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Template:Citation Style documentation

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Usage

This template is used to build consistent documentation pages for Citation Style 1 templates.

For example: {{Citation Style documentation|author}} will show the author documentation.

Where a particular section of documentation is not appropriate for a certain template, simply add the text manually or create a new subtemplate.

Each module of text is a subtemplate that can be edited using the link.

Section usage

When creating template documentation, use the following order of sections and content:

  • Lead: a brief overview of the template intent
  • Usage: samples of blank parameters that can be copied and pasted
  • Examples: examples of various usage
  • Parameters: detailed descriptions of each parameter
    • Syntax: overview of the template syntax
    • Deprecated: list of deprecated parameters
    • Description: parameter descriptions separated by function in this general order:
      • Authors
      • Title
      • Date
      • Publisher
      • Edition, series, volume
      • In-source locations
      • URL
      • Anchor
      • Identifiers
      • Quote
      • Editors
      • Lay summary
      • Display options

Lead section

Use {{csdoc|lead|content}} to create consistent content for the lead:

[edit subtemplate]

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for .

Options for this field: One unnamed parameter is used to create the trailing text.

Markup Renders as
{{csdoc|lead|books}}

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for books.

Lua notice

[edit subtemplate]

Usage section

Start the usage section with {{csdoc|usage}}:

Copy a blank version to use. Almost all parameter names are supported only in lower case (some initialisms, such as |isbn= have upper case aliases like |ISBN=, which are acceptable for use). Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Unused parameters may be deleted to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples on this documentation page may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

Parameters to copy are enclosed in tables created by sub-templates.

Full horizontal style

  • Start with {{csdoc|usage full}}
  • Precede the sample markup with : to create an indent
  • Enclose the sample in <code><nowiki>...</nowiki></code>
  • Close the table with {{end}}
{{csdoc|usage full}}
:<code><nowiki>{{cite xxxxx |last1= |first1= |author-link1= |last2= |first2= |author-link2= |last3= |first3= |author-link3= |last4= |first4= |author-link4= |last5= |first5= |author-link5= |name-list-style= |vauthors= |translator-last1= |translator-first1= |translator-link1= |translator-last2= |translator-first2= |translator-link2= |collaboration= |contributor-last1= |contributor-first1= |contributor-link1= |contributor-last2= |contributor-first2= |contributor-link2= |others= |editor-last1= |editor-first1= |editor-link1= |editor-last2= |editor-first2= |editor-link2= |editor-last3= |editor-first3= |editor-link3= |veditors= |title= |script-title= |trans-title= |work= |script-work= |trans-work= |issue= |department= |chapter= |script-chapter= |trans-chapter= |contribution= |type= |edition= |series= |series-link= |episode= |event= |agency= |volume= |date= |year= |orig-year= |df= |publisher= |location= |publication-place= |via= |language= |page= |pages= |nopp= |at= |minutes= |time= |time-caption= |id= |arxiv= |asin= |asin-tld= |bibcode= |biorxiv= |citeseerx= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |eissn= |hdl= |sbn= |isbn= |ismn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |embargo= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |url= |format= |archive-url= |archive-format= |url-status= |archive-date= |chapter-url= |chapter-format= |lay-url= |lay-format= |lay-source= |lay-date= |access-date= |no-tracking= |quote= |ref= |mode= |author-mask1= |author-mask2= |author-mask3= |author-mask4= |author-mask5= |display-authors= |translator-mask1= |translator-mask2= |display-translators= |contributor-mask1= |contributor-mask2= |display-contributors= |editor-mask1= |editor-mask2= |editor-mask3= |display-editors= |postscript= |url-access= |chapter-url-access= |bibcode-access= |doi-access= |hdl-access= |jstor-access= |ol-access= |osti-access= |map= |script-map= |trans-map= |map-url= |map-format= |map-url-access= |scale= |cartography= |inset= |sections= |interviewer-last1= |interviewer-first1= |interviewer-link1= |interviewer-last2= |interviewer-first2= |interviewer-link2= |interviewer-mask1= |interviewer-mask2= |display-interviewers= |season= |series-number= |series-separator= |network= |station= |transcript= |transcript-url= |transcript-format= |conference= |conference-url= |conference-format=}}</nowiki></code>
{{end}}
Full parameter set in horizontal format
{{cite xxxxx |last1= |first1= |author-link1= |last2= |first2= |author-link2= |last3= |first3= |author-link3= |last4= |first4= |author-link4= |last5= |first5= |author-link5= |name-list-style= |vauthors= |translator-last1= |translator-first1= |translator-link1= |translator-last2= |translator-first2= |translator-link2= |collaboration= |contributor-last1= |contributor-first1= |contributor-link1= |contributor-last2= |contributor-first2= |contributor-link2= |others= |editor-last1= |editor-first1= |editor-link1= |editor-last2= |editor-first2= |editor-link2= |editor-last3= |editor-first3= |editor-link3= |veditors= |title= |script-title= |trans-title= |work= |script-work= |trans-work= |issue= |department= |chapter= |script-chapter= |trans-chapter= |contribution= |type= |edition= |series= |series-link= |episode= |event= |agency= |volume= |date= |year= |orig-year= |df= |publisher= |location= |publication-place= |via= |language= |page= |pages= |nopp= |at= |minutes= |time= |time-caption= |id= |arxiv= |asin= |asin-tld= |bibcode= |biorxiv= |citeseerx= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |eissn= |hdl= |sbn= |isbn= |ismn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |embargo= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |url= |format= |archive-url= |archive-format= |url-status= |archive-date= |chapter-url= |chapter-format= |lay-url= |lay-format= |lay-source= |lay-date= |access-date= |no-tracking= |quote= |ref= |mode= |author-mask1= |author-mask2= |author-mask3= |author-mask4= |author-mask5= |display-authors= |translator-mask1= |translator-mask2= |display-translators= |contributor-mask1= |contributor-mask2= |display-contributors= |editor-mask1= |editor-mask2= |editor-mask3= |display-editors= |postscript= |url-access= |chapter-url-access= |bibcode-access= |doi-access= |hdl-access= |jstor-access= |ol-access= |osti-access= |map= |script-map= |trans-map= |map-url= |map-format= |map-url-access= |scale= |cartography= |inset= |sections= |interviewer-last1= |interviewer-first1= |interviewer-link1= |interviewer-last2= |interviewer-first2= |interviewer-link2= |interviewer-mask1= |interviewer-mask2= |display-interviewers= |season= |series-number= |series-separator= |network= |station= |transcript= |transcript-url= |transcript-format= |conference= |conference-url= |conference-format=}}

The above set is organised contextually rather than alphabetically. The following parameters, which are usually available for at least a few cite templates, are not included in the full parameter set above: |authors=; |book-title=; |class=; |degree=; |docket=; |editors= (deprecated); |encyclopedia=; |mailinglist=; |message-id=; |number=; |publicationdate=; |section=; |sheet=; |sheets=; |title-link=; |s2cid=.

Most commonly used horizontal style

  • Start with {{csdoc|usage common}}
  • Precede the sample markup with : to create an indent
  • Enclose the sample in <code><nowiki>...</nowiki></code>
  • Close the table with {{end}}
{{csdoc|usage common}}
:<code><nowiki>{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |title= |url= |access-date= |date= |publisher= |location= |isbn= |page= |pages=}}</nowiki></code>
{{end}}
Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format
{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |title= |url= |access-date= |date= |publisher= |location= |isbn= |page= |pages=}}

Full vertical style

The full vertical style can be implemented in a three columns format (only practical when the number of parameters is not too extended), or in a four columns format.

Three columns format

The full vertical style in three columns consists of a "Vertical list", "Prerequisites" and "Brief instructions / notes".

<!--
* Start with: 
-->
{{csdoc|usage vertical}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
<!--
* Create the vertical list column
* Separate the next column with:
-->
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
<!--
* Create the prerequisites column; blank lines must include a <code>&nbsp;</code>
* Separate the next column with:
-->
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
<!--
* Create the instructions column; blank lines must include a <code>&nbsp;</code>
* End with:
-->
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical end}}

Example:

{{csdoc|usage vertical}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
{{cite book
| last                  =
| first                 =
| author-link           =
}}
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
last
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
same as last1
same as first1
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical end}}
{{csdoc|usage vertical}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
{{cite book
| last                  =
| first                 =
| author-link           =
}}
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
last
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
same as last1
same as first1
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
{{csdoc|usage vertical end}}

Four columns format

{| class="wikitable"
|+Full parameter set in vertical format
! Parameters !! Prerequisites !! Brief instructions / notes !! Vertical list
|-
| {{Hover title|or any of its aliases, including: last; author1; author; author-last1; author-last; (etc.)|last1}}
| 
| Author's last name or single name author. Don't link.
| rowspan="3" style="vertical-align:top;" | <pre style="margin:0px; border:none;">
{{cite xxxxx 
 |last1                =
 |first1               =
 |author-link1         =
}}
</pre>
|-
| {{Hover title|or any of its aliases, including: first; given1; given; author-first1; author-first; (etc.)|first1}}
| {{Hover title|or any of its aliases, including: last; author1; author; author-last1; author-last; (etc.)|last1}}
| Author's first name. Don't link.
|-
| {{Hover title|or any of its aliases, including: author-link; authorlink1; authorlink; subject-link1; subject-link; (etc.)|author-link1}}
| {{Hover title|or any of its aliases, including: last; author1; author; author-last1; author-last; (etc.)|last1}}
| Title of Wikipedia article about the first author. Don't link.
|}
Full parameter set in vertical format
Parameters Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes Vertical list
last1 Author's last name or single name author. Don't link.
{{cite xxxxx 
 |last1                =
 |first1               =
 |author-link1         =
 |last2                =
 |first2               =
 |author-link2         =
 |last3                =
 |first3               =
 |author-link3         =
 |last4                =
 |first4               =
 |author-link4         =
 |last5                =
 |first5               =
 |author-link5         =
 |name-list-style      =
 |vauthors             =
 |translator-last1     =
 |translator-first1    =
 |translator-link1     =
 |translator-last2     =
 |translator-first2    =
 |translator-link2     =
 |collaboration        =
 |contributor-last1    =
 |contributor-first1   =
 |contributor-link1    =
 |contributor-last2    =
 |contributor-first2   =
 |contributor-link2    =
 |others               =
 |editor-last1         =
 |editor-first1        =
 |editor-link1         =
 |editor-last2         =
 |editor-first2        =
 |editor-link2         =
 |editor-last3         =
 |editor-first3        =
 |editor-link3         =
 |veditors             =
 |title                =
 |script-title         =
 |trans-title          =
 |work                 =
 |script-work          =
 |trans-work           =
 |issue                =
 |department           =
 |chapter              =
 |script-chapter       =
 |trans-chapter        =
 |contribution         =
 |type                 =
 |edition              =
 |series               =
 |series-link          =
 |episode              =
 |event                =
 |agency               =
 |volume               =
 |date                 =
 |year                 =
 |orig-year            =
 |df                   =
 |publisher            =
 |location             =
 |publication-place    =
 |via                  =
 |language             =
 |page                 =
 |pages                =
 |nopp                 =
 |at                   =
 |minutes              =
 |time                 =
 |time-caption         =
 |id                   =
 |arxiv                =
 |asin                 =
 |asin-tld             =
 |bibcode              =
 |biorxiv              =
 |citeseerx            =
 |doi                  =
 |doi-broken-date      =
 |eissn                =
 |hdl                  =
 |sbn                  =
 |isbn                 =
 |ismn                 =
 |issn                 =
 |jfm                  =
 |jstor                =
 |lccn                 =
 |mr                   =
 |oclc                 =
 |ol                   =
 |osti                 =
 |pmc                  =
 |embargo              =
 |pmid                 =
 |rfc                  =
 |ssrn                 =
 |zbl                  =
 |url                  =
 |format               =
 |archive-url          =
 |archive-format       =
 |url-status           =
 |archive-date         =
 |chapter-url          =
 |chapter-format       =
 |lay-url              =
 |lay-format           =
 |lay-source           =
 |lay-date             =
 |access-date          =
 |no-tracking          =
 |quote                =
 |ref                  =
 |mode                 =
 |author-mask1         =
 |author-mask2         =
 |author-mask3         =
 |author-mask4         =
 |author-mask5         =
 |display-authors      =
 |translator-mask1     =
 |translator-mask2     =
 |display-translators  =
 |contributor-mask1    =
 |contributor-mask2    =
 |display-contributors =
 |editor-mask1         =
 |editor-mask2         =
 |editor-mask3         =
 |display-editors      =
 |postscript           =
 |url-access           =
 |chapter-url-access   =
 |bibcode-access       =
 |doi-access           =
 |hdl-access           =
 |jstor-access         =
 |ol-access            =
 |osti-access          =
 |map                  =
 |script-map           =
 |trans-map            =
 |map-url              =
 |map-format           =
 |map-url-access       =
 |scale                =
 |cartography          =
 |inset                =
 |sections             =
 |interviewer-last1    =
 |interviewer-first1   =
 |interviewer-link1    =
 |interviewer-last2    =
 |interviewer-first2   =
 |interviewer-link2    =
 |interviewer-mask1    =
 |interviewer-mask2    =
 |display-interviewers =
 |season               =
 |series-number        =
 |series-separator     =
 |network              =
 |station              =
 |transcript           =
 |transcript-url       =
 |transcript-format    =
 |conference           =
 |conference-url       =
 |conference-format    =
}}
first1 last1 Author's first name. Don't link.
author-link1 last1 Title of Wikipedia article about the first author. Don't link.
last2 last1 Like last1, but for 2nd author.
first2 last2 Like first1, but for 2nd author.
author-link2 last2 Like author-link1, but for 2nd author.
last3 last2 Like last1, but for 3rd author.
first3 last3 Like first1, but for 3rd author.
author-link3 last3 Like author-link1, but for 3rd author.
last4 last3 Like last1, but for 4th author.
first4 last4 Like first1, but for 4th author.
author-link4 last4 Like author-link1, but for 4th author.
last5 last4 Like last1, but for 5th author. Similar: last6, etc.
first5 last5 Like first1, but for 5th author. Similar: first6, etc.
author-link5 last5 Like author-link1, but for 5th author. Similar: author-link6, etc.
name-list-style vanc to emulate Vancouver style
vauthors
translator-last1
translator-first1 translator-last1
translator-link1 translator-last1
translator-last2 translator-last1 Additional translators: translator-last3, etc.
translator-first2 translator-last2
translator-link2 translator-last2
collaboration
contributor-last1
contributor-first1
contributor-link1
contributor-last2
contributor-first2
contributor-link2
others
editor-last1
editor-first1 editor-last1
editor-link1 editor-last1
editor-last2 editor-last1
editor-first2 editor-last2
editor-link2 editor-last2
editor-last3 editor-last2
editor-first3 editor-last3
editor-link3 editor-last3
veditors
title
script-title
trans-title title or script-title
work
script-work
trans-work work or script-work
issue
department
chapter Chapter title can be wikilinked unless when a chapterurl is given
script-chapter
trans-chapter chapter or script-chapter
contribution
type
edition Ordinal number
series
series-link
episode
event
agency
volume
date
year
orig-year year or date
df
publisher
location publisher
publication-place
via
language
page choose one: "page", "pages", or "at"
pages choose one: "page", "pages", or "at". Use when content on multiple pages supports the article text.
nopp page or pages set nopp to "yes" to suppress the "p." or "pp." before page numbers
at choose one: "page", "pages", or "at"
minutes
time
time-caption
id
arxiv
asin
asin-tld
bibcode
biorxiv
citeseerx
doi
doi-broken-date doi
eissn
hdl
sbn
isbn always include ISBN, if one has been assigned
ismn
issn
jfm
jstor
lccn
mr
oclc
ol
osti
pmc
embargo
pmid
rfc
ssrn
zbl
url title or script-title
format url
archive-url archive-date, url
archive-format
url-status archive-url
archive-date archive-url
chapter-url chapter or script-chapter
chapter-format chapter-url
lay-url
lay-format lay-url
lay-source lay-url
lay-date lay-url
access-date url
no-tracking
quote
ref
mode cs1 or cs2
author-mask1 last1
author-mask2 last2
author-mask3 last3
author-mask4 last4
author-mask5 last5
display-authors last1 number (number of authors displayed) or etal (more authors)
translator-mask1 translator-last1
translator-mask2 translator-last2
display-translators
contributor-mask1
contributor-mask2
display-contributors
editor-mask1 editor-last1
editor-mask2 editor-last2
editor-mask3 editor-last3
display-editors
postscript
url-access
chapter-url-access
bibcode-access
doi-access
hdl-access
jstor-access
ol-access
osti-access
map
script-map
trans-map
map-url
map-format
map-url-access
scale
cartography
inset
sections
interviewer-last1
interviewer-first1
interviewer-link1
interviewer-last2
interviewer-first2
interviewer-link2
interviewer-mask1
interviewer-mask2
display-interviewers
season
series-number
series-separator
network
station
transcript
transcript-url
transcript-format
conference
conference-url
conference-format
If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.
Additional parameters (available for at least some cite templates)
|authors=
|book-title=
|class=
|degree=
|docket=
|editors= (deprecated)
|encyclopedia=
|mailinglist=
|message-id=
|number=
|publicationdate=
|section=
|sheet=
|sheets=
|title-link=
(available from late April 2020) |s2cid=

Sub-templates

Usage

[edit subtemplate]

Copy a blank version to use. Almost all parameter names are supported only in lower case (some initialisms, such as |isbn= have upper case aliases like |ISBN=, which are acceptable for use). Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Unused parameters may be deleted to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples on this documentation page may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

|}

Usage full

[edit subtemplate]

Full parameter set in horizontal format

Usage common

[edit subtemplate]

Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format

Usage vertical

[edit subtemplate]

Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes

Usage vertical mid

[edit subtemplate]

| style="vertical-align:top;" |

|}

Usage vertical end

[edit subtemplate]

|}

  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column, it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Examples section

Use {{markup2}} to format the examples (see that template's documentation for use).

{{markup2 |t=Basic usage with url (and accessdate) and edition
|m={{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
|r={{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
}}

Basic usage with url (and accessdate) and edition

  • {{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
Mysterious book.

Parameters section

syntax

[edit subtemplate]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

If non-hyphenated aliases of parameters with hyphens are defined, they exist only for legacy support (and are subject to become unsupported in the future); therefore, to streamline the apperance and improve consistency, select the hyphenated variant when adding parameters to a citation template and also consider switching already present non-hyphenated parameters to their hyphenated equivalents at the same time.

COinS

[edit subtemplate]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc., should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters

Note: This table of metadata is displayed for all Citation Style 1 templates. Not all of these parameters are supported by every CS1 template. Some of these parameters are mutually exclusive, some are aliases of another parameter, and some require other parameters to be present. Please refer to each template's documentation for a full list of supported parameters, their aliases, and their dependencies.

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |script-chapter=, |contribution=, |script-contribution=, |entry=, |script-entry=, |article=, |script-article=, |section=, |script-section=
  • |title=, |script-title=, |book-title=, |booktitle=
  • |publication-place=, |place=, |location=, |publicationplace=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=, |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |institution=
  • |url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |section-url=, |chapterurl=, |contributionurl=, |sectionurl=
  • |author-last=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |author-surname=, |author-surname#=, |author#-surname=, |last=, |last#=, |surname=, |surname#=, |author=, |author#=, |subject=, |subject#=, |host=, |host#=
  • |author-first=, |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |author-given=, |author-given#=, |author#-given=, |first=, |first#=, |given=, |given#=
  • |degree=
  • |arxiv=, |bibcode=, |biorxiv=, |citeseerx=, |doi=, |eissn=, |eprint=, |hdl=, |isbn=, |issn=, |jfm=, |jstor=, |lccn=, |message-id=, |mr=, |oclc=, |osti=, |pmc=, |pmid=, |rfc=, |ssrn=, |s2cid=, |zbl=

sep_period

[edit subtemplate]

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.).

sep_comma

[edit subtemplate]

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

required

[edit subtemplate]

This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |no-tracking=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.

whats new

[edit subtemplate]

What's new or changed recently
Parameter New or changed param Date
|author-given= added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |author-first= October 2020
|author-surname= added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |author-last= October 2020
|display-subjects= added alias for |display-authors= for usage with |subject= October 2020
|interviewer-given= added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |interviewer-first= October 2020
|interviewer-surname= added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |interviewer-last= October 2020
|orig-date= added canonical form for alias |orig-year= October 2020
|quote-page= added single page specifier for |quote= October 2020
|quote-pages= added multiple pages specifier for |quote= October 2020
|sbn= added identifier parameter for Standard Book Numbers April 2020
|script-quote= added non-Latin script text facility for |quote= October 2020
|subject-mask= added aliases (including enumerated forms) to |author-mask= for usage with |subject= October 2020
|s2cid= added identifier parameter for Semantic Scholar corpus ID April 2020
|s2cid-access= added access-icon parameter for |s2cid= April 2020
|title-link= added special tokens none/doi/pmc to override/disable auto-linking ({{cite journal}} only) October 2020
|trans-quote= added translated text facility for |quote= October 2020
accept-this-as-written-markup added for |doi=, |eissn=, |isbn=, |issn=, |sbn= October 2020

deprecated

[edit subtemplate]


Deprecated CS1/CS2 parameters
Deprecated parameter Replace with
|authormask= |author-mask=
|authormaskn= |author-maskn=
|authornmask= |authorn-mask=
|displayauthors= |display-authors=
|editorlink= |editor-link=
|editorlinkn= |editor-linkn=
|editornlink= |editorn-link=
|editors= |editor= (1 editor) or |editorn= (more than 1 editor) or |veditors= (for Vancouver style editors). Consider |editor-maskn= if annotation is required.
|ignore-isbn-error= |isbn=((<isbn>))
|last-author-amp= |name-list-style=amp
|lastauthoramp= |name-list-style=amp
|subjectlink= |subject-link=
|subjectlinkn= |subject-linkn=
|subjectnlink= |subjectn-link=
Recently removed CS1/CS2 parameters
Removed parameter Replace with
|authorfirst= |author-first=
|authorfirstn= |author-firstn=
|authornfirst= |authorn-first=
|authorlast= |author-last=
|authorlastn= |author-lastn=
|authornlast= |authorn-last=
|authorgiven= |author-given=
|authorgivenn= |author-givenn=
|authorngiven= |authorn-given=
|authorsurname= |author-surname=
|authorsurnamen= |author-surnamen=
|authornsurname= |authorn-surname=
|displayeditors= |display-editors=
|doi-broken= |doi-broken-date=
|doi-inactive-date= |doi-broken-date=
|editorfirst= |editor-first=
|editorfirstn= |editor-firstn=
|editornfirst= |editorn-first=
|editorlast= |editor-last=
|editorlastn= |editor-lastn=
|editornlast= |editorn-last=
|editorgiven= |editor-given=
|editorgivenn= |editor-givenn=
|editorngiven= |editorn-given=
|editorsurname= |editor-surname=
|editorsurnamen= |editor-surnamen=
|editornsurname= |editorn-surname=
|editormask= |editor-mask=
|editormaskn= |editor-maskn=
|editornmask= |editorn-mask=
|embargo= |pmc-embargo-date=
|ignoreisbnerror= |isbn=((<isbn>))
|interviewerlink= |interviewer-link=
|interviewerlinkn= |interviewer-linkn=
|interviewernlink= |interviewern-link=
|interviewermask= |interviewer-mask=
|interviewermaskn= |interviewer-maskn=
|interviewernmask= |interviewern-mask=
|no-cat= |no-tracking=
|notracking= |no-tracking=
|series-separator= (delete)

In addition to the above list(s) of deprecated and removed parameters, all non-hyphenated aliases of parameters with hyphens are discouraged to be used in citation templates and are kept only for legacy support. They are subject to become deprecated and unsupported in the future as well. To streamline the apperance and improve consistency across the project, these variants should no longer be used when adding parameters to citation templates. Instead, select the hyphenated parameter variants and also consider switching other non-hyphenated parameters, which may be present in a citation already, to their hyphenated equivalents at the same time.

author

[edit subtemplate]

  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn, but not the other way around). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-style: accepts a limited list of keywords as value; when set to amp, ampersand, or &, inserts an ampersand between the last two names in a name list; when set to and, inserts the conjunction 'and' between the last two names of a name list; when set to vancdisplays name lists in Vancouver style when the lists use the last/first forms of name parameters. Alias: name-list-format (deprecated)
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn, but not the other way around). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Options for this field:

  • |contributor=yes adds contributors (use with cite book and citation only)
  • |others=yes adds "others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "Illustrated by Smith" or "Trans. Smith"."
  • |aliases= add aliases for last.

editor

[edit subtemplate]

  • editor-last: surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: This parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last), or the name of an editorial committee. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editorn-last, editor-surnamen or editorn-surname; editorn-first, editor-givenn or editorn-given; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...|editor-last1=... |editor2=....
    • editor-link: title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
    • name-list-style: accepts a limited list of keywords as value; when set to amp, ampersand, or &, inserts an ampersand between the last two names in a name list; when set to and, inserts the conjunction 'and' between the last two names of a name list; when set to vancdisplays name lists in Vancouver style when the lists use the last/first forms of name parameters. Alias: name-list-format (deprecated)
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |veditors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • editors (deprecated): free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged; not an alias of editor-last
  • Display:
    Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
    If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
    If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

title

[edit subtemplate]

(See also Help:Citation Style 1 § Titles and chapters.)

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics. If script-title is defined, title holds a Romanization of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc.); not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in title. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will not display and link correctly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; {{!}} (preferred)
{{bracket|text}} &#124; or {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering the pipe
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.

Options for this field:

title_title sets the display title:

  • encyclopedia = encyclopedia
  • default = title

web

[edit subtemplate]

(See also Help:Citation Style 1 § Titles and chapters.)

  • title: Title of source page on website. Displays in quotes. If script-title is defined, title holds a Romanization of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc); follows Romanization defined in title. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
{{bracket|text}} {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering pipe itself
This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |no-tracking=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • website: Title of website; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics. Aliases: work

chapter

[edit subtemplate]

  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • script-chapter: Chapter heading for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc); follows Romanization defined in chapter. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |chapter=Tōkyō tawā |script-chapter=ja:東京タワー |trans-chapter=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans-chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • contribution: A separately-authored part of author's book. May be wikilinked or may use contribution-url, but not both. Values of Afterword, Foreword, Introduction, or Preface will display unquoted; any other value will display in quotation marks. The author of the contribution is given in contributor.

Options for this field:

title_format sets the display format:

  • italics = Displays in italics.
  • work = If work is defined, then title is displayed in quotes, else displays in italics.
  • default = Displays in quotes.

title_title sets the display title:

  • booktitle = booktitle
  • default = chapter

type

[edit subtemplate]

  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source. May alternatively be used to identify the type of manuscript linked to in the title, if this is not the final version of a manuscript (e.g. if a preprint of a manuscript is freely available, but the version of record is behind a paywall). Format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, Accepted manuscript, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.

Options for this field:

  • type_default: Adds "Defaults to type_default"

journal

[edit subtemplate]

  • work (required by {{cite journal}} and {{cite magazine}}): Name of the work containing the source; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website. Use Latin script. For languages written in non-Latin based scripts (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Indic, Japanese, Korean, etc.) use a standard Romanization in this field.
    • script-work: Work title in its original, non-Latin script; not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in work. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script. Leave empty for Latin-based scripts (Czech, French, Turkish, Vietnamese, etc.). Aliases: script-journal, script-newspaper, script-magazine, script-periodical, script-website.
    • trans-work: English translation of the work title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after work or script-work. Aliases: trans-journal, trans-newspaper, trans-magazine, trans-periodical, trans-website.
      ... |work=Zhōngguó piàofáng |script-work=zh:中国票房 |trans-work=China Box Office ...
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number. When the issue has a special title of its own, this may be given, in italics, along with the issue number, e.g. |issue=2, ''Modern Canadian Literature''. Displayed in parentheses following volume.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters in the same citation:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display (and will produce an error message).

Options for this field:

  • department adds:
  • department: Regular department or section within the periodical or journal. Examples include "Communication", "Editorial", "Letter to the Editor", and "Review". Displays after title and is in plain text.

edition

[edit subtemplate]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.

series

[edit subtemplate]

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

series_episode

[edit subtemplate]

  • series: The name of the series the episode belongs to; may be wikilinked.
    • series-link: Wikilink to an existing Wikipedia article.

event

[edit subtemplate]

  • event: Event where the speech was given.

agency

[edit subtemplate]

  • agency: The news agency (wire service) that provided the content; examples: Associated Press, Reuters, Agence France-Presse. Do not use for sources published on the agency's own website; e.g. apnews.com or reuters.com; instead, use work or publisher. May be wikilinked if relevant.

volume

[edit subtemplate]

  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volume numbers should be entered just as a numeral (e.g. 37); volume values that are wholly digits, wholly uppercase roman numerals, or less than five characters will appear in bold. Any non-numeric value of five or more characters will be presumed to follow some other convention and will not appear in bold.

date

[edit subtemplate]

  • date: Date of referenced source. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

For no date, or "undated", use |date=n.d.
Automatic date formatting: Citation Style 1 and 2 templates, including this template, automatically render dates in all date parameters (such as |date=, |publication-date=, |access-date=, |archive-date=, etc.) except for |orig-date= in the style specified by the article's {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} template. See those templates' documentation for details.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use the more flexible |date= parameter instead unless all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    2. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-date: Original publication date or year; displays in square brackets after the date (or year). For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-date=First published 1859 or |orig-date=Composed 1904. As |orig-date= does not support automatic date formatting, use the same date format as defined by |df= (or, if it exists in the article, by |cs1-dates= of a {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} template), or as used in the |date= parameter. Alias: orig-year, origyear}}
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates; overrides the automatic date formatting described above. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Options for this field:

  • limited_param_list hides orig-date because not allowed in limited-parameter templates

publisher

[edit subtemplate]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a website, book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, etc.). Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc.", or "GmbH" are not usually included. Not normally used for periodicals. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title.
  • place: For news stories with a dateline, that is, the location where the story was written. In earlier versions of the template this was the publication place, and for compatibility, will be treated as the publication place if the publication-place parameter is absent; see that parameter for further information. Alias: location
  • publication-place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the publication place; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. If only one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, it will be treated as the publication place and will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), or if the deliverer requests attribution. See the access level parameters to display access restrictions.

Options for this field:

  • |work=no suppresses "; if work is defined, then publisher and location are enclosed in parentheses"
  • |map=yes changes:
    • publisher: Name of publisher. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g., a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Displays before title. Do not wikilink—use publisher-link instead.
    • publisher-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the publisher—not the publisher's website; do not wikilink.

newsgroup

[edit subtemplate]

  • newsgroup: Name of newsgroup; a link is automatically created; do not wikilink.

language

[edit subtemplate]

  • language: The language (or a comma-separated list of the languages) in which the source is written, as either the ISO 639 language code (preferred) or the full language name. Examples: |language=ru;, |lang=fr, pt-br; |lang=Russian; |language=French, Portuguese. See the list of supported codes and names. Do not use templates or wikilinks. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. When the only source language is English, no language is displayed in the citation. The use of languages recognized by the citation module adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources. Because cs1|2 templates are often copied from en.wiki to other wikis, use of language codes is preferred so that language names render in the correct language and form: espagnol at a French-language wiki instead of the English word "Spanish". Aliases: lang

pages

[edit subtemplate]

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |no-pp=yes. If hyphenated, use {{hyphen}} to indicate this is intentional (e.g. |page=3{{hyphen}}12), otherwise several editors and semi-automated tools will assume this was a misuse of the parameter to indicate a page range and will convert |page=3-12 to |pages=3{{ndash}}12. Alias: p.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |no-pp=yes.
    Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate because individual page numbers contain hyphens, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use double parentheses to tell the template to display the value of |pages= without processing it, and use {{hyphen}} to indicate to editors that a hyphen is really intended: |pages=((3{{hyphen}}1{{ndash}}3{{hyphen}}15)). Alternatively, use |at=, like this: |at=pp. 3-1&ndash;3-15. Alias: pp.
    • no-pp: Set to yes, y, or true to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover or |pages=passim.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
    Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.
  • For |quote-page= and |quote-pages= used in conjunction with |quote=, see here.

Options for this field:

  • work adds "or work (or an alias) is defined"

time

[edit subtemplate]

  • minutes: Time the event occurs in the source; followed by "minutes in".
  • OR: time: Time the event occurs in the source; preceded by default text "Event occurs at".
    • time-caption: Changes the default text displayed before time. Alias: timecaption.

id1

[edit subtemplate]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable. For example, |id=NCJ 122967 will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as |id={{NCJ|122967}} to append NCJ 122967 instead.

id2

[edit subtemplate]

The following identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. |rfc=822 or |pmc=345678.

  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: |arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or |arxiv=0706.0001 (April 2007 – December 2014) or |arxiv=1501.00001 (since January 2015). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html". Aliases: eprint.
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn. Because this link favours one specific distributor, include it only if standard identifiers are not available. Example |asin=B00005N5PF. Aliases: ASIN.
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: au, br, ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it, mx. Aliases: none.
  • bibcode: bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H. Aliases: none.
  • biorxiv: bioRxiv id, a 6-digit number at the end of the biorXiv URL (e.g. 078733 for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/078733). Aliases: none.
  • citeseerx: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. 10.1.1.176.341 for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341). Aliases: none.
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.). Aliases: DOI.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid DOIs using a non-standard format, see below.
    • doi-broken-date: Date a valid DOI was found to be non-working/inactive at http://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Aliases: none.
  • eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |eissn=1557-2986. Aliases: EISSN.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid eISSNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet; example |hdl=20.1000/100. Aliases: HDL.
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN § Overview.) Hyphens in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, use sbn. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISBN, isbn13, ISBN13.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid ISBNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: 979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISMN.
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |issn=2049-3630. Aliases: ISSN.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid ISSNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik; example |jfm=53.0144.01. Aliases: JFM.
  • jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: |jstor=3793107. Aliases: JSTOR.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case and without a space; example |lccn=79-57364 or |lccn=2004042477 or |lccn=e09001178. Aliases: LCCN.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews; example |mr=630583. Aliases: MR.
  • oclc: OCLC Number for looking up publications in the WorldCat union catalog; example |oclc=9355469. Aliases: OCLC.
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value; example |ol=7030731M. Aliases: OL.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information; example |osti=4367507. Aliases: OSTI.
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for open repository full-text of a journal article, e.g. |pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.. Aliases: PMC.
    • pmc-embargo-date: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date. Aliases: none.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier; example |pmid=17322060 See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers. Aliases: PMID.
  • rfc: Request for Comments; example |rfc=3143. Aliases: RFC.
  • sbn: Standard Book Number; example |sbn=356-02201-3. Aliases: SBN.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid SBNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network; example |ssrn=1900856. Aliases: SSRN.
  • s2cid: Semantic Scholar corpus ID; example |s2cid=37220927. Aliases: S2CID.
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH; example |zbl=0472.53010 For zbMATH search results like JFM 35.0387.02 use |jfm=35.0387.02. Aliases: ZBL.

In very rare cases, valid identifiers (f.e., as actually printed on publications) do not follow their defined standard format or use non-conforming checksums, which would typically cause an error message to be shown. Do not alter them to match a different checksum. In order to suppress the error message, some identifiers (|doi=, |eissn=, |isbn=, |issn=, and |sbn=) support a special accept-this-as-written markup which can be applied to disable the error-checking (as |<param>=((<value>))). If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the identifier value instead of overriding the error message.

For some identifiers, it is possible to specify the access status using the corresponding |<param>-access= parameter.

For {{cite journal}}, some identifiers (specifying free resources) will automatically be linked to the title when |url= and |title-link= are not used to specify a different link target. This behaviour can be overridden by one out of a number of special keywords for |title-link= to manually select a specific source (|title-link=pmc or |title-link=doi) for auto-linking or to disable the feature (|title-link=none).

It is not necessary to specify a URL to a link identical to a link also produced by an identifier. The |url= parameter (or |title-link=) can then be used for providing a direct deep link to the corresponding document or a convenience link to a resource that would not otherwise be obviously accessible.

url

[edit subtemplate]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication named by title can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... For linking to pages in PDF files or in Google Books, see WP:PAGELINKS. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon; use |isbn= or |oclc= to provide neutral search links for books. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is required for online sources, such as personal websites, that do not have a publication date; see WP:CITEWEB. Access dates are not required for links to published research papers, published books, or news articles with publication dates. Note that access-date is the date that the URL was found to be working and to support the text being cited. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction with {{use dmy dates}} and {{use mdy dates}}. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived snapshot of a web page. Typically used to refer to services such as Internet Archive (see Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine), WebCite (see Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and archive.is (see Wikipedia:Using archive.is); requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by |url-status=live) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Archive-service snapshot-date; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink; templated dates are discouraged. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction with {{use dmy dates}} and {{use mdy dates}}. Alias: archivedate.
      • url-status: this optional parameter is ignored if archive-url is not set. If omitted, or with null value, the default value is |url-status=dead. When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |url-status=live; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |url-status=unfit or |url-status=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but |url= and |archive-url= are still required).
      • archive-format: File format of the work referred to by archive-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after the archive link. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. See Using |format=
    • url-access: See Access indicators for url-holding parameters
  • format: File format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. See Using |format=

URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and http:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.

If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:

space " ' < > [ ] { | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7b %7c %7d

Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.

  1. ^ a b Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Options for this field:

  • media uses 'media' in place of 'text of the publication'

chapterurl

[edit subtemplate]

  • chapter-url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication named by chapter or contribution can be found. Cannot be used if those parameters are wikilinked. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. Aliases: contribution-url, section-url, chapterurl.
  • chapter-format: Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.

lay

[edit subtemplate]

  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Alias: layurl.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the lay summary. Displays in italics and preceded by a spaced endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the lay summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.
    • lay-format: File format of the work referred to by lay-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after lay summary. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. See Using |format=

quote

[edit subtemplate]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include terminating punctuation.
  • script-quote: Original quotation for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc.); not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in quote. Alias: none. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
... |quote=Tōkyō tawā |script-quote=ja:東京タワー |trans-quote=Tokyo Tower ...
  • trans-quote: English translation of the quotation if the source quoted is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets. Alias: none.
  • quote-page: The number of a single page quoted in |quote=. Use either |quote-page= or |quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the page(s) specified in |page= or |pages=. Displays preceded by p. unless |no-pp=yes. If hyphenated, use {{hyphen}} to indicate this is intentional (e.g. |quote-page=3{{hyphen}}12). Alias: none.
  • OR: quote-pages: A list or range of pages quoted in |quote=. Use either |quote-page= or |quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the pages specified in |pages=. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,). Displays preceded by colon pp. unless |no-pp=yes is defined. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes. Alias: none.

Options for this field:

  • |cs2=yes suppresses "When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation."

ref

[edit subtemplate]

  • ref: the citation's HTML anchor identifier, when different from its default. When set, |ref=ID generates an anchor with the given ID (the id= attribute in the citation's <cite id="ID"> HTML tag). Setting |ref=ID identifies the template as a target and allows wikilinking to full references, especially useful with short-form citations like shortened notes and parenthetical referencing. The default anchor ID is suitable for use with {{sfn}} and {{harv}} templates. Since April 2020, the parameter / keyword pair |ref=harv has no special meaning; |ref=harv may be removed from existing cs1|2 templates. To inhibit anchor ID creation, set |ref=none. Aliases: none. See Template:Citation/doc § Anchors for Harvard referencing templates.

display

[edit subtemplate]

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask:
  • contributor-mask:
  • editor-mask:
  • interviewer-mask:
  • subject-mask:
  • translator-mask:
    Replaces the name of the (first) author with em dashes or text. Set <name>-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set <name>-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". The numeric value 0 is a special case to be used in conjunction with <name>-link—in this case, the value of <name>-link will be used as (linked) text. In either case, you must still include the values for all names for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. Mask parameters can take an enumerator in the name of the parameter (e.g. |authorn-mask=) to apply the mask to a specific name.
  • display-authors:
  • display-contributors:
  • display-editors:
  • display-interviewers:
  • display-subjects:
  • display-translators:
    Controls the number of author or editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of names, set display-authors and/or display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation (and not affect the display of editors). Likewise, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors (and all authors). |display-authors=0 and |display-editors=0 are special cases suppressing the display of all authors or editors including the et al. By default, all authors and editors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors (deprecated).
  • last-author-amp (deprecated; use name-list-style): Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to y, yes, or true. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Additional text or templates beyond the terminating punctuation may generate an error message. |postscript= is ignored if quote is defined.

Options for this field:

  • cs2: When set, changes:
    • postscript to "defaults to none"
    • separator to "Defaults to a comma (,)"

Subscription or registration required

[edit subtemplate]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability § Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors should signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation. Nota bene: access icons do not display correctly for editors who use Modern skin.

Four access levels can be used:

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access indicators for url-holding parameters

Sources linked by |url=, |article-url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |entry-url=, |map-url=, and |section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read.[1] When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these url-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as free.

URL-holding and access-indicator parameters
URL Access Allowed keywords
|url= |url-access= registration Free registration required
limited Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required
subscription Paid subscription required
|article-url= |article-url-access=
|chapter-url= |chapter-url-access=
|contribution-url= |contribution-url-access=
|entry-url= |entry-url-access=
|map-url= |map-url-access=
|section-url= |section-url-access=
Access indicator for named identifiers

Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as limited, registration, or subscription.

Named-identifier and access-indicator parameters
Identifier Access Allowed keywords
|bibcode= |bibcode-access= free Freely accessible
|doi= |doi-access=
|hdl= |hdl-access=
|jstor= |jstor-access=
|ol= |ol-access=
|osti= |osti-access=
|s2cid= |s2cid-access=

Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named-identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:

  • |arxiv=
  • |biorxiv=
  • |citeseerx=
  • |pmc=
  • |rfc=
  • |ssrn=

map_series

[edit subtemplate]

  • scale: Scale of map.
  • series: Title of map series.
  • cartography: Person or entity that did the cartography, if this needs to be differentiated from general authorship of the map. Displays preceded by "Cartography by".

map_pages

[edit subtemplate]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content; overridden by at.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source.
  • inset: The name of the focused inset referenced; example: Downtown Fooburg. Output appends "inset" after the input, |inset=Downtown Fooburg becomes "Downtown Fooburg inset."; overridden by at.
  • section: The map section(s) of the feature referenced; example: A6, B9, L11, etc; overridden by at.
  • at: For sources where a single set of the above parameters is inappropriate or insufficient to describe the in-source location(s).
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); inset(s); section (§) or sections (§§); other custom location on the map or in the atlas.

interview_author

[edit subtemplate]

  • last: Surname of subject, not interviewer. Do not wikilink—use subject-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use subject-link instead.
    • OR: for multiple subjects, use firstn, lastn.
  • subject-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the subject—not the subject's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: subject-link, author-link, author-linkn; subject-linkn, authorn-link
  • OR: for multiple subjects, use subject-linkn.
Aliases: subject, last, lastn, authorn, author, subjectn.

interview_interviewer

[edit subtemplate]

  • interviewer-last: Surname of a single interviewer. Do not wikilink—use interviewer-link instead. For interviewers for whom only one name is listed by the source, use interviewer or one of its aliases (e.g. |interviewer=Bono). Aliases: interviewer-last1, interviewer1-last, interviewer-surname, interviewer-surname1, interviewer1-surname, interviewer,, interviewer1.
    • interviewer-first: Given or first names of interviewer; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use interviewer-link instead. Aliases: interviewer-first1, interviewer1-first, interviewer-given, interviewer-given1, interviewer1-given. Requires interviewer-last; interviewer first name will not display if interviewer-last is empty.
    • interviewer: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single interviewer (first and last). This parameter should never hold the names of more than one interviewer.
    • For multiple interviewers, use interviewer-last1, interviewer-first1 through interviewer-lastn, interviewer-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of interviewer- (each interviewer-firstn requires a corresponding interviewer-lastn, but not the other way around). See the display parameters to change how many interviewers are displayed. Aliases of interviewer-last1 through interviewer-lastn: interviewer1 through interviewern. For an individual interviewer plus an interviewer with a single name, you can use |interviewer-first1=... |interviewer-last1=... |interviewer2=....

season

[edit subtemplate]

  • season: Season number, usually for US shows.
  • OR: series-number: Series number, usually for British shows. Aliases: series-no, seriesno, seriesnumber.
  • number: Many episodic shows are identified by separate season and episode numbers. Alternately, some shows prefer the format of a single episode number that includes the season within it; this format can be used by omitting the season field.

network

[edit subtemplate]

  • network: The network the episode was aired on. (e.g. ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox, Disney, USA Network, BBC)
    • station: Call letters of the local station (if any).

transcript

[edit subtemplate]

  • transcript: Transcript of the original source.
    • transcript-url: URL of the transcript.

conference

[edit subtemplate]

  • conference: Name of the conference, may include location if different from location and date if different from date or year.
    • conference-url: URL of conference proceedings, if different from url. Alias: conferenceurl.

See also

  1. ^ This guidance does not restrict linking to websites that are being used as sources to provide content in articles.