Santiago Apóstol Parish (Tequixquiac)

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Santiago Apóstol Parish
Parroquia de Santiago Tequixquiac (1).jpg
Santiago Apóstol parish in Tequixquiac.
19°54′37″N 99°08′51″W / 19.91034°N 99.14748°W / 19.91034; -99.14748Coordinates: 19°54′37″N 99°08′51″W / 19.91034°N 99.14748°W / 19.91034; -99.14748
LocationSantiago Tequixquiac
CountryMexico
DenominationRoman Catholic
History
StatusParish
Consecrated1590

Santiago Apóstol parish is the Catholic church and parish house of the people of downtown Santiago Tequixquiac, in the Diocese of Cuautitlán in Mexico[1] It is dedicated to Saint James Apostle and includes a sanctuary where the image of Lord of the Chapel is venerated. It is located in the center of town, near Plaza Cuautémoc, by Juárez Avenue. The colonial building in the municipality of Tequixquiac is a monument of great architectural importance, remaining intact to this day.[2]

History[edit]

The viceregal government directed this construction in Teotlalpan.[3] It had the Franciscans build chapels in the encomiendas around which the Chichimeca Indians were settled. The church of Santiago Tequixquiac had authority over the new villages of San Mateo Hueycalco, San Sebastián Tlalachco, San Francisco Apazco and others, by order of the archbishop of Mexico City. The first Christian church was constructed in 1569 but destroyed by a rebellion of the indigenousr people. It became a formal parish in 1590,[4] the first priest being a Spanish Franciscan, Juan Arias de León.[5]

In 1650, the commissioner of the Inquisition of New Spain founded Tequixquiac town with the priest Nicolás de Arellano in charge,[6] to address all issues of importance on the behavior of people around the parish and other towns. Here judgments were dictated principally against Spaniards and Mestizos. No executions were carried out here. It acted rather to mediate between the races, to oversee behavior, and to settle disputes over land and boundaries, as well as irregularities in jobs and tax revenue at mines. The problems considered serious were referred to the Palace of Holy Office or Inquisitor in Mexico City. Serious issues included bigamy, theft, murder, taxes evasion, sodomy, antagonism to the Roman Catholic Church, Sephardi or Jewish practices, or witchcraft.[7]

This region contained lime mines and stone mines for construction. One of the most common complaints was the exploitation of indigenous people, who were forced into labor, with mistreatment end in clashes and deaths. The priest Felix de Peñafiel redacted the Suma de Visitas in this parish for the Archbishop. It covers the number of inhabitants, the matters of Christian doctrine taught in Spanish, Nahuatl, and Otomi, complaints about lands, and the records of baptisms and of attendance at religious services.

During a drought, a sculpture of the "Señor de la Capilla" (Our Lord of the Chapel) was brought over to Tequixquiac from Apaxco. When the drought broke, the image was not returned, presumably because it was made of fiber and had grown too heavy to carry. It has remained in this town, and has many miracles attributed to it.

19th century and 20th century[edit]

Santiago Apóstol parish, after the Mexican Revolution, 1920

In 1804, the German explorer Alexander von Humboldt visited the town of Tequixquiac to study the topography and geography for drain waters of Mexico City via Zumpango. He observed how In the parish of Saint James Apostle a parish priest was beating the Indian people.[8][9]

After the independence of Mexico, public events were conducted inside the church: popular celebrations, election of the first mayor of Tequixquiac municipality in 1826, and a vote in 1851 to create the guard that protected the inhabitants, because the army could not protect the people from armed conflicts that were to emerge in the country.[10]

Religious service (wedding) at Santiago Apóstol parish, 1964

At the outbreak of the revolutionary movement of 1910, the church building was abandoned, the interior used as stables by the military, leading to looting and deterioration. In 1917 the Zapatista army recovered control of the town of Tequixquiac, under Otilio Montaño, and the inhabitants requested the opening of the church. This did not happen during the government of Plutarco Elias Calles, but in 1927 the Mexico State government and the bishopric acceded to the requests of the inhabitants and reopened the Santiago Apóstol Parish church.

In 1990, the 400th anniversary of the founding of Santiago Apóstol parish was celebrated with a party full of folklore and many baptisms, weddings, first communions and confirmations. The government of the State of Mexico and the municipal government helped support cultural events such as classical music, folk dance, theater, marches, and processions, as well as sporting events and traditional cuisine, with people invited from other Mexican states as well as from Spain, Italy and the United States.

21st century and present[edit]

December 16, 2006, parishioners made an official request for the removal of the pastor for officiating at religious services while intoxicated and for making sexual insinuations to women, at least 20 of whom gave written testimonies.[11]

Arts[edit]

Architecture[edit]

The walls are thick so that the church was a fortification in case of indigenous rebellions.

This church was constructed in various phases, with an indigenous workforce and the design under religious supervision. The architecture style is named tlaquitqui, because in some elements there are indigenous symbols and concepts.

The facade contains two doorways elaborately decorated in stonework, which includes indigenous symbolism. Both church and town are dedicated to the Apostle James.

This church has great counterforts to support the vault and dome in the form of a Latin cross; the walls are thick to serve as a fortification in case of indigenous rebellions. There is a strong Moorish influence both in the structure and tower, which has a similarity to forms of minarets of Islamic tower art.

The atrium was a large space encased in stone with a cross on top of it, and with Christian and indigenous symbols mixed on its walls. In each of its four corners there are wells and in the center there is an open space with Solomonic columns.

Interiors[edit]

Picture[edit]

Pictures of baroque.

The church contains Baroque masterpieces, pictures from the 16th and 17th centuries, with principal themes of St. Michael the Archangel, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and of purgatory..

There are murals in the domes. In the sacristy dome is a depiction of La crucificción de Jesucristo (Jesus Christ's crucifixion); the dome symbolizes heaven, whence angels, cherubs and saints look on; the central image is Christ being taken down from the cross.

Dance[edit]

Contradanza de las Varas, a dance founded by Spaniards in 1652.

The Contradanza de las Varas is a traditional creole dance performed by male parishioners in town celebrations. It is based not on indigenous dances but from northern Spain, between Asturias and Galicia (Spain), on 25 July in honor of the apostle James. In 1652 it was introduced by settlers, as tribute to God, and years later in honor of the Lord of Chapel. The name of contradanza comes from the use of two rose sticks (rosa gallica) that have colored ribbons with figures that become the rhythm of the dance steps.[12][13]

Another dance is La Trenza, danced only Mondays in Lord of the Chapel fair, using a colored pole with braided ribbons along with marching band music.

People[edit]

  • Alexander von Humboldt visited the town of Tequixquiac to study the topography and geography for drain waters of Mexico City via Zumpango. He observed how In the parish of Saint James Apostle a parish priest was beating the Indian people.[14][15]
  • Fortino Hipólito Vera y Talonia, born and baptized at Santiago Tequixquiac, was one of the first bishops of Cuernavaca.[16] His remains are inside this church, returned from Cuernavaca to Santiago Tequixquiac in 1938.

Priest's cronology[edit]

Priest Period Priest Period[17]
Mexico Narciso Prestegui 1948–1949 Mexico Federíco Ávalos 1961–1981
Mexico José Durán 1949 Mexico Fernando H. Recobos 1981–1982
Italy Nazario Gavotto 1949 Mexico Fernando Arenas 1982–1993
Mexico Carlos Vidal 1949 Mexico Samuel Montoya 1993–1995
Mexico Eduardo Aguilar 1949–1950 Mexico Víctor Ramírez 1995–2003
Mexico Santiago Domínguez 1950–1951 Mexico Cástulo Teheran 2007–2008
Mexico Hilarión Landa 1951–1955 Mexico José Dolores Hernández 2008–2009
Mexico Antonio Arreola 1955 Mexico Jesús de Guadalupe Olmos 2009–2012
Mexico Pedro González 1955–1956 Mexico Agustín Marcelino Gómez 2012–2016
Spain Saturnino Sanabria 1956–1959 Romania Isidor Tălmăcel Paicu 2016–
Mexico Jesús Meza 1959–1961

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Diosesis de Cuautitlán Archived 2016-06-17 at the Wayback Machine pp. 3.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2011-01-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Historic landmark in Tequixquiac (Spanish).
  3. ^ [1] Dimensión Antropológica.
  4. ^ Tequixquiac municipality INAFED.
  5. ^ Rodríguez Peláez, Maria Elena, Monografía municipal de Tequixquiac, Historia, Instituto Mexiquense de Cultura, Toluca de Lerdo, 1999. pp. 44.
  6. ^ [2] Miranda Ojeda, Pedro; Las Comisarías del Santo Oficio de la Nueva España siglo XVI Y XVII, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca de Lerdo, 2010. p.p. 49.
  7. ^ [3] Miranda Ojeda, Pedro; Las Comisarías del Santo Oficio de la Nueva España siglo XVI Y XVII, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca de Lerdo, 2010. p.p. 25.
  8. ^ Antología de la Nueva España. 1836.
  9. ^ Francisco de Garay Jiménez RUSSEK DE GARAY on Wednesday, October 30, 2013.
  10. ^ Rodríguez Peláez, Maria Elena, Monografía municipal de Tequixquiac, Historia, Instituto Mexiquense de Cultura, Toluca de Lerdo, 1999. pp. 84–85.
  11. ^ Feligreses cierran templo y acusan a cura de libidinoso La Jornada, 2006.
  12. ^ INAFED. "Link about the municipalities of Mexico (Monografía del municipio de Tequixquiac- Antecedentes Coloniales)". Retrieved 2016-04-16.
  13. ^ Rodríguez Peláez, Maria Elena, Monografía municipal de Tequixquiac, Denominación y toponinimia, Instituto Mexiquense de Cultura, Toluca de Lerdo, 1999. p.p. 47.
  14. ^ Antología de la Nueva España. 1836.
  15. ^ Francisco de Garay Jiménez RUSSEK DE GARAY on Wednesday, October 30, 2013.
  16. ^ "Diosesis de Cuernavaca". Hipólito Vera y Talonia. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
  17. ^ Rodríguez Peláez, Maria Elena, Monografía municipal de Tequixquiac, Historia, Instituto Mexiquense de Cultura, Toluca de Lerdo, 1999. p.p. 45.

Bibliography[edit]

  • La conquista espiritual en Tequixquiac, Miguel Ángel Olvera Vázquez, No.1 (El señor de la capilla) Enero-Marzo de 2007.
  • Monografía Municipal de Tequixquiac, Rodríguez Peláez María Elena, 1999.

External links[edit]