Template:/æ/ raising in North American English

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/æ/ raising in North American English[1]
Following
consonant
Example
words[2]
New York
City
,[2] New
Orleans
[3]
Baltimore,
Philadel-
phia
[2][4]
General
American
,
New England,
Western US
Midland US,
Pittsburgh
Southern
US
Canada,
Northern
Mountain
US
Minnesota,
Wisconsin
Great
Lakes
US
Non-prevocalic
/m, n/
fan, lamb, stand [ɛə][5][A][B] [ɛə][5] [ɛə] [ɛə~ɛjə][7] [ɛə][8] [ɛə][9][5]
Prevocalic
/m, n/
animal, planet,
Spanish
[æ]
/ŋ/[10] frank, language [ɛː~eɪ][11] [æ][10] [æ~æɛə][7] [ɛː~ɛj][8] [eː~ej][12]
Non-prevocalic
/ɡ/
bag, drag [ɛə][A] [æ][C] [æ][5]
Prevocalic /ɡ/ dragon, magazine [æ]
Non-prevocalic
/b, d, ʃ/
grab, flash, sad [ɛə][A] [æ][13] [ɛə][13]
Non-prevocalic
/f, θ, s/
ask, bath, half,
glass
[ɛə][A]
Otherwise as, back, happy,
locality
[æ][D]
  1. ^ a b c d In New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, most function words (am, can, had, etc.) and some learned or less common words (alas, carafe, lad, etc.) have [æ].
  2. ^ In Philadelphia, the irregular verbs began, ran, swam, and wan (a local variant of won) have [æ].[6]
  3. ^ In Philadelphia, bad, mad, and glad alone have [ɛə].
  4. ^ In New York City, certain lexical exceptions exist (like avenue being tense) and variability is common before /dʒ/ and /z/ as in imagine, magic, and jazz.[14]
    In New Orleans, [ɛə] additionally occurs before /v/ and /z/.[15]
Template documentation

Required references

This template requires the following works be cited elsewhere in the article using {{cite xxx}} or {{citation}}.

  • Baker, Adam; Mielke, Jeff; Archangeli, Diana (2008). "More velar than /g/: Consonant Coarticulation as a Cause of Diphthongization" (PDF). In Chang, Charles B.; Haynie, Hannah J. (eds.). Proceedings of the 26th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Somerville, Massachusetts: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. pp. 60–68. ISBN 978-1-57473-423-2.
  • Boberg, Charles (2008). "Regional phonetic differentiation in Standard Canadian English". Journal of English Linguistics. 36 (2): 129–154. doi:10.1177/0075424208316648.
  • Duncan, Daniel (2016). "'Tense' /æ/ is still lax: A phonotactics study" (PDF). In Hansson, Gunnar Ólafur; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; McMullin, Kevin; Pulleyblank, Douglas (eds.). Supplemental Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Meeting on Phonology. Washington, D.C.: Linguistic Society of America. doi:10.3765/amp.v3i0.3653.
  • Labov, William (2007). "Transmission and Diffusion" (PDF). Language. 83 (2): 344–387. doi:10.1353/lan.2007.0082. JSTOR 40070845.
  • Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-016746-7.