Meharry Medical College
|Medical Department of Central Tennessee College|
|Affiliation||United Methodist Church |
Meharry Medical College is a graduate and professional institution that is affiliated with the United Methodist Church and located in Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1876 as the Medical Department of Central Tennessee College, it was the first medical school for African Americans in the South, which then held the highest proportion of this ethnicity.
Meharry Medical College was chartered separately in 1915. In the early 21st century, it has become the largest private historically black institution in the United States solely dedicated to educating health care professionals and scientists.
Meharry Medical College includes its School of Medicine, School of Dentistry, a School of Allied Health Professions, School of Graduate Studies and Research, the Harold R. West Basic Sciences Center, and the Metropolitan General Hospital of Nashville-Davidson County. The degrees that Meharry offers include Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), Master of Science in Public Health (M.S.P.H.), Master of Health Science (M.H.S.), and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees. Meharry is the second-largest educator of African-American medical doctors and dentists in the United States. Also, it has the highest percentage of African Americans graduating with Ph.Ds in the biomedical sciences in the country.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved is a public health journal owned by and edited at Meharry Medical College.
The college was named for Samuel Meharry, a young Scots-Irish immigrant who first worked as a salt trader on the Kentucky-Tennessee frontier. After achieving some success, he and four of his brothers later made a major donation to help establish the college.
As a young trader, Meharry had been traveling through the rough terrain of Kentucky when his wagon slipped off the road and slid into a swamp. He was aided by a family of freedmen, whose names are unknown, who gave him food and shelter that night. The next morning they helped him to get his wagon and contents back on the road. Meharry reportedly told the former slave family, "I have no money, but when I can I shall do something for your race."
In 1875, Samuel Meharry, together with four of his brothers, donated a total of $15,000 to assist with establishing a medical department at Central Tennessee College (CTC), a historically black college in Nashville, Tennessee. With the contribution of the Freedman's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church North, George W. Hubbard and Dr. John Braden, a Methodist Episcopal cleric who was serving as president of CTC, opened the Medical College in 1876.
Hubbard served as the founding president of the medical college. Its first class included eleven students. Of these eleven students, one graduated in 1877. The second class, which had its commencement in 1878, had three graduates. In 1886, the Dental Department was founded, followed by a Pharmacy Department founded in 1889.
Among the second class of graduates was Lorenzo Dow Key, the son of Hillery Wattsworth Key and his wife. Key, together with Braden, was one of the founding members of the Tennessee Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, North. Years before the Civil War, the church had split into Methodist Episcopal Church North and Methodist Episcopal Church South on the issue of slavery; it did not reunite until 1939.
In 1900, Central Tennessee College changed its name to Walden University in honor of John Morgan Walden, a bishop of the Methodist Church who had ministered to freedmen. In 1915, the medical department faculty of Walden University received a separate charter as Meharry Medical College. It included the departments of pharmacy and dentistry. The Medical College remained in its original buildings, and Walden University moved to another campus in Nashville.
Meharry Medical College was one of the fourteen medical institutions established between the years of 1868 and 1907. Of these fourteen schools, six were located in the state of Tennessee. These schools were founded after the end of the Civil War, when slaves had been freed and there were as yet few African-American physicians, and many freedmen in need of health care. In the common segregation, most hospitals would not admit African Americans and many white physicians often chose not to serve freedmen. During the late 19th century and into the early 20th century, most medical institutions accepted few, if any, African-American students. To combat this shortage of health care and the lack of accessibility to medical education, individuals, such as Samuel Meharry, and organizations, such as the Medical Association of Colored Physicians, Surgeons, Dentists, and Pharmacists (later renamed the National Medical Association), helped to found medical schools specifically for African Americans.
Since its founding, Meharry Medical College has added several graduate programs in the areas of science, medicine, and public health. In 1938, the School of Graduate Studies and Research was founded. The first master's degree program, a Master of Science in Public Health, was established in 1947. In 1972, a Ph.D. program was implemented. A decade later in 1982, Meharry established an M.D/Ph.D. program. In 2004, Meharry created a Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation program (2004).
On November 9, 2017, Meharry, under president James E.K. Hildreth, signed a memorandum of agreement with Hospital Corporation of America, America's largest for-profit operator of health care facilities. Under the agreement, Meharry's medical students will gain clinical training at HCA's TriStar Southern Hills Medical Center in Nashville.
Meharry students had previously received clinical training at numerous sites, primarily Nashville General Hospital, which had moved on-campus in the 1990s. Withdrawal of the alliance with Meharry is thought to threaten the provision of inpatient care at Nashville General Hospital. A board member resigned over this surprise decision and announcement.
George W. Hubbard served as Meharry Medical College's first president from its founding in 1876 until his death in 1921.
The second president of the school was Dr. John J. Mullowney, who served from 1921 to 1938. He immediately began to implement changes in order to improve Meharry’s overall academic rating. Admission requirements were heightened and strictly enforced, a superintendent was implemented at the hospital, and faculty number, research facilities, and hospital facilities were all expanded. Two years after Mullowney took leadership, Meharry Medical College received an ‘A’ rating.
Since then, Meharry Medical College presidents have included:
- Edward Lewis Turner (1938–1944),
- M. Don Clawson (1945–1950),
- Harold D. West (1952–1966),
- Lloyd C. Elam (1968–1981),
- Richard G. Lester (1981-1982),
- David Satcher (1982–1993),
- John E. Maupin (1994–2006),
- Wayne J. Riley (2006–2013),
- A. Cherrie Epps (2013-2015),
- James E.K. Hildreth (2015–present)
From 1950-1952 Meharry had an interim period with no president; instead a committee guided the institution. In 1952, Meharry welcomed its first African-American president, Dr. Harold D. West. West made numerous changes, made possible by his success in raising money with a $20 million fund drive. He added a new wing to Hubbard Hospital, eliminated both the nursing and the dental technology programs, and purchased land adjacent to the campus in order to make room for expansion.
- Asthma Disparities Center
- Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neurosciences
- Center for Women's Health Research
- Clinical Research Center
- Export Center for Health Disparities
- Meharry Center for Health Disparities Research in HIV
- Sickle Cell Center
Seven universities are in partnership with Meharry to help recruit and prepare their pre-med students to enroll at Meharry. The seven universities are Alabama A&M University, Albany State University, Fisk University, Grambling State University, Jackson State University, Southern University, and Tennessee State University.
|Dr. John Angelo Lester||1895||Professor Emeritus of Physiology, Hospital Surgeon for Company G, unattached, (colored) of Tennessee State Guard, Secretary of Meharry Alumni Association, member of Colored Methodist Episcopal Church.|
|Dr. Corey Hébert||1994||Celebrity Physician, radio talk show host, Chief Medical Editor for National Broadcasting Company for the Gulf Coast, first Black Chief Resident of Pediatrics at Tulane University, Chief executive officer of Community Health TV|||
|Dr. Alonzo Homer Kenniebrew||Personal Physician to Booker T. Washington and George Washington Carver. Medical Director and physiology teacher of Tuskegee Institute. Founder of New Home Sanitarium, the first African-American owned and operated surgical hospital in America.|
|Dr. E. Anthony Rankin||Chief of Orthopaedic Surgery at Providence Hospital & Founder of Rankin Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Second Vice President of the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS).|
|Dr. Willie Adams, Jr.||Mayor of Albany, Georgia|
|Dr. Billy Ray Ballard, MD, DDS||First African American Board Certified Oral Pathologist, Previous Chair for the AAMC Group on Student Affairs; Former Vice President for Student Affairs and Associate Dean of Students and Admissions, UTMB Galveston Medical School|
|Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda||President of the Republic of Malawi|
|Dr. Edward S. Cooper||President of the American Heart Association|
|Dr. Reginald Coopwood||CEO of the Regional Medical Center at Memphis|
|James J. Durham||1882||Founder of Morris College|
|Dr. Renita Barge Clark||1992||Founder of The Cotillion Society of Detroit and The Educational Foundation, President of Jack and Jill of America Detroit Chapter|
|Dr. Cleveland W. Eneas, Sr.||Senator, Government of The Bahamas. Author of The History of The Class of 1941 of Meharry Medical College|
|Dr. Sandra Gadson||Former President of the National Medical Association|
|Winston C. Hackett||First African-American physician in Arizona|||
|Dr. Robert Walter Johnson||Tennis Instructor for Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe, Physician and Educator|
|Dr. Robert Lee, DDS||1944||South Carolina-born dentist who emigrated to Ghana in 1956 and operated a dental practice there for nearly five decades until his retirement in 2002|||
|Dr. Monroe Alpheus Majors||Physician and writer and civil rights activist in Texas and Los Angeles, California.|
|Dr. Eleanor L. Makel||1943||supervising medical officer, St. Elizabeths Hospital|||
|Dr. Audrey F. Manley||Acting Surgeon General of the United States, President Spelman College|
|Dr. John E. Maupin||President of Morehouse School of Medicine|
|Dr. Conrad Murray||Personal physician of Michael Jackson, convicted of involuntary manslaughter in Jackson's death on June 25, 2009.|||
|Maj. General Leonard Randolph, Jr.||Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Health Plan Administration|
|Dr. Louis Pendleton||dentist and civil rights leader in Shreveport, Louisiana|
|Dr. Charles V. Roman||President of the National Medical Association. Author of A History of Meharry Medical College|
|Frank S. Royal||1968||chair of Meharry Medical college's board; director of public companies; former president of the National Medical Association|||
|Dr. C. O. Simpkins, Sr.||dentist and civil rights leader in Shreveport; member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1992 to 1996|||
|Dr. Walter R. Tucker, Jr.||Former Mayor of Compton, California|
|Dr. Matthew Walker, Sr.||Former Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery, Meharry. Author of "President's Farewell Address" Journal of the National Medical Association 1955|
|Dr. Reuben Warren||Associate Director for Minority Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|Dr. Charles H. Wright||Founder of the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History|
|Lorenzo Raymond Sylvanus Nelson, M.D.||Regimental Surgeon, Major, Medical Corps, 366th Infantry Regiment, 5th Army, World War II, grandson of Lorenzo Dow Key, M.D., 1878 and great-grandson of Hillery Wattsworth Key, D.D., Trustee, Walden University.|
|Jeanne Spurlock, M.D.||noted Psychiatrist, Chairman of Department, Meharry Medical College (1968) and Department of Neuropsychiatry, Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Illinois; Fellow, American Association of Psychiatry|
|Dr. Emily F. Pollard, M.D., FACS||noted plastic surgeon, "TOP Doctor" in Philadelphia Magazine, appearances on The Oprah Winfrey Show|
|Dr. Carl C. Bell, M.D.||Community Psychiatrist, International Researcher, Academician, Author, President/CEO|
|Dr. Emma Rochelle Wheeler||1905||Founder of Walden Hospital and school of nursing, both serving African Americans, in Chattanooga, TN|||
|Dr. James Maxie Ponder||First African American physician in St. Petersburg, Florida|||
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- Marian Wright Edelman to speak at Meharry Medical College commencement, Nashville Business Journal, May 6, 2008
- "The Salt Wagon Story", Meharry Medical College website (accessed September 12, 2007)
- "History of the Tennessee Conference (UMC)", Tennessee Conference, United Methodist Church website
- Reavis L. Mitchell, Jr., "Meharry Medical College", Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
- Thomas Jr, James G., and Charles Reagan Wilson, eds. The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture: Volume 22: Science and Medicine. UNC Press Books, 2012.
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- "Quick Facts". Meharry Medical College.
- Kacik, Alex (November 9, 2017). "HCA partners with Meharry Medical College to train students". Modern Healthcare. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
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- Fletcher, Holly (November 17, 2017). "Nashville General board member resigns, mayor apologizes for surprise hospital announcement". The Tennessean. USA Today Network. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
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- "Academic Freedom and Tenure: Meharry Medical College | AAUP". Academe. American Association of University Professors. November 2004. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
- Spragens, John (July 21, 2005). "Labor Pains at Meharry". Nashville Scene. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "Dr. Corey Hébert". drcoreyhebert.com. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- "Arizona Black History and the Hackett – Aldridge Connection". Azinformant.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- Towne, Douglas. "Color-Blind Care - History". Phoenixmag.com. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- Asante, Elizabeth K. (2010-07-07). "Dentist Championed African-American community in Ghana". Ghana Web. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
- "71 Will Graduate at Meharry Today". The Tennessean. June 6, 1943. p. 48. Retrieved June 18, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- "INSIDE STORY: The Two Sides of Dr. Conrad Murray". People.com. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- "Meharry board chair to retire after 30 years". Nashville Post. January 10, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
- "Louisiana: Simpkins, C. O.", Who's Who in American Politics, 2003-2004, 19th ed., Vol. 1 (Alabama-Montana) (Marquis Who's Who: New Providence, New Jersey, 2003), p. 794
- Elizabeth H. Oakes, "Wheeler, Emma Rochelle (1882-1957), American Physician," in Oakes, Encyclopedia of World Scientists, rev. ed. (New York: Infobase Publications, 2007), 763-764.
- Arsenault, Kathy (January 17, 2001). "The Ernest Ayer Ponder Collection" (PDF). University of South Florida St. Petersburg: Digital Archive. University of South Florida St. Petersburg. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- Johnson, Charles (2000). The Spirit of a Place Called Meharry. Franklin, Tennessee: Hillsboro Press.
- Smith, John Abernathy. Cross and Flame: Two Centuries of United Methodism in Middle Tennessee. Commission on Archives and History of the Tennessee Conference, United Methodist Church, Parthenon Press, Nashville, Tennessee (1984)..
- Summerville, James. Educating Black Doctors; A History of Meharry Medical College. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1983.
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