Trilled affricate

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Trilled affricates, also known as post-trilled consonants, are consonants which begin as a stop and have a trill release. These consonants are reported to exist in some Northern Paman languages in Australia,[1] as well as in some Chapacuran languages such Wari’ language and Austronesian languages such as Fijian and Malagasy.

Sound IPA Languages
Voiced prenasalized trilled bilabial affricate [ᵐb͡ʙ] Kele and Avava
Dental stop with bilabial trilled release [t̪ʙ̥] Pirahã and Wari’
[t̪ʙ], [t̪ʙ̥ʰ] Sangtam[2]
Voiced prenasalized trilled postalveolar affricate [ndr] Fijian and Avava
Voiceless alveolar trilled affricate [tʳ] Ngkoth
Voiced alveolar trilled affricate [dʳ] Nias
Voiceless epiglottal (trilled pharyngeal) affricate [ʡʜ]
Voiced epiglottal (trilled pharyngeal) affricate [ʡʢ] Hydaburg Haida

In Fijian, trilling is rare in these sounds, and they are frequently distinguished by being postalveolar.[3] In Malagasy, they may have a rhotic release, [ʈɽ̝̊ ɳʈɽ̝̊ ɖɽ̝ ɳɖɽ̝], be simple stops, [ʈ ɳʈ ɖ ɳɖ], or standard affricates, [ʈʂ ɳʈʂ ɖʐ ɳɖʐ].

Most post-trilled consonants are affricates: the stop and trill share the same place of articulation. However, there is a rare exception in a few neighboring Amazonian languages, where a voiceless bilabially post-trilled dental stop, [t̪͡ʙ̥] (occasionally written "tᵖ") is reported from Pirahã and from a few words in the Chapacuran languages Wari’ and Oro Win. This sound also appears as an allophone of the labialized voiceless alveolar stop /tʷ/ of Abkhaz and Ubykh, but in those languages it is more often realised by a doubly articulated stop [t͡p]. In the Chapacuran languages, [tʙ̥] is reported almost exclusively before rounded vowels such as [o] and [y].

Hydaburg Haida [ʡʢ] is cognate to Southern Haida [ɢ], Masset Haida [ʕ].[4]


  1. ^ Hale, Kenneth (1976). "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages." In: Languages of Cape York, ed. Peter Sutton. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  2. ^ Coupe (2015) "Prestopped bilabial trills in Sangtam", Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, 10–14 August 2015
  3. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4. p. 131
  4. ^ [1]