Southern Africa

Jump to navigation Jump to search
  Southern Africa (UN subregion)
  Geographic, including above

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries. The term southern Africa or Southern Africa, generally includes Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (formerly known as Swaziland), Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, though Angola and Zambia may be included in Central Africa and Malawi and Mozambique in East Africa.

Definitions and usage[edit]

Another geographic delineation for the region is the portion of Africa south of the Cunene and Zambezi Rivers : South Africa, Lesotho, Eswatini, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and the part of Mozambique which lies south of the Zambezi River. That definition is most often used in South Africa for natural sciences and particularly in guide books such as Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project and Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. It is not used in political, economic or human geography contexts because the definition cuts Mozambique in two.

UN scheme of geographic regions and SACU[edit]

In the United Nations scheme of geographic regions, five states constitute Southern Africa:[1]

The Southern African Customs Union (SACU), created in 1969, also comprises the five states in the UN subregion of Southern Africa.[2]

SADC membership[edit]

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) was established in 1980 to facilitate co-operation in the region. It includes:[3]

General usages[edit]

The region is sometimes reckoned to include other territories:

The Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania are more commonly reckoned in Central and Eastern Africa respectively but are occasionally included in Southern Africa, as they are SADC members.

Geography[edit]

A composite satellite image of Southern Africa

The terrain of Southern Africa is varied, ranging from forest[4] and grasslands to deserts. The region has both low-lying coastal areas, and mountains.

In terms of natural resources, the region has the world's largest resources of platinum and the platinum group elements, chromium, vanadium, and cobalt, as well as uranium, gold, copper, titanium, iron, manganese, silver, beryllium, and diamonds.[5]

Waterfall in the Witwatersrand region near Johannesburg

Southern Africa is set apart from other Sub-Saharan African regions because of its mineral resources, including copper, diamonds, gold, zinc, chromium, platinum, manganese, iron ore, and coal. Countries in Southern Africa are larger in geographic area, except three smaller landlocked states: Lesotho, Swaziland, and Malawi. The larger states- South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia, and Angola—all have extensive mineral deposits.[6]

These widespread mineral resources make this one of the wealthiest regions of Africa with the greatest potential for economic growth. A chain of mineral resources in Southern Africa stretches from the rich oil fields in northwest Angola, east through the central diamond-mining region in Huambo Province, and into the Copper Belt region of Zambia and Congo. A region of rich mineral deposits continues to the south called the Great Dyke in central Zimbabwe, through the Bushveld basin into South Africa. This extends southwest through the Witwatersrand and Northern Cape of South Africa toward the southern coast. Mining activity exists across the eastern region. Diamond mining is found in parts of Botswana and along the Namibian coast. Coal can also be found in central Mozambique, Zimbabwe and northeast South Africa.[7]

Climate[edit]

The climate of the region is broadly divided into subtropical and temperate regions in the north and south respectively, but also includes humid subtropical, a Mediterranean climate, highland subtropical, oceanic, desert and semi-arid regions. Except for lower regions of Zambia and interior regions of Namibia and Botswana, the region rarely suffers from extreme heat. In addition to that, the winter presents mostly mild and dry, except in the southwest. Cool southeasterly winds and high humidity bring cool conditions in the winter. Also the Namib desert is the driest area in the region.

Altitude plays an outsize role in moderating the temperatures of the South African Highveld, Lesotho and much of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The prairie region of central and northeast South Africa, Zimbabwe and parts of Zambia is known are known as the veldt, divided into the Bushveld and Highveld regions.

The Western Cape has a Mediterranean vegetation and climate, including the unique fynbos, grading eastward into an oceanic climate along the Garden Route to Port Elizabeth and East London, South Africa.[8] The Namib and Kalahari deserts form are arid lands in the centre-west separating the highlands, woodlands, croplands and pastures of wetter and higher East from the Atlantic ocean. In addition, the Drakensberg and Eastern Highlands separate the highland areas and coastal plains centered on Mozambique in the north and Kwazulu Natal to the south, the latter of which are often prone to flooding every few years. In the east the river systems of the Zambezi and Limpopo basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe.[9]

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

East and southern Africa are among the earliest regions where modern humans (Homo sapiens) and their predecessors are believed to have lived. In September 2019, scientists reported the computerized determination, based on 260 CT scans, of a virtual skull shape of the last common human ancestor to modern humans/H. sapiens, representative of the earliest modern humans, and suggested that modern humans arose between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago through a merging of populations in East and South Africa.[10][11]

Kingdom of Mapungubwe[edit]

Kingdom of Zimbabwe[edit]

Kingdom of Mutapa[edit]

Kingdom of Butua[edit]

Torwa dynasty[edit]

Rozwi Empire[edit]

Ndwandwe Kingdom[edit]

Zulu Kingdom[edit]

Merina Kingdom[edit]

Mthethwa Paramountcy[edit]

Post-colonial eras[edit]

Economy[edit]

Sandton, Johannesburg, the financial centre of South Africa

The region is distinct from the rest of Africa, with a robust mining sector and comparatively developed secondary and tertiary sectors. Additionally many countries (with the exception of Mozambique and Malawi in particular) have relatively well developed infrastructure. Some of its main exports including platinum, diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, chromium and uranium, Southern Africa still faces some of the problems of that the rest continent does. Despite this diamond production, has fueled the economies of Botswana and Namibia, for example.

Over the 20th century, the region developed a robust manufacturing sector, focused on South Africa and Zimbabwe, which allowed greater prosperity and investments into infrastructure, education and healthcare that elevated both nations into middle income economies and captured growing markets across Africa.[12] However, since the 1990s these industries have struggled in the face of globalisation and cheaper imports from China, leading to job losses particularly in heavy industry, gold mining and textiles. Zimbabwe in particular has seen significant de-industrialisation as a result of factors both domestic and foreign.[13] While colonialism has left its mark on the development over the course of history,[14][15] today poverty, corruption, and HIV/AIDS are some of the biggest factors impeding economic growth. In addition, South Africa and Zimbabwe in particular, face high emigration among their skilled workers leading to a significant brain drain to western economies and billions lost in human capital flight. The pursuit of economic and political stability is an important part of the region's goals, as demonstrated by the SADC, however complete regional integration remains an elusive target.

In terms of economic strength, South Africa is the dominant economy of the region. Generally, mining, agriculture, the public sector and tourism dominate the economies of Southern African countries, apart from South Africa which has mature and flourishing financial, retail, and construction sectors. Zimbabwe maintains a smaller banking and real estate sector along with what remains of its manufacturing industry, despite a protracted economic crisis. Most global banks have their regional offices for Southern Africa based in Johannesburg. Over the years, some the other Southern African nations have invested in economic diversification, and invested public funds into rail, road and air transportation as part of a concerted effort through SADC to boost regional trade and improve communication and transportation. The countries in this region also belong to the Southern Africa Power Pool, which facilitates the development of a competitive electricity market within the SADC region and ensures sustainable energy developments through sound economic, environmental and social practices. The main objective of the power pool is to develop a world class, robust and safe interconnected electrical system across the Southern African Region. According to a report by Southern Africa Power Pool, the three largest producers of electricity in Southern Africa as at 2017, include Eskom in South Africa with an estimated 46,963MW, Zesco in Zambia with 2,877MW and SNL of Angola with 2,442MW. Whilst moderately successful by African standards, the region largely lags behind their Asian counterparts in innovation, foreign direct investment, STEM sciences and research and development.[16]

Environment[edit]

Southern Africa has a wide diversity of ecoregions including grassland, bushveld, karoo, savannah and riparian zones. Even though considerable disturbance has occurred in some regions from habitat loss due to human population density or export-focused development, there remain significant numbers of various wildlife species, including white rhino, lion,[17] African leopard, impala, kudu, blue wildebeest, vervet monkey and elephant. It has complex Plateaus that create massive mountain structures along the South African border.

There are numerous environmental issues in Southern Africa, including air pollution and desertification.

Culture[edit]

Art[edit]

Architecture[edit]

Clothing[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Music[edit]

Religion[edit]

Film industry[edit]

Demographics and languages[edit]

Southern Africa is home to many people. It was initially populated by indigenous or native Africans San, Khoikhoi[18] and Pygmies in widely dispersed concentrations. Due to the Bantu expansion which edged the previous native African peoples to the more remote areas of the region, the majority of African ethnic groups in this region, including the Xhosa, Zulu, Tsonga, Swazi, Northern Ndebele, Southern Ndebele, Tswana, Sotho, Northern Sotho, Shona people, Mbundu, Ovimbundu, Shona, Chaga and Sukuma, speak Bantu languages. The process of colonization and settling resulted in a significant population of native European (Afrikaner, British, Portuguese Africans, etc.) and Asian descent (Cape Malays, Indian South Africans, etc.) in many southern African countries.

Science and technology[edit]

Agriculture and food security[edit]

Some key factors affecting the food security within the regions including political instability, poor governance, droughts, population growth, urbanisation, poverty, low economic growth, inadequate agricultural policies, trade terms and regimes, resource degradation and the recent increase in HIV/AIDS.[19][20]

These factors vary from country to country. For example, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has favourable climatic and physical conditions, but performs far below its capacity in food provision due to political instability and poor governance. In contrast, semi-arid countries such as Botswana and Namibia, produce insufficient food, but successfully achieve food security through food imports due to economic growth, political stability and good governance. The Republic of South Africa is a major food producer and exporter in the region.[21]

Data on agricultural production trends and food insecurity especially in term of food availability for Southern Africa is readily available through the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) and Southern African Development Community (SADC) - Food, Agriculture and Nature Resource Directorate (FARN). However, this data might not fully capture the reality of a region with large urban populations and where food insecurity goes beyond per-capita availability to issues of access and dietary adequacy.[22][23]

Urban food security has been noted as an emerging area of concern in the region, with recent data showing high levels of food insecurity amongst low-income households. In a study of eleven cities in nine countries: Blantyre, Cape Town, Gaborone, Harare, Johannesburg, Lusaka, Maputo, Manzini, Maseru, Msunduzi (Durban Metro) and Windhoek, only 17% of households were categorized as ‘food-secure’ while more than half (57%) of all households surveyed were found to be ‘severely food-insecure’.[24]

Some factors affecting urban food insecurity include climate change with potential impact on agricultural productivity, the expansion of supermarkets in the region, which is changing the way people obtain food in the city, rural-to-urban migration, unemployment, and poverty.[25][26][27][28] The issue of food insecurity in general and urban food insecurity in particular in the region is also characterized by an increased consumption of caloric junk food and processed foods leading to potential increase in the co-existence of undernutrition and dietary-related chronic diseases such as obesity and hypertension.[29][30] In South Africa for example, while over 50% experience hunger, 61% are overweight or morbidly obese.[31][32][33] There is only limited data on the other Southern African countries.

From 2018 to 2020, parts of the region suffered from a period of drought.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings".
  2. ^ "Southern African Customs Union (SACU) official website".
  3. ^ "Southern African Development Community :: Home". www.sadc.int.
  4. ^ Cowling, R. M. (editor); (et al.) (2004) Vegetation of Southern Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 0521548012
  5. ^ SADC. "Mining". Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  6. ^ http://news.globallandscapesforum.org/40339/a-visual-journey-across-african-landscapes/
  7. ^ http://www.routledge.com/Southern-African-Landscapes-and-Environmental-Change/Holmes-Boardman/p/book/9780367588885
  8. ^ http://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/africa-physical-geography/
  9. ^ http://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/africa-physical-geography/
  10. ^ Zimmer, Carl (10 September 2019). "Scientists Find the Skull of Humanity's Ancestor — on a Computer - By comparing fossils and CT scans, researchers say they have reconstructed the skull of the last common forebear of modern humans". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  11. ^ Mounier, Aurélien; Lahr, Marta (2019). "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 3406. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.3406M. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11213-w. PMC 6736881. PMID 31506422.
  12. ^ http://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/26803999.pdf
  13. ^ http://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=224027017022099121068092026081107120034088085082033007113020114000022113104105023106005038115104046010035023078007110096016102121014024022061104126065025075094008087036049055088080120000002120003122001073106121123010003064092122087100076105010073098024&EXT=pdf&INDEX=TRUE
  14. ^ Wkley (2002). Deep Histories : gender and colonialism in Southern Africa. Amsterdam [u.a.]: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-1229-3.
  15. ^ Bauer & Taylor (2005). Politics in Southern Africa : state and society in transition. Boulder [u.a.]: Rienner. ISBN 1-58826-332-0.
  16. ^ http://developingeconomics.org/2019/08/20/should-the-african-lion-learn-from-the-asian-tigers-a-comparison-of-fdi-oriented-industrial-policy-in-ethiopia-south-korea-and-taiwan/
  17. ^ Bauer, H.; Packer, C.; Funston, P. F.; Henschel, P. & Nowell, K. (2016). "Panthera leo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T15951A115130419. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T15951A107265605.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link){{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)
  18. ^ Goeieman, Fred (November 30, 2011). "Bridging a hundred year-old separation". Namibian Sun. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
  19. ^ de Waal, Alex; Whiteside, Alan (1 October 2003). "New variant famine: AIDS and food crisis in southern Africa". The Lancet. 362 (9391): 1234–1237. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14548-5. PMID 14568749. S2CID 562611.
  20. ^ Misselhorn, Alison (2005). "What drives food insecurity in southern Africa? a meta-analysis of household economy studies". Global Environmental Change. 15: 33–43. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.11.003.
  21. ^ Yu, Bingxin; Liangzhi You; Shenggen Fan (January 2010). "Toward a Typology of Food Security in Developing Countries" (PDF). International Food Policy Research Institute. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00945. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  22. ^ FEWS, NET. "Southern Africa Country Centers". Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  23. ^ SADC, FANR. "Food Security". Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  24. ^ al.], Bruce Frayne .. [et (2010). The state of urban food insecurity in Southern Africa (PDF). [Cape Town]: AFSUN. ISBN 978-0-9869820-1-9.
  25. ^ Battersby, Jane (1 June 2012). "Beyond the food desert: finding ways to speak about urban food security in South Africa". Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography. 94 (2): 141–159. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0467.2012.00401.x. S2CID 55452849.
  26. ^ Crush, J.; Hovorka, A.; Tevera, D. (21 June 2011). "Food security in Southern African cities: The place of urban agriculture". Progress in Development Studies. 11 (4): 285–305. doi:10.1177/146499341001100402. S2CID 55778001.
  27. ^ Riley, Liam; Legwegoh, Alexander (18 June 2013). "Comparative urban food geographies in Blantyre and Gaborone". African Geographical Review. 33: 52–66. doi:10.1080/19376812.2013.805148. S2CID 154319323.
  28. ^ Mkwambisi, David D.; Fraser, Evan D. G.; Dougill, Andy J. (1 March 2011). "Urban agriculture and poverty reduction: Evaluating how food production in cities contributes to food security, employment and income in Malawi". Journal of International Development. 23 (2): 181–203. doi:10.1002/jid.1657. S2CID 13382935.
  29. ^ Crush, Jonathan; Frayne, Bruce; McLachlan, Milla (2011). Rapid urbanization and the nutrition transition in southern Africa. [Cape Town]: African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN). ISBN 978-1-920409-69-2.
  30. ^ Wrotniak, B. H.; Malete, L.; Maruapula, S. D.; Jackson, J.; Shaibu, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Stettler, N.; Compher, C. (1 April 2012). "Association between socioeconomic status indicators and obesity in adolescent students in Botswana, an African country in rapid nutrition transition". Pediatric Obesity. 7 (2): e9–e13. doi:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2011.00023.x. PMID 22434762. S2CID 206007700.
  31. ^ Fat in Motion. "Obesity in SA". Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  32. ^ Reddy, SP; Resnicow, K; James, S; Kambaran, N; Omardien, R; MBewu, AD (12 June 2008). "Underweight, overweight and obesity among South African adolescents: results of the 2002 National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey". Public Health Nutrition. 12 (2): 203–7. doi:10.1017/S1368980008002656. PMID 18547451.
  33. ^ LABADARIOS, Demetre; Yul Derek DAVIDS; Zandile MCHIZA; Gina WEIR-SMITH (31 March 2009). "THE ASSESSMENT OF FOOD INSECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA" (PDF). Human Sciences Research Council. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  34. ^ "Hunger in Africa continues to rise, says New UN report". East African Business Week. 2019-02-14. Retrieved 2019-02-15.

Further reading[edit]

  • "Southern Africa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2013-05-20. (subscription required)