Portal:Mathematics
The Mathematics Portal
Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered.
Selected article  Selected picture  Did you know...  Topics in mathematics
Categories  WikiProjects  Things you can do  Index  Related portals
There are approximately 31,444 mathematics articles in Wikipedia.
Selected article
A polar grid with several angles labeled Image credit: User:Mets501 
The polar coordinate system is a twodimensional coordinate system in which points are given by an angle and a distance from a central point known as the pole (equivalent to the origin in the more familiar Cartesian coordinate system). The polar coordinate system is used in many fields, including mathematics, physics, engineering, navigation and robotics. It is especially useful in situations where the relationship between two points is most easily expressed in terms of angles and distance; in the Cartesian coordinate system, such a relationship can only be found through trigonometric formulae. For many types of curves, a polar equation is the simplest means of representation of variables.
It is known that the Greeks used the concepts of angle and radius. The astronomer Hipparchus (190120 BC) tabulated a table of chord functions giving the length of the chord for each angle, and there are references to his using polar coordinates in establishing stellar positions.
View all selected articles  Read More... 
Selected picture
This is a handdrawn graph of the absolute value (or modulus) of the gamma function on the complex plane, as published in the 1909 book Tables of Higher Functions, by Eugene Jahnke and Fritz Emde. Such threedimensional graphs of complicated functions were rare before the advent of highresolution computer graphics (even today, tables of values are used in many contexts to look up function values instead of consulting graphs directly). Published even before applications for the complex gamma function were discovered in theoretical physics in the 1930s, Jahnke and Emde's graph "acquired an almost iconic status", according to physicist Michael Berry. See a similar computergenerated image for comparison. When restricted to positive integers, the gamma function generates the factorials through the relation Γ(n) = (n − 1)!, which is the product of all positive integers from n − 1 down to 1 (0! is defined to be equal to 1). For real and complex numbers, the function is defined by the improper integral . This integral diverges when t is a negative integer, which is causing the spikes in the left half of the graph (these are simple poles of the function, where its values increase to infinity, analogous to asymptotes in twodimensional graphs). The gamma function has applications in quantum physics, astrophysics, and fluid dynamics, as well as in number theory and probability.
Did you know...
 ...with a Perrin number denoted P(i), i=1,2,3..., when i is prime then P(i) is composite, being divisible by i?
 ...that Auction theory was successfully used in 1994 to sell FCC airwave spectrum, in a financial application of game theory?
 ...properties of Pascal's triangle have application in many fields of mathematics including combinatorics, algebra, calculus and geometry?
 ...work in artificial intelligence makes use of Swarm intelligence, which has foundations in the behavorial examples found in nature of ants, birds, bees, and fish among others?
 ...that statistical properties dictated by Benford's Law are used in auditing of financial accounts as one means of detecting fraud?
 ...that Modular arithmetic has application in at least ten different fields of study, including the arts, computer science, and chemistry in addition to mathematics?
 ... that according to Kawasaki's theorem, an origami crease pattern with one vertex may be folded flat if and only if the sum of every other angle between consecutive creases is 180º?
WikiProjects
The Mathematics WikiProject is the center for mathematicsrelated editing on Wikipedia. Join the discussion on the project's talk page.
Project pages
Essays
Subprojects
Related projects
Things you can do
Categories
Algebra  Arithmetic  Analysis  Complex analysis  Applied mathematics  Calculus  Category theory  Chaos theory  Combinatorics  Dynamic systems  Fractals  Game theory  Geometry  Algebraic geometry  Graph theory  Group theory  Linear algebra  Mathematical logic  Model theory  Multidimensional geometry  Number theory  Numerical analysis  Optimization  Order theory  Probability and statistics  Set theory  Statistics  Topology  Algebraic topology  Trigonometry  Linear programming
Mathematics (books)  History of mathematics  Mathematicians  Awards  Education  Literature  Notation  Organizations  Theorems  Proofs  Unsolved problems
Topics in mathematics
General  Foundations  Number theory  Discrete mathematics 



Algebra  Analysis  Geometry and topology  Applied mathematics 
Index of mathematics articles
ARTICLE INDEX:  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (0–9) 
MATHEMATICIANS:  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
Related portals
Algebra  Analysis  Category theory 
Computer science 
Cryptography  Discrete mathematics 
Geometry 
Logic  Mathematics  Number theory 
Physics  Science  Set theory  Statistics  Topology 