinary approach to the origins of music: perspectives from anthropology, archaeology, cognition and behaviour". Journal of Anthropological Sciences. 92 (92): 147–77. doi:10.4436/JASS.92008. PMID 25020016. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Schön, Daniele; Labbé, Carolina; Pichon, Swann; Grandjean, Didier; Vuilleumier, Patrik (1 December 2014). "Getting the beat: Entrainment of brain activity by musical rhythm and pleasantness". NeuroImage. 103: 55–64. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.09.009. ISSN 1053-8119. PMID 25224999. S2CID 4727529.
- Fj, Karpati; C, Giacosa; Ne, Foster; Vb, Penhune; Kl, Hyde (2015). "Dance and the brain: a review". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1337 (1): 140–6. Bibcode:2015NYASA1337..140K. doi:10.1111/nyas.12632. PMID 25773628. S2CID 206224849. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- March 2010, Denise Chow-Assistant Managing Editor 22. "Why Do Humans Dance?". livescience.com. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "Why do we like to dance--And move to the beat?". Scientific American. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Prior, Karen Swallow (21 June 2013). "How Reading Makes Us More Human". The Atlantic. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Puchner, Martin. "How stories have shaped the world". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Dalley, Stephanie (2000). Myths from Mesopotamia : Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others (revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-19-283589-5.
- Hernadi, Paul (2001). "Literature and Evolution". SubStance. 30 (1/2): 55–71. doi:10.2307/3685504. ISSN 0049-2426. JSTOR 3685504.
- Clark, J.D.; de Heinzelin, J.; Schick, K.D.; et al. (1994). "African Homo erectus: old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia". Science. 264 (5167): 1907–10. Bibcode:1994Sci...264.1907C. doi:10.1126/science.8009220. PMID 8009220.
- November 2009, Charles Q. Choi 11. "Human Evolution: The Origin of Tool Use". livescience.com. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- Orban, Guy A.; Caruana, Fausto (2014). "The neural basis of human tool use". Frontiers in Psychology. 5: 310. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00310. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 3988392. PMID 24782809.
- Berna, Francesco; Goldberg, Paul; Horwitz, Liora Kolska; Brink, James; Holt, Sharon; Bamford, Marion; Chazan, Michael (15 May 2012). "Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (20): E1215–20. doi:10.1073/pnas.1117620109. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3356665. PMID 22474385.
- Gowlett, J. A. J. (23 May 2016). "The discovery of fire by humans: a long and convoluted process". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 371 (1696): 20150164. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0164. PMC 4874402. PMID 27216521.
- Damiano, Justine (2018). "Neolithic Era Tools: Inventing a New Age - Read Now on MagellanTV". www.magellantv.com. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- Society, National Geographic (9 January 2020). "Industrial Revolution and Technology". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E, Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T (2009). "30,000-year-old wild flax fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359. Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1359K. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. S2CID 206520793.
- Reed; et al. (2004). "Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans". PLOS Biology. 2 (11): e340. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020340. PMC 521174. PMID 15502871.
- "Evolutionary Religious Studies: A New Field of Scientific Inquiry". Archived from the original on 17 August 2009.
- Boyer, Pascal (2008). "Being human: Religion: bound to believe?". Nature. 455 (7216): 1038–39. Bibcode:2008Natur.455.1038B. doi:10.1038/4551038a. PMID 18948934. S2CID 205040781.
- Emmons, Robert A.; Paloutzian, Raymond F. (2003). "The psychology of religion". Annual Review of Psychology. 54 (1): 377–402. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145024. PMID 12171998.
- King, Barbara J. (29 March 2016). "Chimpanzees: Spiritual But Not Religious?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- Culotta, Elizabeth (6 November 2009). "On the Origin of Religion". Science. 326 (5954): 784–787. Bibcode:2009Sci...326..784C. doi:10.1126/science.326_784. PMID 19892955.
- Atkinson, Quentin D.; Bourrat, Pierrick (2011). "Beliefs about God, the afterlife and morality support the role of supernatural policing in human cooperation". Evolution and Human Behavior. 32 (1): 41–49. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.07.008. ISSN 1090-5138.
- Idinopulos, Thomas A. (1998). "What Is Religion?". CrossCurrents. 48 (3): 366–380. ISSN 0011-1953. JSTOR 24460821.
- Walker, Gail C. (1 August 2000). "Secular Eschatology: Beliefs about Afterlife". OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying. 41 (1): 5–22. doi:10.2190/Q21C-5VED-GYW6-W091. ISSN 0030-2228. S2CID 145686249.
- Silva Bautista, Jesús; Herrera Escobar, Venazir; Corona Miranda, Rodolfo (2017). "Scientific and Religious Beliefs about the Origin of Life and Life after Death: Validation of a Scale". Universal Journal of Educational Research. 5 (6): 995–1007. doi:10.13189/ujer.2017.050612. ISSN 2332-3205.
- McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey (2015). "Religion and Morality". Psychological Bulletin. 141 (2): 447–473. doi:10.1037/a0038455. ISSN 0033-2909. PMC 4345965. PMID 25528346.
- "Summary of Religions and Beliefs". www.bolton.ac.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- Ball, Philip (2015). "Complex societies evolved without belief in all-powerful deity". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.17040. S2CID 183474917.
- Hall, Daniel E.; Meador, Keith G.; Koenig, Harold G. (2008). "Measuring religiousness in health research: review and critique". Journal of Religion and Health (Submitted manuscript). 47 (2): 134–63. doi:10.1007/s10943-008-9165-2. PMID 19105008. S2CID 25349208.
- Sherwood, Harriet (27 August 2018). "Religion: why faith is becoming more and more popular". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- Hackett, Conrad; McClendon (2017). "Christians remain world's largest religious group, but they are declining in Europe". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "The Changing Global Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- DiChristina, Mariette. "A Very Human Story: Why Our Species Is Special". Scientific American. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- Andersen, Hanne; Hepburn, Brian (2020), "Scientific Method", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2020 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 8 October 2020
- Vullo, Vincenzo (2020), Vullo, Vincenzo (ed.), "The First Pre-scientific Age: From the Down of Technological Man to the Bird of Science", Gears: Volume 3: A Concise History, Springer Series in Solid and Structural Mechanics, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 12, pp. 7–19, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-40164-1_2, ISBN 978-3-030-40164-1, retrieved 25 September 2020
- "Science and Pseudo-Science". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. 2017. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- Mary C. Olmstead & Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Comparative Cognition (Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 209-10.
- "Branches of Science" (PDF). University of Chicago. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "What is Philosophy? | Department of Philosophy". philosophy.fsu.edu. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "philosophy | Definition, Systems, Fields, Schools, & Biographies". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- Kaufmann, Felix; Russell, Bertrand (1947). "A History of Western Philosophy and its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 7 (3): 461. doi:10.2307/2102800. JSTOR 2102800.
- "What is the Difference Between Philosophy, Science, and Religion?". ieet.org. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- Hassan, Nik Rushdi; Mingers, John; Stahl, Bernd (4 May 2018). "Philosophy and information systems: where are we and where should we go?". European Journal of Information Systems. 27 (3): 263–277. doi:10.1080/0960085X.2018.1470776. ISSN 0960-085X. S2CID 64796132.
- Schizzerotto, Antonio. "Social Stratification" (PDF). University of Trento. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- Fukuyama, Francis. (2012). The origins of political order : from prehuman times to the French Revolution. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-374-53322-9. OCLC 1082411117.
- "The Nature of Kinship: Overview". www2.palomar.edu. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Itao, Kenji; Kaneko, Kunihiko (21 January 2020). "Evolution of kinship structures driven by marriage tie and competition". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (5): 2378–2384. doi:10.1073/pnas.1917716117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7007516. PMID 31964846.
- Chandra, Kanchan (2012). Constructivist theories of ethnic politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-19-989315-7. OCLC 829678440.
- People, James; Bailey, Garrick (2010). Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (9th ed.). Wadsworth Cengage learning. p. 389.
In essence, an ethnic group is a named social category of people based on perceptions of shared social experience or one's ancestors' experiences. Members of the ethnic group see themselves as sharing cultural traditions and history that distinguish them from other groups. Ethnic group identity has a strong psychological or emotional component that divides the people of the world into opposing categories of “us” and “them.” In contrast to social stratification, which divides and unifies people along a series of horizontal axes based on socioeconomic factors, ethnic identities divide and unify people along a series of vertical axes. Thus, ethnic groups, at least theoretically, cut across socioeconomic class differences, drawing members from all strata of the population.
- "Race and ethnicity: How are they different?". Culture. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Race, Ethnicity (1 October 2005). "The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 77 (4): 519–532. doi:10.1086/491747. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1275602. PMID 16175499.
- Chandra, Kanchan (2006). "What is Ethnic Identity and Does It Matter?". Annual Review of Political Science. 9 (1): 397–424. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.062404.170715. ISSN 1094-2939.
- Smith, Anthony D. (1999) Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford University Press. pp. 4–7
- Banton, Michael (2007). "Max Weber on 'ethnic communities': a critique". Nations and Nationalism. 13 (1): 19–35. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00271.x.
- Delanty, Gerard & Krishan Kumar (2006) The SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. SAGE. ISBN 978-1-4129-0101-7 p. 171
- Holslag, Jonathan, A political history of the world : three thousand years of war and peace, pp. 24–25, ISBN 978-0-241-38466-4, OCLC 1080190517
- Christian, David (2004). Maps of Time. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24476-4.
- Nuwer, Rachel. "Why governments are broken – and how to fix them". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Cronk, Lee; Sep 2017, Beth L. Leech / 20 (20 September 2017). "How Did Humans Get So Good at Politics?". SAPIENS. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Zmigrod, Leor; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W. (8 May 2018). "Cognitive underpinnings of nationalistic ideology in the context of Brexit". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (19): E4532–E4540. doi:10.1073/pnas.1708960115. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5948950. PMID 29674447. S2CID 4993139.
- February 2011, Remy Melina 14. "What Are the Different Types of Governments?". livescience.com. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- DeSilver, Drew. "Despite global concerns about democracy, more than half of countries are democratic". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Society, National Geographic (23 December 2012). "international organization". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Sanchez, Dan (28 August 2017). "Trade Is What Makes Us Human | Dan Sanchez". fee.org. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- Horan, Richard D.; Bulte, Erwin; Shogren, Jason F. (1 September 2005). "How trade saved humanity from biological exclusion: an economic theory of Neanderthal extinction". Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 58 (1): 1–29. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.009. ISSN 0167-2681.
- "Why did Neanderthals go extinct?". Smithsonian Insider. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "Did Use of Free Trade Cause Neanderthal Extinction?". www.newswise.com. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "Humans may have been trading with each for as long as 300,000 years". inews.co.uk. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "How spices changed the ancient world". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "8 Trade Routes That Shaped World History". www.mentalfloss.com. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Strauss, Ilana E. (26 February 2016). "The Myth of the Barter Economy". The Atlantic. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "The History of Money". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "Why do we need economists and the study of economics?". Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- Sheskin, Mark. "The inequality delusion: Why we've got the wealth gap all wrong". New Scientist. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Ferguson, R. Brian (1 September 2018). "War Is Not Part of Human Nature". Scientific American.
- Ferguson, Niall. "The Next War of the World". Foreign Affairs, Sep/Oct 2006
- Freeman, Scott; Jon C. Herron (2007). Evolutionary Analysis (4th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 978-0-13-227584-2. pp. 757–61.
- Reich, David (2018). Who We Are And How We Got Here – Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past. Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-1-101-87032-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Homo sapiens.|
- Archaeology Info
- Homo sapiens – The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program
- "Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758" at the Encyclopedia of Life
- View the human genome on Ensembl
- Human Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016).
- Timeline of the Human Condition.