|United States Senator|
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2013
Serving with John Cornyn
|Preceded by||Kay Bailey Hutchison|
|3rd Solicitor General of Texas|
January 9, 2003 – May 12, 2008
|Preceded by||Julie Parsley|
|Succeeded by||James C. Ho|
Rafael Edward Cruz
December 22, 1970
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Heidi Nelson (m. 2001)
|Relatives||Rafael Cruz (father)|
|Education||Princeton University (BA)|
Harvard University (JD)
Rafael Edward Cruz (//; born December 22, 1970) is an American politician and attorney serving as the junior United States Senator for Texas since 2013. He was the runner-up for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
Cruz holds degrees from Princeton University and Harvard Law School. From 1999 to 2003, he held various government positions, serving as Director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), as an Associate Deputy Attorney General at the United States Department of Justice, and as a Domestic Policy Advisor to George W. Bush during Bush's 2000 presidential campaign. Cruz served as Solicitor General of Texas from 2003 to 2008, having been appointed by Texas Attorney General and later Governor Greg Abbott. He was the longest-serving solicitor general in Texas history and the first Hispanic American to serve in that capacity. From 2004 to 2009, Cruz was an adjunct professor at the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, where he taught U.S. Supreme Court litigation.
In 2012, Cruz ran for and won the U.S. Senate seat being vacated by fellow Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison. He is the first Hispanic American to serve as a U.S. Senator from Texas. In 2016, Cruz ran for President of the United States, winning Republican contests in 12 states before withdrawing from the race. He was reelected to the Senate in 2018, defeating Democratic challenger Beto O'Rourke by a slim margin of 50.9% to 48.3% in the most expensive Senate race in U.S. history. Along with Bob Menendez and Marco Rubio, Cruz is one of three current U.S. Senators of Cuban descent.
- 1 Early life and family
- 2 Education
- 3 Legal career
- 4 U.S. Senate
- 5 2016 presidential campaign
- 6 Political positions
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Electoral history
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early life and family
Cruz was born Rafael Edward Cruz on December 22, 1970, at Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary, Alberta, to Eleanor Elizabeth (née Darragh) Wilson and Rafael Cruz. Eleanor Wilson was born in Wilmington, Delaware. She is of three-quarters Irish and one-quarter Italian descent, and earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Rice University in the 1950s.
Cruz's father was born and raised in Cuba. He left in 1957 to attend the University of Texas at Austin and obtained political asylum in the U.S. after his four-year student visa expired. He earned Canadian citizenship in 1973 and became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 2005.
At the time of his birth, Ted Cruz's parents had lived in Calgary for three years and were working in the oil business as owners of a seismic-data processing firm for oil drilling. Cruz has said that he is the son of "two mathematicians/computer programmers." In 1974, Cruz's father left the family and moved to Texas. Later that year, Cruz's parents reconciled and relocated the family to Houston. They divorced in 1997. Cruz has two older half-sisters, Miriam Ceferina Cruz and Roxana Lourdes Cruz, from his father's first marriage. Miriam died in 2011.
During high school, Cruz participated in a Houston-based group known at the time as the Free Market Education Foundation, a program that taught high school students the philosophies of economists such as Milton Friedman and Frédéric Bastiat.
Cruz graduated cum laude from Princeton University in 1992 with a Bachelor of Arts in public policy from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. While at Princeton, he competed for the American Whig-Cliosophic Society's Debate Panel and won the top speaker award at both the 1992 U.S. National Debating Championship and the 1992 North American Debating Championship. In 1992, he was named U.S. National Speaker of the Year and, with his debate partner David Panton, Team of the Year by the American Parliamentary Debate Association. Cruz and Panton later represented Harvard Law School at the 1995 World Debating Championship, losing in the semifinals to a team from Australia. Princeton's debate team named their annual novice championship after Cruz.
Cruz's senior thesis at Princeton investigated the separation of powers; its title, Clipping the Wings of Angels, was inspired by a passage attributed to James Madison: "If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary." Cruz argued that the drafters of the Constitution intended to protect their constituents' rights, and that the last two items in the Bill of Rights offer an explicit stop against an all-powerful state.
After graduating from Princeton, Cruz attended Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude in 1995 with a Juris Doctor degree. While at Harvard Law, he was a primary editor of the Harvard Law Review, an executive editor of the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, and a founding editor of the Harvard Latino Law Review. Referring to Cruz's time as a student at Harvard Law, Professor Alan Dershowitz said, "Cruz was off-the-charts brilliant". At Harvard Law, Cruz was a John M. Olin Fellow in Law and Economics.
Cruz served as a law clerk to J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 1995 and to William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States, in 1996. He was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States.
After Cruz finished his clerkships, he took a position with Cooper, Carvin & Rosenthal, now known as Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, from 1997 to 1998. At the firm, Cruz worked on matters relating to the National Rifle Association and helped prepare testimony for the impeachment proceedings against President Bill Clinton. In 1998, Cruz was briefly one of the attorneys who represented Representative John Boehner during his litigation against Representative Jim McDermott over the alleged leak of an illegal recording of a phone conversation whose participants included Boehner.
Cruz joined the George W. Bush presidential campaign in 1999 as a domestic policy adviser, advising then-Governor Bush on a wide range of policy and legal matters, including civil justice, criminal justice, constitutional law, immigration, and government reform. During the 2000 Florida presidential recounts, he assisted in assembling the Bush legal team, devising strategy, and drafting pleadings for filing with the Supreme Court of Florida and U.S. Supreme Court in the case Bush v. Gore. Cruz recruited future Chief Justice John Roberts and noted attorney Mike Carvin to Bush's legal team.
After Bush took office, Cruz served as an Associate Deputy Attorney General in the U.S. Justice Department and as the director of policy planning at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.
Texas Solicitor General
Appointed to the office of Solicitor General of Texas by Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott, Cruz served in that position from 2003 to 2008. The office was established in 1999 to handle appeals involving the state, but Abbott hired Cruz with the idea that Cruz would take a "leadership role in the United States in articulating a vision of strict constructionism". As Solicitor General, Cruz argued before the Supreme Court of the United States nine times, winning five cases and losing four.
Cruz authored 70 U.S. Supreme Court briefs and presented 43 oral arguments. His nine appearances before the Supreme Court are the most by any practicing lawyer in Texas or current member of Congress. Cruz has said, "We ended up year after year arguing some of the biggest cases in the country. There was a degree of serendipity in that, but there was also a concerted effort to seek out and lead conservative fights."
In 2003, while Cruz was Texas Solicitor General, the Texas Attorney General's office declined to defend Texas's sodomy law in Lawrence v. Texas, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state laws banning homosexual sex were unconstitutional.
In the landmark case of District of Columbia v. Heller, Cruz drafted the amicus brief signed by the attorneys general of 31 states arguing that the Washington, D.C. handgun ban should be struck down as infringing upon the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms. He also presented oral argument for the amici states in the companion case to Heller before the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
In addition to his success in Heller, Cruz successfully defended the constitutionality of the Ten Commandments monument on the Texas State Capitol grounds before the Fifth Circuit and the U.S. Supreme Court, winning 5–4 in Van Orden v. Perry.
In 2004, Cruz was involved in the high-profile case surrounding a challenge to the constitutionality of public schools' requiring students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance (including the words "under God", legally a part of the Pledge since 1954), Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow. He wrote a brief on behalf of all 50 states that argued that the plaintiff, a non-custodial parent, did not have standing to file suit on his daughter's behalf. The Supreme Court upheld the position of Cruz's brief.
Cruz served as lead counsel for the state and successfully defended the multiple litigation challenges to the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting plan in state and federal district courts and before the U.S. Supreme Court, which was decided 5–4 in his favor in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry.
In Medellin v. Texas, Cruz successfully defended Texas against an attempt to reopen the cases of 51 Mexican nationals, all of whom were convicted of murder in the United States and on death row. With the support of the George W. Bush Administration, the petitioners argued that the United States had violated the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations by failing to notify the convicted nationals of their opportunity to receive legal aid from the Mexican consulate. They based their case on a decision of the International Court of Justice in the Avena case, which ruled that by failing to allow access to the Mexican consulate, the US had breached its obligations under the Convention. Texas won the case in a 6–3 decision, the Supreme Court holding that ICJ decisions were not binding in domestic law and that the President had no power to enforce them.
Michael Wayne Haley was arrested for stealing a calculator from Walmart in 1997. Because of Haley's previous criminal convictions, he was sentenced to 16-and-a-half years in prison under the Texas habitual offender law. After Haley had exhausted his appeals, it became known that Haley's robbery offense occurred three days before one of his other convictions was finalized; this raised a question about the applicability of the habitual offender statute in his case. As Solicitor General, Cruz declined to vacate Haley's sentence, saying "I think justice is being done because he had a full and fair trial and an opportunity to raise his errors." The Supreme Court later remanded the case to lower courts based on Haley's ineffective assistance of counsel claim. During oral argument, Cruz conceded that Haley had a very strong argument for ineffective assistance of counsel since Haley's attorney failed to recognize the sentencing error and that he would not move to have Haley re-incarcerated during the appeal process. After remand, Haley was re-sentenced to "time served".
In 2008 American Lawyer magazine named Cruz one of the 50 Best Litigators under 45 in America, and The National Law Journal named him one of the 50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America. In 2010 Texas Lawyer named him one of the 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter Century.
Return to private practice
After leaving the Solicitor General position in 2008, Cruz worked in a private law firm in Houston, Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, often representing corporate clients, until he was sworn in as U.S. senator from Texas in 2013. At Morgan Lewis, he led the firm's U.S. Supreme Court and national appellate litigation practice. In 2010, he abandoned a bid for state attorney general when incumbent Attorney General Greg Abbott, who hired Cruz as Solicitor General, decided to run for reelection.
At Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, Cruz represented Pfizer in a lawsuit brought by a group of public hospitals and community health centers, who accused Pfizer of overcharging. Shandong Linglong Rubber Company was found guilty of marketing versions of tires that were based on blueprints stolen by a former employee of a Florida businessman and ordered to pay $26 million to the Floridian. Cruz worked on the Chinese company's appellant brief. The appeals court denied the appeal and affirmed the jury's award. Cruz represented drug manufacturer B. Braun Medical Inc. in front of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit after the company was found guilty of wrongfully discharging a former employee. Cruz asserted that she had failed to prove that B. Braun had directed her to violate the law and that she had not presented sufficient evidence that her refusal to violate the law was why she had been fired. The appeals court rejected Cruz's argument and affirmed the $880,000 award. Cruz represented Toyota in an appeal to the Texas Supreme Court in a statute of limitations case, where a judge wanted to investigate Toyota for contempt after a former Toyota in-house lawyer accused Toyota of unlawfully withholding documents in a product liability case. Cruz unsuccessfully argued the judge's jurisdiction expired 30 days after the case was dismissed following an out-of-court settlement, but later won a second appeal using the same argument.
Cruz defended two record-setting $54-million personal injury awards in New Mexico at the appellate level, including one that had been thrown out by a lower court. He represented a mentally disabled man who was allegedly raped by an employee of the facility where he lived, and the family of a 78-year-old resident of an Albuquerque nursing home who died of internal bleeding. The settlements were sealed in both cases.
Cruz's victory in the Republican primary was described by the Washington Post as "the biggest upset of 2012 ... a true grassroots victory against very long odds". On January 19, 2011, after U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison said she would not seek reelection, Cruz announced his candidacy via a blogger conference call. In the Republican senatorial primary, Cruz ran against sitting Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst. Cruz was endorsed first by former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin and then by the Club for Growth, a fiscally conservative political action committee; Erick Erickson, former editor of prominent conservative blog RedState, the FreedomWorks for America super PAC, nationally syndicated radio host Mark Levin, Tea Party Express, Young Conservatives of Texas, and U.S. Senators Tom Coburn, Jim DeMint, Mike Lee, Rand Paul and Pat Toomey. He was also endorsed by former Texas Congressman Ron Paul, George P. Bush, and former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania Rick Santorum. Former Attorney General Edwin Meese served as national chairman of Cruz's campaign.
Cruz won the runoff for the Republican nomination by a 14-point margin over Dewhurst, support for Dewhurst having plummeted while Cruz's vote total dramatically increased from the first round. Cruz won despite being outspent by Dewhurst, who held a statewide elected office, $19 million to $7 million.
In the November 6 general election, Cruz faced Democratic nominee Paul Sadler, an attorney and a former state representative from Henderson, in east Texas. Cruz won with 4.5 million votes (56.4%) to Sadler's 3.2 million (40.6%). Two minor candidates garnered the remaining 3% of the vote. According to a poll by Cruz's pollster Wilson Perkins Allen Opinion Research, Cruz received 40% of the Hispanic vote, vs. 60% for Sadler, outperforming Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney with the Hispanic vote in Texas.
After Time magazine reported that Cruz might have violated ethics rules by failing to publicly disclose his financial relationship with Caribbean Equity Partners Investment Holdings during the 2012 campaign, he called his failure to disclose the connection an inadvertent omission.
In January 2016, The New York Times reported that Cruz and his wife had taken out nearly $1 million in low-interest loans from Goldman Sachs (where she worked) and Citibank, and failed to report them on Federal Election Commission disclosure statements as required by law. Cruz disclosed the loans on his Senate financial disclosure forms in July 2012, but not on the FEC form. There is no indication that Cruz's wife had any role in providing any of the loans, or that the banks did anything wrong. The loans were largely repaid by later campaign fundraising. A spokesperson for Cruz said his failure to report the loans to the FEC was "inadvertent" and that he would file supplementary paperwork.
As of November 2018, Cruz has sponsored 105 bills of his own, including:
- S.177, a bill to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the health-care related provisions of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, introduced January 29, 2013
- S.505, a bill to prohibit the use of drones to kill citizens of the United States within the United States, introduced March 7, 2013
- S.729 and S. 730, bills to investigate and prosecute felons and fugitives who illegally purchase firearms, and to prevent criminals from obtaining firearms through straw purchases and trafficking, introduced March 15, 2013
- S.1336, a bill to permit States to require proof of citizenship for registering to vote in federal elections, introduced July 17, 2013
- S.2170, a bill to increase coal, natural gas, and crude oil exports, to approve the construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline, to expand oil drilling offshore, onshore, in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, and in Indian reservations, to give states the sole power of regulating hydraulic fracturing, to repeal the Renewable Fuel Standard, to prohibit the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from regulating greenhouse gases, to require the EPA to assess how new regulations will affect employment, and to earmark natural resource revenue to paying off the federal government's debt, introduced March 27, 2014
- S.2415, a bill to amend the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 to eliminate all limits on direct campaign contributions to candidates for public office, introduced June 3, 2014
Government shutdown of 2013
Cruz had a leading role in the October 2013 government shutdown. Cruz gave a 21-hour Senate speech in an effort to hold up a federal budget bill and thereby defund the Affordable Care Act. Cruz persuaded the House of Representatives and House Speaker John Boehner to include an ACA defunding provision in the bill. In the U.S. Senate, former Majority Leader Harry Reid blocked the filibuster attempt because only 18 Republican Senators supported the filibuster. To supporters, the move "signaled the depth of Cruz's commitment to rein in government". This move was extremely popular among Cruz supporters, with Rick Manning of Americans for Limited Government naming Cruz "2013 Person of the Year" in an op-ed in The Hill, primarily for his filibuster against the Affordable Care Act. Cruz was also named "2013 Man of the Year" by conservative publications TheBlaze, FrontPage Magazine and The American Spectator, "2013 Conservative of the Year" by Townhall.com, and "2013 Statesman of the Year" by the Republican Party of Sarasota County, Florida. He was a finalist for Time magazine's "Person of the Year" in 2013. To critics, including some Republican colleagues such as Senator Lindsey Graham, the move was ineffective.
On April 1, 2014, Cruz introduced S. 2195, a bill that would allow the President of the United States to deny visas to any ambassador to the United Nations who has been found to have been engaged in espionage or terrorist activity against the United States or its allies and may pose a threat to U.S. national security interests. The bill was written in response to Iran's choice of Hamid Aboutalebi as its ambassador. Aboutalebi was involved in the Iran hostage crisis, in which of a number of American diplomats from the US embassy in Tehran were held captive in 1979.
Under the headline "A bipartisan message to Iran", Cruz thanked President Barack Obama for signing S. 2195 into law. The letter, published in the magazine Politico on April 18, 2014, starts with "Thanks to President Obama for joining a unanimous Congress and signing S. 2195 into law". Cruz also thanked senators from both political parties for "swiftly passing this legislation and sending it to the White House".
In his first two years in the Senate, Cruz attended 17 of 50 public Armed Services Committee hearings, 3 of 25 Commerce Committee hearings, 4 of the 12 Judiciary Committee hearings, and missed 21 of 135 roll call votes during the first three months of 2015.
- Committee on Armed Services
- Committee on the Judiciary
- Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation
- Committee on Rules and Administration
- Special Committee on Aging
Comments on President Obama
In a November 2014 Senate speech, Cruz accused the president of being "openly desirous to destroy the Constitution and this Republic". In the same speech, Cruz invoked the speeches of the ancient Roman senator Cicero against Catiline to denounce Obama's planned executive actions on immigration reform. Classics Professor Jesse Weiner, writing in The Atlantic, said that Cruz's analogy was "deeply disquieting" because "In casting Obama in the role of Catiline, Cruz unsubtly suggests that the sitting president was not lawfully elected and is the perpetrator of a violent insurrection to overthrow the government ... In effect, he accuses the president of high treason. Regardless of one's views on immigration reform and the Obama administration at large, this is dangerous rhetoric."
Cruz has repeatedly said that the 2015 international nuclear agreement with Iran "will make the Obama administration the world's leading financier of radical Islamic terrorism". In response, Obama called Cruz's statements an example of "outrageous attacks" from Republican critics that crossed the line of responsible discourse: "We've had a sitting senator, who also happens to be running for President, suggest that I'm the leading state sponsor of terrorism. Maybe this is just an effort to push Mr. Trump out of the headlines, but it's not the kind of leadership that is needed for America right now." Former Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney also criticized Cruz for his remarks, writing that although he, too, opposed the Iran agreement, Cruz's statement connecting Obama to terrorism was "way over the line" and "hurts the cause".
After the death of Associate Justice Antonin Scalia, Cruz expressed his view that the winner of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, rather than Obama, should appoint a new Justice. In June 2016, Cruz blamed the Obama administration for the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting, reasoning that it did not track the perpetrator Omar Mateen properly while he was on the terrorist watchlist. Following the terrorist attack on Nice, France, Cruz said in a statement that the country was at risk as a result of the Obama administration having a "willful blindness" to radical Islamists. With the passing of Fidel Castro in November, Cruz charged Obama with celebrating and lionizing Castro in public statements he made addressing the death. On December 28, after Secretary of State John Kerry gave a speech defending the U.S.'s decision to allow a U.N. resolution to pass that condemned Israeli settlements "on land meant to be part of a future Palestinian state", Cruz denounced the speech as "disgraceful", and said that history would remember Obama and Kerry as "relentless enemies of Israel". Cruz also accused the Obama administration of having a "radical anti-Israel agenda".
Comments on President Trump
In late January 2017, after Trump announced Neil Gorsuch as his Supreme Court nominee, Cruz praised Gorsuch as "brilliant and immensely talented" in a written statement. On February 23, while speaking at the 2017 CPAC, Cruz showed interest in Trump nominating young justices in the mold of Scalia and Clarence Thomas. On March 1, Cruz called Trump's joint address to Congress the previous day "positive" and "unifying". Cruz said that during his visit to the Mar-a-Lago estate on March 18, he spoke with affiliates of Trump while negotiating the American Health Care Act. On April 6, shortly after the Shayrat missile strike, Cruz released a statement displaying his interest in having Trump appeal to Congress to take "military action in Syria" to prevent Islamic terrorists from acquiring weapons stored in Syria.
In April 2018, in the blurb for Trump's entry on the Time 100 most influential people of 2017, Cruz wrote, "President Trump is doing what he was elected to do: disrupt the status quo." Cruz's authorship of the blurb was criticized by Charles Pierce of Esquire, Jay Willis of GQ, and CNN's Chris Cillizza.
Friction with fellow Republican members of Congress
Cruz has used harsh rhetoric against fellow Republican politicians, and his relationships with various Republican members of Congress have been strained. In 2013, Cruz called Republicans he thought were insufficiently resistant to Obama's proposals a "surrender caucus". He also called fellow Republicans out as "squishes" on gun-control issues during a Tea Party rally. Cruz's role in the United States federal government shutdown of 2013 in particular attracted criticism from a number of Republican colleagues. Republican Senator John McCain was reported to have particularly disliked Cruz; in a Senate floor speech in 2013, McCain denounced Cruz's reference to Nazis when discussing the Affordable Care Act. In March 2013, McCain also called Cruz and others "wacko birds" whose beliefs are not "reflective of the views of the majority of Republicans". During the 2016 Republican presidential primaries, John Boehner described Cruz as "Lucifer in the flesh", while during an interview, Lindsey Graham said, "If you killed Ted Cruz on the floor of the Senate, and the trial was in the Senate, nobody would convict you."
In a heated Senate floor speech in July 2015, Cruz accused Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell of telling "a flat-out lie" over his intentions to reauthorize the Export-Import Bank of the United States, which Cruz opposes. "What we just saw today was an absolute demonstration that not only what he told every Republican senator, but what he told the press over and over and over again was a simple lie", Cruz said. Cruz's "incendiary outburst" was "unusual in the cordial atmosphere of the Senate", according to Reuters. In the same speech, Cruz assailed the "Republican majority in both houses of Congresses" for what Cruz called an insufficiently conservative record. Cruz's speech, and especially his accusation against McConnell, was condemned by various senior Republican senators, with McCain saying that the speech was "outside the realm of Senate behavior" and "a very wrong thing to do". Orrin Hatch expressed a similar opinion: "I don't condone the use of that kind of language against another senator unless they can show definitive proof that there was a lie ... And I know the leader didn't lie." Cruz alleged that McConnell scheduled a vote on the Ex-Im Bank as part of a deal to persuade Democrats like Maria Cantwell to stop blocking a trade bill; McConnell denied there was any "deal", and that denial was what Cruz called a "lie". Hatch said McConnell did pledge to help Cantwell get a vote on the Ex-Im Bank.
Among Cruz's few close allies in the Senate is Mike Lee of Utah. Cruz has expressed pride in his reputation for having few allies, saying in June 2015 that he has been vilified for fighting "the Washington cartel".
When Boehner announced in September 2015 that he would step down and resign from the House, Cruz expressed his concern that before resigning Boehner might have "cut a deal with Nancy Pelosi to fund the Obama administration for the rest of its tenure". The following month, the budget agreement passed in the House by a vote of 266 to 187, with unanimous support from Democrats and Boehner, lifting the debt ceiling through March 2017, and Cruz called the agreement "complete and utter surrender".
Cruz is one of the Senate Republicans in favor of the "nuclear option", "to speed up consideration of President Trump's nominees". Changing the Senate's rules to a simple majority vote would "ensure a quicker pace on Trump's court picks".
Cruz ran for reelection to a second term in 2018. The primary elections for both parties were held on March 6, 2018. He easily won the Republican nomination with over 80% of the vote. He faced the Democratic nominee, U.S. Representative Beto O'Rourke, in the general election. The contest was unusually competitive for an election in Texas, with most polls showing Cruz only slightly ahead of O'Rourke. The race received significant media attention and became the most expensive U.S. Senate election in history.
On November 6, 2018, Cruz defeated O'Rourke by a margin of 50.9% to 48.3%.
2016 presidential campaign
As early as 2013, Cruz was widely expected to run for the presidency in 2016. On March 14, 2013, he gave the keynote speech at the annual Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Washington DC. He tied for 7th place in the 2013 CPAC straw poll on March 16, winning 4% of the votes cast. In October 2013, Cruz won the Values Voter Summit presidential straw poll with 42% of the vote. Cruz finished first in two presidential straw polls conducted in 2014 with 30.33% of the vote at the Republican Leadership Conference and 43% of the vote at the Republican Party of Texas state convention.
Cruz did speaking events in mid-2013 across Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina, all early primary states, leading to speculation that he was laying the groundwork for a run for President in 2016. Legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin described Cruz as the first potential presidential candidate to emphasize originalism as a major national issue.
On April 12, 2014, Cruz spoke at the Freedom Summit, an event organized by Americans for Prosperity and Citizens United. The event was attended by several potential presidential candidates. In his speech, Cruz mentioned that Latinos, young people and single mothers are the people most affected by the recession, and that the Republican Party should make outreach efforts to these constituents. He also said that the words "growth and opportunity" should be tattooed on the hands of every Republican politician.
Cruz delivered one of many State of the Union responses in January 2015.
On March 23, 2015, Cruz announced his 2016 presidential candidacy for the GOP primaries and caucuses, in a morning speech delivered at Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia. Also, at the same hour, he posted on his Twitter page: "I'm running for President and I hope to earn your support!" He was the first announced major Republican presidential candidate for the 2016 campaign. During the primary campaign, his base of support was mainly among social conservatives, though he had crossover appeal to other factions within his party, including in particular libertarian conservatives.
HarperCollins published Cruz's book A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America on June 30, 2015. The book reached the bestseller list of several organizations in its first week of release.
In the 2016 Republican presidential primaries, Cruz received over 7.8 million votes, won 12 states, and earned 559 delegates. He raised nearly $92 million, a record for a GOP primary candidate, much of it from small online donors. The Cruz campaign had more than 325,000 volunteers.
On February 1, 2016, Cruz won the Iowa caucuses. The Iowa win made him the first Hispanic to win either a presidential primary election or caucus. Cruz received 28% of the vote. On February 10, 2016, Cruz placed third in the New Hampshire primary, with about 12% of the vote. On February 21, 2016, he placed third in the South Carolina Republican primary with about 22.3% of the vote.
On March 1, 2016, Super Tuesday primary day, Cruz won Texas by 17%, along with Alaska and Oklahoma, providing him with four state primary victories total. In the Texas primary, Cruz received the most votes in all but six of the state's 254 counties. On March 5, 2016, Cruz won the Kansas and Maine caucuses, giving him six statewide wins.
Cruz won his widest margin up to that point in Kansas, where he beat frontrunner Donald Trump by 25 points. With his victories over Trump in Texas, Kansas, and Maine, Cruz established himself as the candidate with the best opportunity to defeat Trump, the leading contender for the nomination.
On March 8, 2016, Cruz won the Idaho primary with 45% of vote—defeating Trump by 17% and earning his seventh statewide victory. He placed second in Michigan, Mississippi, and Hawaii. On March 12, 2016, Cruz won the Wyoming county conventions with 67% of the vote and 9 delegates, giving him his eighth statewide win.
On March 22, 2016, Cruz won the Utah Caucus with 69.2% of the vote, versus John Kasich with 16.8% and Donald Trump with 14%. Because Cruz surpassed the 50% winner-take-all threshold, he won all 40 of Utah's delegates. This win was his ninth. On April 3, 2016, North Dakota elected a slate of delegates that was dominated by pro-Cruz delegates. Cruz received the support of the majority of the delegates.
On April 6, 2016, Cruz won the Wisconsin primary with 48.2% of the vote, with Trump receiving 35.1%. It was Cruz's tenth statewide win. Cruz won 36 of the possible 42 delegates available in Wisconsin. Trump received the other 6 delegates. On April 2 and 7–9, 2016, Cruz swept the Colorado congressional district and state conventions taking all 34 delegates. This gave Cruz his eleventh state win. On April 16, 2016, Cruz won all 14 of Wyoming's at-large delegates in the state convention. This secured the majority of state delegates giving Cruz his twelfth state win. On April 27, 2016, Cruz announced that, if he were selected as the party's nominee, he would choose former CEO of HP and fellow 2016 Republican presidential candidate Carly Fiorina as his vice-presidential running mate. Shortly after losing overwhelmingly to Trump in the Indiana primary on May 3, 2016, Cruz officially announced his decision to suspend his campaign.
Cruz has stated that when he was a child, his mother told him that she would have to make an affirmative act to claim Canadian citizenship for him, so his family assumed that he did not hold Canadian citizenship. In August 2013, after the Dallas Morning News pointed out that Cruz had dual Canadian-American citizenship, he applied to formally renounce his Canadian citizenship and ceased being a citizen of Canada on May 14, 2014.
Several lawsuits and ballot challenges asserting that Cruz is ineligible to become U.S. president have been filed. No lawsuit or challenge has been successful, and in February 2016, the Illinois Board of Elections ruled in Cruz's favor, stating, "The candidate is a natural born citizen by virtue of being born in Canada to his mother who was a U.S. citizen at the time of his birth."
In the months following, several publications noted that Cruz still had not endorsed Trump, Cruz explaining in June that he was "watching and assessing" to determine if he would support him in the forthcoming general election. On July 7, after a meeting with Trump, Cruz confirmed that he would be speaking at the 2016 Republican National Convention.
In his speech on July 20, the third day of the convention, Cruz congratulated Trump but did not endorse him. He instead told listeners to "vote your conscience, vote for candidates up and down the ticket who you trust to defend our freedom and to be faithful to the Constitution". The speech was met with boos and a negative reception among the crowd. The following day at the Texas Republican delegation breakfast, Cruz defended his choice to not endorse Trump: "I am not in the habit of supporting people who attack my wife and attack my father. That pledge was not a blanket commitment that if you go and slander and attack Heidi, that I'm going to nonetheless come like a servile puppy dog and say, 'Thank you very much for maligning my wife and maligning my father.'" Two months later, on September 23, 2016, Cruz publicly endorsed Trump for president.
On October 10, following the 2005 audio recording of Trump being released and several Republicans retracting their endorsements, Cruz reaffirmed his support, citing Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton as being "manifestly unfit to be President". On November 15, Cruz met with President-elect Trump at the Trump Tower in New York City. It had been reported that Trump was considering Cruz for the position of U.S. Attorney General, but the position ultimately went to Alabama Senator Jeff Sessions. On November 28, in light of Trump showing a softer tone on his campaign promises, Cruz warned that justified backlash could ensue if he strayed from them.
Cruz is a critic of the rapprochement between Communist Cuba and the United States, saying on Fox News in December 2014 that the thaw in relations was a "manifestation of the failures of the Obama-Clinton-Kerry foreign policy" that "will be remembered as a tragic mistake".
In July 2018, Cruz spoke at the Rally for Religious Freedom in Asia. Cruz said, "'It is a pleasure to be here and stand in solidarity for the men and women across this globe who have been persecuted by communists... We must stand united, in shining light, in highlighting heroism, in highlighting courage, in speaking out for those like my family, like so many millions across the globe who've seen the jackboot of communism firsthand.'"
Crime, guns, and drug policy
Cruz has called for an end to "overcriminalization, harsh mandatory minimum sentences, and the demise of jury trials". He supports the death penalty. In his 2012 Senate campaign, Cruz frequently mentioned his role as counsel for the State of Texas in Medellín v. Texas, a 2008 case in which the U.S. Supreme Court found that Texas has the legal right to ignore an order from the International Court of Justice directing the U.S. to review the convictions and sentences of dozens of Mexican nationals on death row. Cruz has referred to Medellín as the most important case of his tenure as Texas solicitor general.
In an interview with radio host Hugh Hewitt discussing the attack that killed three people at a Planned Parenthood clinic in Colorado Springs, Cruz said that "the simple and undeniable fact is the overwhelming majority of violent criminals are Democrats", and that the reason Democrats are soft on crime, is that convicted felons tend to vote Democratic.
In August 2015, in the wake of the ambush death of a Texas police officer who was gunned down while filling up at a gas station, Cruz said that police are "feeling the assault from the President, from the top on down, as we see – whether it's in Ferguson or Baltimore, the response from senior officials, the President or the Attorney General, is to vilify law enforcement. That's wrong. It's fundamentally wrong. It's endangering all of our safety and security."
Cruz opposes the legalization of marijuana, but believes it should be decided at the state level. Following the legalization of marijuana in Colorado he stated that, "If the citizens of Colorado decide they want to go down that road, that's their prerogative. I personally don't agree with it, but that's their right."
Cruz has been described by the Cato Institute's Center for Trade Policy Studies as a "free trader" and as a "free-trade advocate" by The Wall Street Journal. In 2013, Cruz proposed the abolition of the IRS and the implementation of a flat tax "where the average American can fill out taxes on a postcard". Cruz is "adamantly opposed to a higher minimum wage".
Cruz wants to decrease the size of the government significantly. In addition to eliminating the IRS as described above, he has promised to eliminate four other cabinet-level agencies. Cruz proposes to eliminate the Department of Energy, the Department of Education, Department of Commerce, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Energy and environment
Cruz rejects the scientific consensus on climate change. He has said that "the scientific evidence doesn't support global warming". He has also stated: "They call anyone who questions the science who even points to the satellite data – they call you a, quote, 'denier'. Denier is not the language of science. Denier is the language of religion. It is heretic. You are a blasphemer. It's treated as a theology. But it's about power and money. At the end of the day, it's not complicated. This is liberal politicians who want government power." In March 2015, he said that some people are "global warming alarmists" and, citing satellite temperature measurements, said that there had been no significant warming in 18 years.
Cruz voted against the Water Resources Development Act of 2013 that would have created the National Endowment for the Oceans and authorized more than $26 billion in projects to be built by the Army Corps of Engineers, at least $16 billion of which would have come from federal taxpayers. Cruz voted against the bill because it neglected "to reduce a substantial backlog of projects, to the detriment of projects with national implications, such as the Sabine–Neches Waterway". Cruz stated that the Corps' responsibilities were expanded without providing adequate measures for state participation. Proponents of the bill argued that it would provide steady funding to support research and restoration projects, funded primarily by dedicating 12.5% of revenues from offshore energy development, including oil, gas, and renewable energy, through offshore lease sales and production based royalty payments, distributed through a competitive grant program.
In 2017, Cruz was one of 22 senators to sign a letter to President Donald Trump urging the President to have the United States withdraw from the Paris Agreement. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Cruz has received more than $2.5 million in campaign contributions from oil, gas and coal interests since 2012. Cruz has a lifetime score of 3% on the National Environmental Scorecard of the League of Conservation Voters.
In a 2014 opinion editorial in USA Today, Cruz wrote that auditing the Federal Reserve System was a top Republican priority in 2015 and that he supported legislation that would allow the Government Accountability Office to evaluate the Federal Reserve's monetary policy. Federal Reserve chairwoman Janet Yellen, whose confirmation Cruz had tried to prevent, said in her confirmation hearing that she opposed any audit of the Federal Reserve and that "For 50 years Congress has recognized that there should be an exception to GAO ability to audit the Fed to avoid any political interference in monetary policy."
Cruz has been an adamant opponent of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, a 2015 international nuclear agreement with Iran negotiated by the U.S. and other world powers, calling it "catastrophic" and "disastrous".
In 2013, Cruz stated that America had no "dog in the fight" during the Syrian Civil War and stated that America's armed forces should not serve as "al-Qaeda's air force". In 2014, Cruz criticized the Obama administration: "The president's foreign policy team utterly missed the threat of ISIS, indeed, was working to arm Syrian rebels that were fighting side by side with ISIS", calling ISIS "the face of evil". In a statement opposing US intervention for regime change in Syria, Cruz said, "If President Obama and Hillary Clinton and Sen. Rubio succeed in toppling [Syrian President Bashar] Assad, the result will be the radical Islamic terrorists will take over Syria, that Syria will be controlled by ISIS, and that is materially worse for U.S. national security interests."
In early January 2017, Cruz, along with Texas governor Greg Abbott and some others met with the Taiwanese president, Tsai Ing-wen. Cruz criticized the People's Republic of China after it reportedly made a statement asking members of Congress not to meet with Tsai.
On January 5, 2017, Cruz voted in favor of a House resolution condemning UN Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemned Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories as a violation of international law.
In August 2018, Cruz and 16 other lawmakers urged the Trump administration to impose sanctions under the Global Magnitsky Act against Chinese officials responsible for human rights abuses against the Uyghur Muslim minority in western China's Xinjiang region. They wrote: "The detention of as many as a million or more Uyghurs and other predominantly Muslim ethnic minorities in "political reeducation” centers or camps requires a tough, targeted, and global response."
Cruz is a strong critic of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA or "Obamacare"). He has sponsored legislation that would repeal the health care reform law and its amendments in the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. Cruz was part of the group of 13 Senators that drafted the Senate version of the AHCA behind closed doors.
In 2013, Cruz voted against the bill to provide a package of federal aid to the East Coast for recovery from Hurricane Sandy. Cruz said that he did not vote for Sandy disaster relief because the bill was "filled with unrelated pork" and that "two-thirds of that bill had nothing to do with Sandy". The Washington Post disputed this, writing "The bill was largely aimed at dealing with Sandy, along with relatively minor items to address other or future disasters." The New York Times wrote that "Of 23 examples of extraneous spending that a spokesman for Mr. Cruz provided, all but one — $195 million in discretionary funds for the secretary of health and human services — were Sandy-related or sought to mitigate future storms, as the law required."
Cruz adopted a "hard-line stance" on immigration issues during the 2014 border crisis and is an opponent of comprehensive immigration reform. Cruz advocates for an increase from 65,000 to 325,000 annually in skilled foreign workers entering the United States using H-1B visas.
Cruz opposes providing a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants who were brought to the United States as children (so-called DREAMers). In February 2018, he was the sole Senator to oppose a Republican motion to begin debate on legislation intended to resolve the question of what to do with DREAMers.
Cruz defended the Trump administration's policy of separating migrant children from their parents. Cruz blamed the migrant parents for crossing the US border to seek asylum and argued that the Obama administration had the same policy.
Cruz opposes net neutrality—which prevents Internet service providers from deliberately blocking or slowing particular websites—arguing that the Internet economy has flourished in the United States simply because it has remained largely free from government regulation. Cruz has argued that net neutrality is the "Obamacare for the internet". Cruz said that the Obama-era implementation of the principle of net neutrality had the "end result" of "less broadband, less innovation, and less freedom for the American consumer". In December 2017, after the Republican-controlled Federal Communications Commission repealed net neutrality, Cruz mocked supporters of net neutrality as "snowflakes" who were misled by "online propaganda".
On abortion, Cruz is "strongly pro-life" and "would allow the procedure only when a pregnancy endangers the mother's life". He is in favor of cutting federal funding to Planned Parenthood.
Cruz opposes both same-sex marriage and civil unions. He believes that marriage should be legally defined as only "between one man and one woman", but believes that the legality of same-sex marriage should be left to each state to decide. Cruz referred to the Supreme Court's decision legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide as "among the darkest hours of our nation" and accused the court of judicial activism.
Cruz married Heidi Nelson on May 27, 2001;  they have two daughters, Caroline and Catherine. The couple met when Cruz was working on George W. Bush's 2000 presidential campaign. Heidi took leave from her position as head of the Southwest Region in the Investment Management Division of Goldman, Sachs & Co. in 2016 to support Ted Cruz's run for the U.S. president. She previously worked in the White House for Condoleezza Rice and in New York as an investment banker.
- 2012 Republican primary
- 2012 Republican primary runoff
- 2012 general election
|Libertarian||John Jay Myers||161,354||2.06%||-0.20%|
- 2018 general election
|Republican||Ted Cruz (incumbent)||4,244,204||50.93||-5.53|
- List of foreign-born United States politicians
- Legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
- List of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States Congress
- List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States
- List of United States Senators born outside the United States
- "CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- U.S. senator Ted Cruz, Austin American-Statesman
- Abel, Allen; Markusoff, Jason (January 13, 2016). "Ted Cruz: Made in Canada". Maclean's Magazine. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- Panetta, Alexander (May 9, 2015). "Birthplace of President Ted Cruz? Calgary homeowner hopes it never happens". Calgary Herald. The Canadian Press. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
Steward is pretty sure the American conservative began life at the Foothills Medical Centre — a government-run, Canadian socialist hospital.
- Ferguson, John Wayne (August 13, 2012). "Texplainer: Could Canadian-Born Ted Cruz Be President?". Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
Bottom line: Despite being born in Canada, Cruz is a U.S. citizen because his mother was a U.S. citizen, according to constitutional experts.
- Cruz, Ted (2015). A Time For Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America. New York, NY: Broadside Books. ISBN 978-0-06-236561-3.
- Costa, Robert (August 28, 2013). "The Rise of Rafael Cruz". National Review. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
Born in Matanzas, Cuba, he grew up in the Cuba middle class in the 1950s, as the son of an RCA salesman and an elementary-school teacher. As a teenager, he grew to detest the regime of Fulgencio Batista. He and some of his schoolmates frequently clashed with Batista's officials. Eventually, he linked up with Castro's guerrilla groups and supported their attempts to overthrow Batista. It's a decision he still regrets. His move toward Castro, he explains, was mostly due to his anger with Batista's government, which at one point imprisoned him and tortured him for his work with the revolutionaries. He says he never shared Castro's Communism, but at the time, it was the best way to fight Batista's oppression. By age 18, in 1957, he knew he needed to get out, and a friend essentially bribed an official to secure him an exit permit.
- Gillman, Todd J. (August 18, 2013). "Canada-born Ted Cruz became a citizen of that country as well as U.S." The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Eckholm, Erik (August 1, 2012). "A Republican Voice With Tea Party Mantle and Intellectual Heft". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Welna, David (June 20, 2013). "How Ted Cruz's Father Shaped His Views On Immigration". NPR. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Olsen, Lise (October 13, 2012). "Cruz's life defies simplification". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
The ex-revolutionary pastor regularly stumps for his son, whom he's compared to the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah – a relentless advocate with "fire in his bones." Ted, he says, is "not going to Washington to compromise"
- Swartz, Mimi (March 31, 2015). "Ted Cruz and the New Politics of Texas". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "Ted Cruz's Father Talks About Latinos, Conservatives and the American Dream". FOX News Latino. April 8, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
Cruz, the father, and his wife, Eleanor Darragh, left the United States for a few years, living in Canada to take advantage of the oil boom.
- Zernike, Kate (November 18, 2011). "A Test for the Tea Party in Texas Senate Race". The New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- Jeffrey, Terence (2011). "Ted Cruz: New Voice for the American Dream". Creators Syndicate. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Garrett, Robert T. (April 28, 2013). "Senate candidate Ted Cruz aims to pick up mantle of Reagan". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Mervis, Jeffrey (December 9, 2015). "From a bully pulpit, Ted Cruz offers his take on climate change". ScienceInsider. Washington, D.C. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Larson, Leslie. "Ted Cruz plans to renounce Canadian citizenship", Daily News, New York (December 30, 2013).
- Recio, Maria (April 1, 2015). "Ted Cruz's family story: Poignant but incomplete". McClatchy. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Ted Cruz's Secret Weapon to Win the Right, National Journal, Andy Kroll, June 25, 2015; retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Cruz, Ted (2015). A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America. Broadside. pp. 28–44, 101–03.
- Eriksen, Helen (August 11, 2005). "Solicitor general carries "supreme" weight with Katy roots". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- "Distinguished Alumni". Second Baptist School. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Mackey, Maureen (March 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz: 20 Things You Didn't Know About Him". Fiscal Times. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
7: He graduated from Houston's Second Baptist High School in 1988 and was valedictorian of his class.
Dunham, Richard (October 15, 2012). "Profile: A man of many contrasts, Ted Cruz defies easy stereotypes". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
Cruz was one of only two Hispanics when he transferred to Houston's Second Baptist School his junior year. He graduated valedictorian in 1988.
Miller, Jake (March 19, 2015). "Will grassroots support be enough for Sen. Ted Cruz in 2016?". CBS News. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
He graduated valedictorian of his high school in 1988, attended Princeton University for his undergraduate studies, and received his law degree from Harvard University.
Barbash, Fred (March 23, 2015). "Why Liberty University in Lynchburg, Va., is the perfect launchpad for Ted Cruz". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
The last time he spoke there, Cruz made no mention of his Ivy League degrees but recalled fondly his memories of Second Baptist High School in Houston, where he was valedictorian, and how his wife was the daughter and granddaughter of missionaries.
Staff (2015). "Ted Cruz". Biography.com. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
The valedictorian of his class at Houston's Second Baptist High School, Cruz went on to Princeton University.
- Lizza, Ryan (November 19, 2012). "The Party Next Time". The New Yorker: 50–57. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- "Ted Cruz's Biography". Project Vote Smart. Philipsburg, Montana. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (January 3, 2013). "Ted Cruz 92 Sworn-in as U.S. Senator from Texas". Princeton University Bulletin. Princeton, New Jersey. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- Princeton Debate Panel. "Hall of Fame". Princeton University Debate Panel. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- "Australians Win Debate At Princeton A Singapore Woman Won The Award For Best Speaker. English Is Not Her Native Language". The Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Horowitz, Jason (April 22, 2015). "Ted Cruz Showed Eloquence, and Limits, as Debater at Princeton". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
By the time he was a senior at Princeton University in 1992, Ted Cruz had developed an arsenal of rhetorical skills and theatrical gestures that made him one of the most polished performers on the college debate circuit.
- Princeton Debate Panel. "Cruz Novice Championship". Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
- Cruz, Ted (April 2, 1992). "Ted Cruz's 1992 "Clipping the Wings of Angels"". Princeton University. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Begala, Paul (August 1, 2012). "Ted Cruz and Texas's Tea Party Revolution". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Weiner, Rachel (August 1, 2012). "Who is Ted Cruz?". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- McManus, Doyle (August 12, 2013). "Ted Cruz, wacko like a fox". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Clarida, Matthew Q.; Lucky, Jared T. (May 30, 2013). "Defusing the H-Bomb: In politics, Harvard alums frame diplomas strategically". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Editors (July 30, 2012). "Yes, Ted Cruz for Texas". National Review. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- "R. (Ted) Edward Cruz, Attorney Biography". Wayback Machine. Houston, Texas: Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP. March 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
R. (Ted) Edward Cruz is a partner in Morgan Lewis's Litigation Practice and leads the firm's U.S. Supreme Court and Appellate Litigation Practice.
- "Board of Advisors". Texas Review of Law and Politics. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Russ, Hilary (April 5, 2010). "Rising Star: Morgan Lewis' R. Ted Cruz" (PDF). Law360. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Jeffery, Terry (May 25, 2011). "Ted Cruz: New Voice for the American Dream". Townhall.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Tribpedia. "Ted Cruz". Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Toobin, Jeffrey (June 30, 2014). "Ted Cruz, The Absolutist". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- Westneat, Danny (May 19, 1998). "Civil Suit Against Mcdermott Over Leaked Tapes Gears Up – Rep. Boehner Says His Privacy Was Violated". The Seattle Times.
- Smith, Allan (September 29, 2015). "John Boehner once hired Ted Cruz to be his lawyer". Business Insider. New York, New York. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
Furious, Boehner called it an invasion of privacy. He hired Cruz, who had recently served as a clerk for then-Chief Justice William Rehnquist.
- Cottle, Michelle (March 12, 2013). "The Reinvention of Ted Cruz". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Office of Attorney General Greg Abbott (April 9, 2008). "Attorney General Abbott Appoints New Solicitor General: Longtime Solicitor General R. Ted Cruz returns to private practice; Deputy Solicitor General Sean Jordan to serve on leadership team". State of Texas. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Wilson, David McKay (Fall 2012). "Carrying the Tea Party Banner: U.S. Senate candidate Ted Cruz calls for a 'return to the framers' vision of a constitutionally limited government.'". Harvard Law School Bulletin. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Batheja, Aman (July 23, 2012). "For Cruz, Supreme Court Work at Heart of Campaign". Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
We ended up year after year arguing some of the biggest cases in the country. There was a degree of serendipity in that, but there was also a concerted effort to seek out and lead conservative fights.
- Przybyl, Heidi (April 29, 2015). "Ted Cruz: Anti-Gay Marriage Crusader? Not Always". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Block, Melissa (March 14, 2008). "D.C. Gun Ban Critic: Court Must Clarify Constitution". NPR.
- Cruz, Ted (March 14, 2007). "Second Amendment Showdown". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Elk Grove Unified School District and David W. Gordon, Superintendent vs. Michael A. Newdow, et al., No. 02-1624, Amici Curiae Brief (Supreme Court of the United States December 2003) ("Because of Their "History and Ubiquity," Acknowledgments of Religion in Patriotic or Historical Contexts Are Entirely Consistent with the Establishment Clause.").
- "Atheist Loses 2nd 'Under God' Court Appeal". March 12, 2010. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Reinert, Patty (June 28, 2006). "Most of Texas' redistricting map upheld". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Medellín v. Texas, 552 U.S. 491 (2008) (No. 06-984).
- Mears, Bill (January 19, 2009). "U.N. court rules U.S. execution violated treaty". CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Dretke v. Haley, 541 U.S. 386, 389–92 (2004).
- Cunningham, Larry (2005). "The Innocent Prisoner and the Appellate Prosecutor Some Thoughts on Post-Conviction Prosecutorial Ethics after Dretke v Haley". Criminal Justice Ethics. 24 (2): 13. doi:10.1080/0731129X.2005.9992185. SSRN 1152792.
- French, David (January 14, 2016). "David Brooks's Hypocritical Attack on Ted Cruz Reveals an Important Truth". National Review. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- "The Young Litigators Fab Fifty". American Lawyer Media. January 1, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- "The 50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America". The National Law Journal. American Lawyer Media. May 26, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Ambrogi, Robert J. (May 27, 2008). "Legal Blog Watch". American Lawyer Media. Law.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- "The 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter-Century". American Lawyer Media. June 28, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Tex Parte Blog, American Lawyer Media (October 6, 2010). "Luncheon Honors 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter-Century". Texas Lawyer. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Passarella, Gina (May 6, 2008). "Morgan Lewis Adds Texas Solicitor General". Law.com. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Ted Cruz has always had a master plan. Now it could win him the White House". Yahoo!. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Corn, David (April 9, 2015). "As a private lawyer, Ted Cruz defended companies found guilty of wrongdoing". Mother Jones. San Francisco. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- Lindell, Chuck (August 27, 2010). "Court gets OK for Toyota contempt hearing". Austin American-Statesman. Austin, Texas. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
Under Texas law, the trial court lost all jurisdiction in the case 30 days after Green's lawsuit was dismissed, Toyota's appellate lawyer, Ted Cruz of Houston, told the Supreme Court in briefs.
- "Court of Appeals November 6, 2011 Opinion". Texas Judicial Branch. State of Texas. pp. 72–77.
- Corn, David (February 11, 2015). "As a Lawyer, Ted Cruz Defended Huge Jury Awards. As a Politician, He Opposed Them". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Williamson, Elizabeth (January 20, 2016). "Two Sides of Ted Cruz: Tort Reformer and Personal Injury Lawyer". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Sullivan, Sean (November 28, 2012). "The biggest upset of 2012". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "Ted Cruz Makes it a New Game for U.S. Senate in Texas". RedState. January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- Edwards-Levy, Ann (May 10, 2012). "Sarah Palin Endorses Ted Cruz For U.S. Senate In Texas". Yahoo!. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Toeplitz, Shira (June 2, 2011). "Club for Growth Picks Texas Senate Favorite". Roll Call.
- Erickson, Erick (June 2, 2011). "Ted Cruz for Senate". RedState.
- Geraghty, Jim (June 2, 2011). "FreedomWorks PAC Likes Ted Cruz". National Review. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Levin, Mark (June 4, 2011). "Mark Levin endorses Ted Cruz for US Senate in Texas". The Right Scoop. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Shapiro, Michael W. (January 25, 2012). "Tea Party Express endorses Ted Cruz for Senate in Waco". Waco Tribune-Herald. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Scharrer, Gary (January 5, 2012). "Young conservatives choose Cruz". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Sullivan, Sean (November 28, 2011). "For DeMint, A Few Well-Timed Endorsements". National Journal. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- Catanese, David (March 7, 2011). "Sen. Lee backs Ted Cruz in Texas". Politico. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- Gravois, John (July 26, 2011). "Tea Party stalwart Rand Paul backs Cruz over Dewhurst in Texas' U.S. Senate race". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on February 24, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- McKinley, Kathleen (August 1, 2011). "Sen. Pat Toomey Endorses Ted Cruz for The Texas Senate Race". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Whittington, Mark (May 7, 2012). "Ron, Rand Paul Endorse Ted Cruz for Texas Senate Seat". Yahoo!. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Weissert, Will (May 24, 2012). "Santorum endorses Ted Cruz in Texas Senate race". Associated Press. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Weissert, Will (July 31, 2012). "Ted Cruz Defeats David Dewhurst In Texas Senate Runoff". Associated Press. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Hartfield, Elizabeth (July 31, 2012). "Ted Cruz Wins In Texas GOP Senate Runoff". ABC News. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
Dewhurst enjoyed a huge financial advantage over Cruz. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Dewhurst poured $11 million of his own personal fortune—he founded a successful energy company called Falcon Seaboard—into his campaign, spending a total of $19 million, as compared to Cruz's $7 million spent.
- Alexandra Duszak. "Texas Senate race attracts $13 million in super PAC spending". Center for Public Integrity.
- State of Texas (July 31, 2012). "Election Results". Office of the Secretary of State. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- "Ted Cruz and the Hispanic Vote". Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- Drucker, David M. Ted Cruz poll: Dems have edge over GOP among Hispanics in Texas, Washington Examiner, July 25, 2013.
- Calabresi, Massimo (October 18, 2013). "Ted Cruz Failed To Disclose Ties To Caribbean Holding Company". Time. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- McIntire, Mike (January 13, 2016). "Cruz Didn't Disclose Loan From Goldman Sachs for His First Senate Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Mullins, Brody. "Ted Cruz Didn't Adequately Disclose 2012 Loans for Senate Campaign", The Wall Street Journal (January 14, 2016).
- "Senator Cruz's Legislation". Library of Congress. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- Kirby, Jen (January 22, 2018). "Ted Cruz, mascot of the 2013 shutdown, says he has "consistently opposed shutdowns"". Vox. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- David A. Fahrenthold & Katie Zezima, For Ted Cruz, the 2013 shutdown was a defining moment, Washington Post (February 16, 2016).
- Raju, Manu. Some colleagues angry with Cruz, Politico (October 3, 2013).
- Tamara Keith, Why Ted Cruz Looms Large In Government Shutdown Drama, NPR Morning Edition (October 2, 2013).
- Kapur, Sahil. Ted Cruz to Star in Government Shutdown, the Sequel, Bloomberg News (September 8, 2015).
- Manning, Rick (December 27, 2013). "Ted Cruz: 2013 Person of the Year". The Hill. Washington, DC: Capitol Hill Publishing Corp. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
No politician had a greater impact on the past year than freshman U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas). Cruz came from the Lone Star State not owing the D.C. political establishment anything, after he beat the chosen replacement for Kay Bailey Hutchison in an underfunded, grassroots driven Republican primary election.
- Mantyla, Kyle (December 11, 2014). "Glenn Beck Declares Ted Cruz 'Blaze Man Of The Year'". Right Wing Watch. Washington, D.C.: People for the American Way. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Greenfield, Daniel (December 30, 2013). "Frontpage's 2013 Man of the Year: Ted Cruz". FrontPage Magazine. Sherman Oaks, California: David Horowitz Freedom Center. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Lord, Jeffery (December 19, 2013). "Ted Cruz: Man of the Year". The American Spectator. Arlington, Virginia: The American Spectator Foundation. Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Hawkins, John (December 31, 2014). "Top 10 Conservatives of 2013". Townhall.com. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Leary, Alex (January 7, 2014). "Sarasota GOP to honor Ted Cruz to be honored as 'Statesman of the Year'". Tampa Bay Times. Tampa Bay Metro Area. Archived from the original on April 5, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Ammann, Phil (January 7, 2014). "Sarasota GOP to honor Sen. Ted Cruz as its 'Statesman of the Year'". saintpetersblog.com. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- Edelman, Adam (December 9, 2013). "TIME magazine releases finalists for 2013 'Person of the Year' award". Daily News. New York. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Eyes roll as Ted Cruz denies role in 2013 government shutdown; 'Speechless' says one senator". Dallas News. January 22, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "Ted Cruz says he's opposed shutdowns, but he hasn't always". @politifact. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- "S. 2195 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Marcos, Cristina (April 10, 2014). "Congress approves bill banning Iran diplomat". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Neuman, Scott (April 2, 2014). "U.S. Troubled By Iran's Choice Of 1979 Hostage-Taker For U.N. Post". NPR. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
- Mackey, Robert (April 4, 2014). "Iran's Reformers Include More Than One Former Hostage-Taker". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "A bipartisan message to Iran". Politico Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- "Ted Cruz thanks Obama for denying visas to terrorists". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- "Ted Cruz Writes Thank You Letter To Obama In Politico". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Wright, Austin. "Ted Cruz the senator: Heard but not seen". Politico Magazine. Archived from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Jesse Weiner, Ted Cruz: Confused About Cicero: What the Texas Republican misrepresents about treason and politics in the Roman Republic, The Atlantic (November 21, 2014).
- Eliza Collins, Cruz stands by calling Obama a sponsor of terrorism, Politico (July 29, 2015).
- David Jackson, Romney hits Cruz over Obama/terrorism claim, USA Today (July 30, 2015).
- Alex Griswold, Mitt Romney: Ted Cruz 'Way Over the Line' Calling Obama Terror Sponsor, Mediaite (July 30, 2015).
- Stack, Liam (February 13, 2016). "Presidential Candidate Ted Cruz says Obama shouldn't appoint the next replacement". The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Frank, John (June 20, 2016). "In Colorado, Cruz backs Glenn, rips Obama over Orlando". The Denver Post.
- Chasmar, Jessica (July 15, 2016). "Ted Cruz to Obama after Nice attack: 'Willful blindness is not a policy'". The Washington Times.
- Hopper, Jessica (November 27, 2016). "Ted Cruz: No U.S. Officials Should Attend Fidel Castro's Funeral". ABC News.
- Saba, Yousef (December 28, 2016). "Rubio, Cruz denounce Kerry's speech on Israel". Politico.
- Gardner, Amy. "After period of reckoning, Ted Cruz recasts himself: From opposition force to Trump ally". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Skibba, Ramin (January 13, 2017). "How Cruz and Trump learned to like each other". Politico. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Lovegrove, Jamie (January 31, 2017). "Trump nominates Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court". Dallas News.
- Dinan, Stephen (February 23, 2017). "Cruz urges Trump to field 'army of … Scalias and Thomases'". Washington Times. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- "Ted Cruz: Trump's speech a 'positive, unifying vision for the country'". The Washington Times. March 1, 2017.
- "Cruz: I negotiated health care at Mar-a-Lago". Politico. March 19, 2017.
- Byrnes, Jesse (April 6, 2017). "Cruz: Trump should make the case for military action in Syria". The Hill.
- Cillizza, Chris. "Ted Cruz's embarrassing ode to Donald Trump is why people hate politicians". CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
- Pierce, Charles. "The Three Saddest Words I Ever Read in English: By Ted Cruz". Esquire. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
- Willis, Jay. "Ted Cruz's Write-Up on Trump for the TIME 100 Is an Event Horizon for Utter Self-Humiliation". GQ. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
- Rachel Weiner, Ted Cruz shies away from some harsh rhetoric, The Washington Post (July 31, 2013).
- Arit John, All of Ted Cruz's Republican Critics, The Atlantic (September 26, 2013).
- Rushton, Christine (April 28, 2016). "John Boehner: Ted Cruz is 'Lucifer in the flesh'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Treyz, Catherine (February 26, 2016). "Lindsey Graham jokes about how to get away with murdering Ted Cruz". CNN. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- David Morgan & Richard Cowan, Republican White House hopeful Cruz calls McConnell a liar, Reuters (July 24, 2015).
- Manu Raju, Cruz accuses Mitch McConnell of telling a 'flat-out lie', Politico (July 24, 2015).
- Ted Barrett, Republicans rebuke Cruz over his charge McConnell lied, CNN (July 27, 2015).
- Rogers, Alex. "Cruz: McConnell Told 'Flat-Out Lie' to Conservatives", National Journal (July 24, 2015).
- DeBonis, Mike. "Ted Cruz to GOP leader: You lied", The Washington Post (July 24, 2015).
- Jonathan Capehart, How Mitch McConnell went gangsta on Ted Cruz and Mike Lee, The Washington Post (July 29, 2015).
- Manu Raju & Burgess Everett, Senate smackdown: Cruz, Lee efforts squelched: The rift between Mitch McConnell and Ted Cruz widens, Politico (July 27, 2015).
- Todd J. Gillman, Cruz says he's vilified for fighting the 'Washington cartel', Dallas Morning News (June 24, 2015).
- Zurcher, Anthony (September 25, 2015). "John Boehner resigns and Ted Cruz gloats". BBC. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Arkin, James. "House Passes Budget, Debt Ceiling Agreement", Real Clear Politics (October 29, 2015).
- Bolton, Alexander. "GOP faces internal battle over changing Senate rules". The Hill. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Sullivan, Sean (May 11, 2016). "Ted Cruz files to run for reelection to the Senate in 2018". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- "Texas 2018 General Election". The Green Papers. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- Taylor, Jessica; Seipel, Arnie (March 6, 2018). "Texas Primary: Democratic Votes Surge, But Republicans Recover Early Vote Deficit". NPR.
- Golshan, Tara (September 12, 2018). "Ted Cruz's surprisingly competitive battle against Beto O'Rourke, explained". Vox. Retrieved November 3, 2018.
- Wallace, Jeremy (October 12, 2018). "Cruz vs. O'Rourke is Most Expensive U.S. Senate Race in History". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- "2018 General Election Election Night Returns". Texas Secretary of State. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Cillizza, Chris (September 13, 2013). "Rand Paul, 2016 Republican front-runner". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Bump, Philip (September 25, 2013). "Ted Cruz's First 2016 Campaign Ad Is Over 21 Hours Long". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Metzler, Rebekah (September 27, 2013). "Poll: Ted Cruz Leads 2016 GOP Field". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Romano, Lois (March 14, 2013). "CPAC 2013: Marco Rubio, Rand Paul fight for the future of the GOP". Politico. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Montanaro, Domenico (March 16, 2013). "Rand Paul wins CPAC straw poll; Rubio close second". NBC News. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- Rayman, Noah (October 13, 2013). "Ted Cruz Dominates Republican Straw Poll". TIME. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Finnegan, Conor (May 31, 2014). "Ted Cruz wins presidential straw poll at Republican Leadership Conference". CNN. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- Jeffers, Gromer (June 7, 2014). "Ted Cruz wins Texas GOP's presidential straw poll, Rick Perry finishes distant fourth". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- Ashley Killough (July 21, 2013). "Cruz tries to sidestep 2016 question". CNN. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- "Ted Cruz and Rand Paul are the big draws at the Freedom Summit". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Fuller, Jaime (April 12, 2014). "Freedom Summit draws GOP hopefuls to N.H." The Washington Post. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Breitman, Kendall (January 21, 2015). "Ted Cruz flubs, deletes YouTube response to Obama". POLITICO. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
- "Transcript: Ted Cruz's Speech at Liberty University". The Washington Post. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Ted Cruz Announces Presidential Bid". NBC News. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Schleifer, Theodore (March 21, 2015). "Ted Cruz to announce presidential bid Monday". Houston Chronicle. Houston, Texas. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
Cruz will launch a presidential bid outright rather than form an exploratory committee, said senior advisers with direct knowledge of his plans, who spoke on condition of anonymity because an official announcement had not been made yet. They say he is done exploring and is now ready to become the first Republican presidential candidate.
- Corasaniti, Nick; Healy, Patrick (March 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz Becomes First Major Candidate to Announce Presidential Bid for 2016". The New York Times. New York, New York. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Zitner, Aaron (January 4, 2016). "Poll Points to Upside for Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio in GOP Race". The Wall Street Journal. New York. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- "Ted Cruz Speech Nods to Increasing Libertarian Views within Republican Party". Cato Institute. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- "A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America: Ted Cruz: 9780062365613: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com.
- Dylan Byers (July 13, 2015). "Amazon: 'No evidence' of bulk sales for Cruz book". POLITICO.
- Titus, Elizabeth (July 13, 2015). "NYT Defends Exclusion of Ted Cruz's Book: 'We Are Confident'". Bloomberg.com/politics.
- Berg-Andersson, Richard E. "Republican Convention". The Green Papers. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
- "RealClearPolitics - 2016 Republican Popular Vote". realclearpolitics.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "2016 Delegate Count Tracker: 2016 Election". politico.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Thrush, Glenn (July 18, 2016). "Ted Cruz contemplates the unthinkable". Politico. Washington, DC. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
The first-term senator won 8 million votes, 600 delegates and 12 states. He raised nearly $92 million — a record for a GOP primary candidate, much of it from small online donors. He ran by far the best ground operation of any GOP campaign this year, with more than 325,000 volunteers flocking to Cruz's call for a grass-roots Republican renewal.
- "Ted Cruz makes history, becomes first Hispanic to win Iowa caucus". FOX News Latino. New York. February 1, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
- Borchers, Callum (February 3, 2016). "Ted Cruz is the first Latino to win a caucus or primary. Why isn't that a bigger deal?". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
- Collinson, Stephen (February 2, 2016). "Iowa caucus results: Ted Cruz wins, Hillary Clinton declares victory". Atlanta, Georgia: CNN. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
Cruz's victory sets him up as a formidable force in delegate-rich, Southern states to come and offers movement conservatives hope that one of their own can become the Republican nominee for the first time since Ronald Reagan.
- "New Hampshire Republican Primary". New York: CBS News. February 10, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- Mihalik, Lily (February 20, 2016). "Live results from the 2016 South Carolina GOP primary". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Rafferty, Andrew (March 2, 2016). "Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton Score Big Super Tuesday Primary Wins". NBC News.
- McCullough, Jolie (March 2, 2016). "Cruz, Clinton Grab Most Votes in Almost Every Texas County". Texas Tribune. Austin, Texas. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
With 100% of precincts reporting, Cruz, came away with 1,239,158 votes, or 43.8% of the total. Donald Trump followed behind with 757,489 votes, or 26.7% of the vote. Cruz, one of the state's two U.S. senators, got the most votes in all but six of the state's 254 counties.
- Cruz Easily Wins Kansas Republican Caucuses, Kansas City Star, March 5, 2016.
- Martin, Jonathan (March 5, 2016). "Ted Cruz Wins Kansas Caucuses as 5 States Vote on 'Super Saturday'". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
Senator Ted Cruz scored a hard-fought and decisive win in the Kansas caucuses on Saturday, demonstrating his enduring appeal among conservatives as he tries to reel in Donald J. Trump's significant lead in the Republican presidential race.
- Svitek, Patrick (March 5, 2016). "Cruz Goes Two for Four, Wins Kansas, Maine". Texas Tribune. Austin, Texas. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- Levine, Sam. Ted Cruz Crushes At Kansas Republican Caucus, The Huffington Post, March 5, 2016.
- Easley, Jonathan. Cruz on Trump's heels after victories on Super Saturday, The Hill, March 6, 2016.
- "Some see Cruz as best alternative to Trump". Mohave Valley Daily News. Bullhead City, Arizona. March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- Svitek, Patrick (March 8, 2016). "Ted Cruz Wins Idaho, Places Second in Three Other States". Texas Tribune. Austin, Texas. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz on Tuesday night won the Idaho GOP presidential primary while placing second in three other states, continuing to demonstrate viability against frontrunner Donald Trump.
- "Cruz crushes Trump in Wyoming Republican caucus". March 13, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
With all votes counted, Texas Senator Cruz won 66.3 percent of the ballots in the western state, far ahead of his nearest rival, Florida Senator Marco Rubio, who earned 19.5 percent of the vote.
- Results from the Utah caucuses, Los Angeles Times, March 22, 2016.
- "North Dakota Republican Delegation 2016". thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Benjy Sarlin. "Colorado Loss Reveals Chaotic, Overwhelmed Trump Campaign". NBC News.
- "Ted Cruz wins first 6 Colorado delegates, Donald Trump shut out". The Spot.
- "Ted Cruz Wins Majority of Delegates in Colorado". The New York Times. April 9, 2016.
- John Frank and Joey Bunch The Denver Post (April 9, 2016). "Ted Cruz dominates Colorado GOP convention winning all 34 delegates".
- "News from The Associated Press". Archived from the original on February 5, 2019.
- "Cruz announces Fiorina as choice for running mate". Fox News. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Flegenheimer, Matt (May 3, 2016). "Ted Cruz Ends His Campaign for President". The New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- Gillman, Todd (June 10, 2014). "No, Canada: Sen. Ted Cruz has formally shed his dual citizenship". Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas: A. H. Belo. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
Alberta-born Sen. Ted Cruz has given up his Canadian dual citizenship. The renunciation became official on May 14, roughly 9 months after he learned he wasn't only an American.
- Gillman, Todd (December 28, 2013). "Ted Cruz says he's hired lawyers to renounce Canadian citizenship". Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas: A. H. Belo. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
But the strong legal consensus is that with even one American parent—a circumstance shared by Obama and Cruz—a child born anywhere qualifies as a "natural born American," entitled to citizenship at birth and therefore eligible to serve as president.
- Michelle Ye Hee, Lee (January 10, 2015). "Cruz says it's 'clear and straightforward' that he's a natural-born U.S. citizen". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- Blake, Aaron (August 19, 2013). "Cruz Will Renounce Canadian Citizenship". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Tuohy, Dan (November 24, 2015). "BLC upholds Sanders, Trump on primary ballots". Union Leader.
- Blaisdell, Eric (January 1, 2016). "Vermonter tries to keep names off presidential ballot". Rutland Herald. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016.
- Leary, Alex (January 14, 2016). "Marco Rubio seeks to dismiss court challenge to his eligibility to be president". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016.
- Ben Winslow and Max Roth (January 26, 2016). "Utah man suing Ted Cruz claiming he's not a natural-born citizen". KSTU.
- Koplowitz, Howard (February 5, 2016). "Alabama residents' lawsuit claims Ted Cruz ineligible to run for president". The Birmingham News.
- Lanning, Curt (February 8, 2016). "Lawsuit: Remove Cruz and Rubio from Ark. Ballot". KARK-TV.
- Calkins, Laurel Brubaker; Cirilli, Kevin (January 14, 2016). "Cruz's 'Natural-Born Citizen' Status Tested in Birther Suit". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Merda, Chad (February 3, 2016). "Illinois election board: Ted Cruz is a natural-born citizen". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois. Archived from the original on February 4, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
The candidate is a natural born citizen by virtue of being born in Canada to his mother who was a U.S. citizen at the time of his birth," the board said. It pointed out that Cruz "did not have to take any steps to go through a naturalization process at some point after birth" and therefore "further discussion on this issue is unnecessary.
- Kamisar, Ben (May 10, 2016). "Cruz floats restarting campaign if he wins Nebraska primary". thehill.com.
- Jacobs, Ben (May 10, 2016). "Donald Trump wins West Virginia and Nebraska primaries". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Davis, Jack (June 9, 2016). "Cruz Coy On Trump Endorsement But Plans Strong Convention Role". Western Journalism. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016.
- Bolton, Alexander (May 10, 2016). "Ted Cruz stalls on endorsing Trump". The Hill.
- "Cruz: I'm not ready to endorse Trump". Politico. June 7, 2016.
- "Ted Cruz to speak at RNC following Trump meeting". CNN. July 7, 2016.
- Healy, Patrick; Martin, Jonathan (July 20, 2016). "Ted Cruz Is Booed When He Refuses to Back Donald Trump at Convention". The New York Times.
- "Defiant Ted Cruz stands by refusal to endorse Trump after being booed during convention speech". CNN. July 21, 2016.
- Phelphs, Jordyn (July 21, 2016). "Ted Cruz 'Not in the Habit' of Endorsing People Who Attack His Family". ABC News. New York City, New York. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
Further defending his RNC speech, in which declined to endorse the party's nominee, Ted Cruz said Trump knew the contents of his speech before its delivery, including the absence of an endorsement. "He didn't ask me to endorse, and indeed, three days ago I talked on the phone with him and told him, 'I'm not going to endorse you,'" Cruz said.
- Theodore Schleifer, Theodore; Borger, Gloria; Bash, Dana (September 23, 2016). "Ted Cruz endorses Donald Trump". CNN.
- "Ted Cruz refuses to rescind Donald Trump endorsement over 'locker room talk'". New York Daily News. October 10, 2016.
- Jacobs, Jennifer (November 15, 2016). "Ted Cruz Considered by Trump for Attorney General". Bloomberg. New York City. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
President-elect Donald Trump is considering nominating Texas Senator Ted Cruz to serve as U.S. attorney general, according to a person familiar with the matter. Cruz, 45, was at Trump Tower in New York on Tuesday.
- Friedman, Nicholas (November 28, 2016). "Cruz talks GOP promises". Dallas News.
- "Why won't Steve Bannon go after Ted Cruz?". NBCNews.com. October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
Robert Mercer, the reclusive conspiracy-minded billionaire who spent millions to help both men - and who is closely tied to Donald Trump and the alt-right.
- Brendan Bordelon, Ted Cruz: Cuba Relations Thaw 'a Tragic Mistake', National Review (December 14, 2015).
- Mali, Meghashyam (July 23, 2018). "Cruz joins rally for religious freedom". TheHill. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Campbell, Colin (April 28, 2015). "How Republican presidential candidates want to reform the criminal justice system". Business Insider. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- Horowitz, Jason (January 20, 2016). "As Supreme Court Clerk, Ted Cruz Made Death Penalty His Cause". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Aman Bathe, Senate Candidate and Supreme Court Have a History, Texas Tribune (July 22, 2012).
- "Ted Cruz: My GOP Senate colleagues yelled at me for wanting to filibuster gun control". Hot Air. April 29, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Glover, Scott and Reston, Maeve (March 10, 2016). Ted Cruz's no-compromise stance on guns. CNN. Retrieved: February 8, 2019.
- "Overwhelming majority of violent criminals are Democrats". Politico. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
- Matt Levin, Ted Cruz blames Obama for death of Harris County sheriff's deputy, Houston Chronicle (August 31, 2015).
- Sullum, Jacob. March 5, 2015. Ted Cruz's Cannabis Conversion Reflects The Political Prudence Of Marijuana Federalism. Forbes. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- "Cannabis convert: Ted Cruz". heraldtribune.com. March 6, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Free Trade, Free Markets: Rating the Congress". Cato Institute. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Janet Hook, Ted Cruz Flips on Trade Bill on Eve of Key Senate Vote, The Wall Street Journal (June 23, 2015).
- Weiner, Rachel (June 3, 2013). "Ted Cruz: 'Abolish the IRS'". The Washington Post.
- J.D. Harrison, What a Ted Cruz White House could mean for businesses, The Washington Post (March 23, 2015).
- Ehrenfreund, Max (November 10, 2015). "Ted Cruz forgot to mention he wants to get rid of this really big part of the government". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- http://www.politico.com/story/2015/04/ted-cruz-2016-second-amendment-gun-rights-117133.html, Keli (January 30, 2015). "The Issue Bringing Ted Cruz and Black Democrats Together". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- Weigel, David, What Ted Cruz Talks About When He Talks About Common Core, Bloomberg. (March 19, 2015).
- Josh Hicks, Climate-change skeptics Cruz and Rubio now help oversee nation's climate science, The Washington Post (January 21, 2015).
- Sabrina Siddiqui, Ted Cruz embodies Republican climate change dilemma, The Guardian (March 27, 2015)
- Cruz, Ted (December 11, 2015). "Scientific Evidence Doesn't Support Global Warming, Sen. Ted Cruz Says". Morning Edition (Interview). Interviewed by Steve Inskeep. Washington, DC: NPR, Inc. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
The scientific evidence doesn't support global warming. For the last 18 years, the satellite data – we have satellites that monitor the atmosphere. The satellites that actually measure the temperature showed no significant warming whatsoever.
- Philip Bump, Ted Cruz compares climate change activists to 'flat-Earthers.' Where to begin?, The Washington Post (March 23, 2015)
- Alexander, Ryan (May 21, 2014). "Infrastructure Bills to Nowhere". U.S. News & World Report. Washington, D.C. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "Ted Cruz on Environment". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Cornyn, Cruz Vote to Fix Water Resource and Development Act". cruz.senate.gov. Washington, D.C. May 15, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "Ted Cruz on Environment".
- Inhofe, James. "Senator". Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- "The Republicans who urged Trump to pull out of Paris deal are big oil darlings". The Guardian. June 1, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- "Senator Ted Cruz". National Environmental Scorecard. League of Conservation Voters. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- Susan Cornwell, U.S. Senator Cruz urges broad Republican focus on energy, Reuters (February 10, 2014).
- Marianna Sotomayor & Alison Thoet, Whip List: How senators will vote on Keystone XL pipeline, The Hill (January 29, 2015).
- Gillespie, Patrick. "Can Senator Ted Cruz audit the Fed?". CNNMoney. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- Rappeport, Alan (2015). "Rand Paul and Ted Cruz Join Forces Against the Fed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- Eitan Arom, Voter Views on USA Freedom Act Bode Well for Graham and Rubio, Not Cruz and Paul, Morning Consult (June 10, 2015).
- Ashley Killough, Ted Cruz knocks Rand Paul on NSA vote, CNN (April 2, 2015).
- Julian Hattem & Kristina Wong, Trump, Cruz to hold joint anti-Iran rally on Capitol Hill, The Hill (August 27, 2015).
- Ryan Grim & Jessica Schulberg, Ted Cruz On Iran Nuclear Negotiations: 'This Deal Makes War a Certainty', The Huffington Post (May 5, 2015).
- "America and Syria: To bomb, or not to bomb?". The Economist. September 7, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- "AP Conversation: Cruz: US more secure with Assad in power". The Big Story. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- "Roll Call Votes 114th Congress - 2nd Session (2016) – 145 (71-27)". United States Senate.
- "Cruz Meets with Taiwanese President, Blasts China". Fox News. January 8, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- "Ted Cruz, Texas Governor Meet with Taiwan President". The Washington Post. Associated Press. January 8, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- Horton, Chris (January 9, 2017). "Taiwan's President Meets With Ted Cruz in the U.S., and China Objects". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- Cortellessa, Eric (January 6, 2017). "US House Passes Motion Repudiating UN Resolution on Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Chairs Lead Bipartisan Letter Urging Administration to Sanction Chinese Officials Complicit in Xinjiang Abuses". www.cecc.gov. Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC).
- "China rejects US lawmakers' sanctions call over Muslim camps". Associated Press. August 30, 2018.
- Andrew Kugle (December 18, 2018). "Cotton, Cruz Introduce Resolution Encouraging the United States to Recognize Israel's Sovereignty Over Golan Heights". Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Bash, Dana; Fox, Lauren; Barrett, Ted (May 9, 2017). "GOP defends having no women in health care group". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Bryan, Bob (June 9, 2017). "'We have no idea what's being proposed': Democratic senator gives impassioned speech on GOP healthcare bill secrecy". Business Insider. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Litvan, Laura (June 13, 2017). "Senate Republicans Are Writing Obamacare Repeal Behind Closed Doors". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Scott, Dylan (June 9, 2017). "Senate Republicans are closer to repealing Obamacare than you think". Vox. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Wasson, Erik (August 25, 2017). "Hurricane Harvey Puts Cruz, Cornyn in Political Bind Over Aid". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Kessler, Glenn (August 29, 2017). "Ted Cruz's claim that two-thirds of the Hurricane Sandy bill 'had nothing to do with Sandy'". Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Qiu, Linda (August 30, 2017). "Was 2013 Hurricane Sandy Relief Package 'Full of Pork'?". New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Manchester, Julia (August 25, 2017). "Cruz, Cornyn back Texas gov's request for disaster declaration". thehill.com. The Hill. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Benjy Sarlin, Ted Cruz's hard-line stance renders border crisis key 2016 issue, MSNBC (August 5, 2014).
- Patrick Thibodeau (May 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz, the presidential candidate who wants to increase the H-1B cap by 500%". Computerworld. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "O'Rourke to Democrats: Don't shut down the government like Ted Cruz". mcclatchydc. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- "Cruz Blasts Citizenship Path for Dreamers Suggested by Trump". Bloomberg.com. January 25, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Ted Cruz cast lone vote against advancing 'Dreamer' legislation". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
- "Cruz on Birthright Citizenship - FactCheck.org". FactCheck.org. January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Ted Cruz again defends family separation, as Beto O'Rourke plans vigil at Tornillo tent camp". Dallas News. June 16, 2018. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- "Ted Cruz defends family separation at border as Trump bars asylum claims for domestic abuse or gang violence". Dallas News. June 11, 2018. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- Sankin, Aaron (May 16, 2014). "The conservative case against net neutrality". The Daily Dot. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- "The FCC Just Killed Net Neutrality. Now What?". WIRED. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- "Net neutrality fight offers another contrast in 2018 Senate race". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Chaitin, Daniel. "Ted Cruz lays out how a 'snowflake' learns about net neutrality 'propaganda'". Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Barnhart, Melissa (June 27, 2013). "Pro-Life Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas to Speak at National Right to Life Convention in Dallas". The Christian Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Peggy Fikac (March 4, 2012). "Senate hopeful Cruz casts himself as conservative warrior". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Everett, Burgess (February 12, 2016). Cruz attacks Rubio on Planned Parenthood. Politico. Retrieved: April 12, 2016.
- "Ted Cruz: Not a Fan of Pride Parades". Human Rights Campaign.
- Miller, Jake. November 9, 2013. Ted Cruz talks guns, same-sex marriage, Obamacare with Jay Leno. CBS News. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- "Senator Ted Cruz on Same Sex Marriage". The Tonight Show. NBC. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- "Ted Cruz: Gay marriage decision one of 'darkest' in U.S. history - UPI.com". UPI. June 27, 2015.
- "Ted Cruz Fast Facts". CNN. March 26, 2015.
- "Ted Cruz's daughter, 2: 'I want to work with daddy'". The Washingtion Times.
- Plott, Elaina. "Heidi Cruz Didn't Plan for This". The Atlantic.
- "Board Member Bios: Heidi Cruz". Greater Houston Partnership. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
Moore, Michael J (March 23, 2015). "Cruz's Wife Heidi to Take Unpaid Leave From Goldman". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Editorial: Texan of the Year finalist Ted Cruz". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas: A. H. Belo. December 20, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "2012 Republican Party Primary Election". Texas Secretary of State. May 29, 2017.
- "2012 Republican Party Primary Runoff". Texas Secretary of State. July 31, 2012.
- "2012 General Election". Texas Secretary of State. November 6, 2012.
- U.S. Senator Ted Cruz
- Campaign website
- Appearances at the U.S. Supreme Court from the Oyez Project
- Ted Cruz at Ballotpedia
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Ted Cruz collected news and commentary at The Texas Tribune
- "Ted Cruz collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- R. (Ted) Edward Cruz – profile at Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP (archived)
- Ted Cruz at Curlie
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
| Solicitor General of Texas
James C. Ho
|Party political offices|
Kay Bailey Hutchison
| Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Texas
Kay Bailey Hutchison
| U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Texas
Served alongside: John Cornyn
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
| United States Senators by seniority