User:Chicdat/sandbox

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tropical Storm Allison, the costliest tropical storm ever recorded.

There have been a total of ? tropical storms in the North Atlantic Ocean since 1851.[1]

Background[edit]

Systems[edit]

1851-1900[edit]

Name Duration Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damage
(USD)
Refs
Three July 10, 1851 60 (95) Unknown Lesser Antilles 0 None [1][2]
Five September 13 – 16, 1851 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][2][3]
Six October 16 – 19, 1851 70 (110) Unknown New England Unknown Unknown [1][2]
One August 5, 1853 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][4]
Two August 10, 1853 45 (75) Unknown Barbados 0 None [1][4]
Five September 21, 1853 "Very strong" Unknown Veracruz 0 Unknown [1][4]
Seven September 28, 1853 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][4]
Two August 23, 1854[nb 1] 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1][5]
Five October 20 – 22, 1854 70 (110) Unknown Bermuda 0 None [1][5]
Four August 24 – 27, 1855 70 (110) 997 hPa (mbar) Lesser Antilles, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Barbados, Dominica, US Virgin Islands, Hispaniola[nb 2] Unknown Considerable [1][6]
Three August 19 – 21, 1856 60 (95) Unknown Virginia, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts 0 Unknown [1][2][7]
Four August 21, 1856 60 (95) Unknown Cuba 0 None [1][7]
One June 30 – July 1, 1857 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][8]
Seven October 16 – 18, 1859 70 (110) Unknown Florida 0 None [1]
Five September 18 – 21, 1860 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1][9]
Six October 6 – 9, 1861 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1][2][10]
Seven October 7, 1861 60 (95) Unknown Cape Hatteras, North Carolina 0 Minimal [1][10]
One June 15 – 17, 1862 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Four October 6, 1862 60 (95) Unknown Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint Vincent 0 Heavy [1][8]
Six November 22 – 25, 1862 70 (110) Unknown Panama 0 None [1][2][8]
Six September 16 – 19, 1863 70 (110) Unknown East Coast of the United States[nb 3] 0 Heavy [1][11][12]
Seven September 18 – 19, 1863 60 (95) Unknown Tamaulipas 10 Heavy [1][8]
Eight September 26 – 27, 1863 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][8]
Nine September 29 – 30, 1863 70 (110) 999 hPa (mbar) Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi Many Severe [1][2][13]
Two July 25, 1864 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1][8]
Four September 5 – 8, 1864 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][8]
One May 29 – 30, 1865 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][14]
Two June 30 – July 1, 1865 60 (95) Unknown Texas 0 Minimal [1][14][15]
Three August 20 – 24, 1865 70 (110) Unknown North Carolina 0 None [1][14]
Five September 7, 1865 70 (110) Unknown Louisiana Unknown Unknown [1][14]
Seven October 29 – 30, 1866 70 (110) Unknown New Jersey, New York, New England 0 Heavy [1][16]
Five September 8, 1867 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][8]
Eight October 9, 1867 45 (75) Unknown Barbados 0 Minimal [1][8]
Two October 1 – 8, 1868 70 (110) Unknown Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, Georgia 0 $81 thousand [1][17][18]
Four September 1 – 2, 1869 70 (110) Unknown Bermuda 0 None [1][8][19]
Eight September 14, 1869 Unknown Unknown None 0 None [1][19][8]
Nine October 1 – 4, 1869 Unknown Unknown Puerto Rico 0 None [1][19][8]
Three September 1 – 4, 1870 70 (110) 1004 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1]
One June 1 – 5, 1871 60 (95) 999 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida, Louisiana Texas, Oklahoma 4 Unknown [1][13][20]
Two June 8 – 10, 1871 60 (95) 1007 hPa (mbar) Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas 1 Unknown [1][13][20]
One July 9 – 13, 1872 60 (95) Unknown Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee 0 Unknown [1][13]
One June 1 – 2, 1873 45 (75) Unknown Florida, Georgia 0 Unknown [1][21]
Four September 22 – 24, 1873 60 (95) Unknown Florida 0 Minimal [1]
One July 2 – 5, 1874 60 (95) Unknown Texas Unknown Severe [1][20]
Four September 4 – 7, 1874 60 (95) Unknown Mexico, Texas 1 Unknown [1][20]
Five September 8 – 11, 1874 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Four September 24 – 28, 1875 60 (95) Unknown Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, Georgia 0 Unknown [1][22]
Three September 16 – 18, 1876 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1]
One August 1 – 5, 1877 70 (110) Unknown New Brunswick 0 Unknown [1]
Five September 24 – 29, 1877 60 (95) Unknown Bahamas 0 Unknown [1]
Six October 13 – 16, 1877 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Seven October 24 – 28, 1877 60 (95) Unknown Florida 0 Unknown [1]
Eight November 28 – 29, 1877 60 (95) Unknown Bahamas, Atlantic Canada 0 Unknown [1]
One July 1 – 3, 1878 45 (75) 1008 hPa (mbar) Florida, North Carolina 0 Unknown [1]
Twelve November 25 – December 2, 1878 70 (110) Unknown Puerto Rico 0 Unknown [1][23]
Five October 3 – 7, 1879 60 (95) Unknown Cuba, Louisiana 0 Unknown [1][13]
Six October 9 – 16, 1879 60 (95) Unknown Leeward Islands, Cuba, Florida 0 Unknown [1]
One June 21 – 25, 1880 45 (75) Unknown Louisiana, Texas 0 Unknown [1][13][20][24]
Eleven October 20 – 23, 1880 70 (110) 991 hPa (mbar) Atlantic Canada 0 None [1]
One August 1 – 4, 1881 60 (95) Unknown Mississippi 0 Unknown [1]
Two August 11 – 14, 1881 45 (75) Unknown Texas 0 Unknown [1][20]
Seven September 18 – 22, 1881 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Three September 14 – 16, 1882 60 (95) Unknown Louisiana, Texas 0 Unknown [1][13][20]
Four September 21 – 24, 1882 60 (95) 1005 hPa (mbar) East Coast of the United States Unknown Unknown [1][25]
Four October 22 – 24, 1883 60 (95) 983 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1]
Three August 29 – 31, 1885 60 (95) Unknown Louisiana, Florida, South Carolina 0 Unknown [1][13]
Eight October 10 – 13, 1885 70 (110) 988 hPa (mbar) Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina 0 Unknown [1][26]
Eleven October 10 – 15, 1886 50 (85) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Twelve October 21 – 26, 1886 70 (110) ≤992 hPa (mbar) Haiti 0 Unknown [1]
One May 15 – 18, 1887 70 (110) ≤997 hPa (mbar) Newfoundland 0 None [1][27]
Two May 17 – 21, 1887 60 (95) ≤1002 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Bahamas 0 Unknown [1][27]
Three June 12 – 14, 1887 40 (65) 1004 hPa (mbar) Mississippi "Some" Unknown [1][27]
Five July 30 – August 8, 1887 60 (95) 1001 hPa (mbar) Haiti, Cuba 0 Unknown [1][27]
Eleven October 6 – 9, 1887 60 (95) Unknown Mexico 0 Unknown [1][27]
Twelve October 8 – 9, 1887 70 (110) ≤994 hPa (mbar) Bahamas 0 Unknown [1][27]
Sixteen October 29 – 31, 1887 70 (110) 993 hPa (mbar) Gulf Coast of the United States, Florida, Georgia, The Carolinas, Virginia, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada 2 $7 thousand [1][2][27]
Nineteen December 7 – 12, 1887 60 (95) Unknown Venezuela, Costa Rica 0 Unknown [1][27]
Two July 4 – 6, 1888 60 (95) ≤1008 hPa (mbar) Texas 0 Unknown [1][20][28]
Five September 6 – 11, 1888 60 (95) 999 hPa (mbar) Florida, East Coast of the United States 0 Unknown [1][29]
Eight November 1 – 8, 1888 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Seven September 12 – 19, 1889 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Eight September 29 – October 6, 1889 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Nine October 5 – 7, 1889 60 (95) ≤1002 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida, Nova Scotia 0 Unknown [1]
One May 27 – 29, 1890 60 (95) Unknown Cuba 4 Millions [1][30]
Two August 18 – 28, 1890 60 (95) Unknown Cayman Islands, Louisiana, Mississippi 0 Unknown [1][13][30]
Seven October 4 – 8, 1891 50 (85) 1004 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida 2 Unknown [1][31]
Eight October 7 – 9, 1891 45 (75) ≤1004 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida, Atlantic Canada 0 Unknown [1][31]
Ten November 3 – 6, 1891 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][31]
One June 9 – 16, 1892 50 (85) ≤1005 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida, North Carolina 16 $1.5 million [1][31][32]
Four September 8 – 13, 1892 60 (95) Unknown Louisiana, Mississippi 0 Unknown [1][13]
Six September 25 – 27, 1892 60 (95) Unknown Mexico 0 Unknown [1][31]
Nine October 21 – 29, 1892 50 (85) Unknown Florida 0 Unknown [1]
Eleven October 20 – 23, 1893 60 (95) Unknown Cuba, Maryland 0 Unknown [1]
Twelve November 5 – 9, 1893 70 (110) Unknown North Carolina 0 None [1]
One June 6 – 9, 1894 40 (65) Unknown None 0 None [1][31]
Two August 5 – 9, 1894 60 (95) Unknown Alabama, Mississippi 0 Unknown [1][31]
One August 14 – 17, 1895 60 (95) ≤1009 hPa (mbar) Alabama 0 Unknown [1]
Three September 28 – October 7, 1895 60 (95) ≤989 hPa (mbar) Yucatan Peninsula, Florida, Bahamas 56 Unknown [1][33]
Four October 2 – 7, 1895 40 (65) Unknown Yucatan Peninsula, Texas 0 Unknown [1][20]
Six October 13 – 17, 1895 40 (65) Unknown Florida 0 Unknown [1]
Seven November 27 – 29, 1896 60 (95) Unknown Trinidad, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Barbados, Montserrat 75 $49 thousand [1][34][35]
Three September 20 – 25, 1897 70 (110) ≤1003 hPa (mbar) Florida, East Coast of the United States 0 Unknown [1][26][31]
Four September 25 – 29, 1897 45 (75) ≤1010 hPa (mbar) Cuba 0 None [1][31]
Six October 23 – 29, 1897 65 (100) ≤993 hPa (mbar) Bahamas, North Carolina, Virginia 6 Unknown [1][26]
Five September 12 – 22, 1898 60 (95) Unknown Yucatan Peninsula, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois 0 Unknown [1][36]
Six September 20 – 28, 1898 60 (95) Unknown Nicaragua, Yucatan Peninsula, Texas 0 Unknown [1][36][20]
Eight September 25 – 28, 1898 50 (85) 1008 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Bahamas 0 Unknown [1][36]
Nine October 2 – 14, 1898 70 (110) Unknown Cuba, Florida, Georgia 2 Extensive [1][36]
Ten October 21 – 23, 1898 45 (75) Unknown Cuba, Bahamas 0 Unknown [1][36]
Eleven October 27 – November 4, 1898 60 (95) Unknown Lesser Antilles, Yucatan Peninsula 0 Unknown [1][36]
One June 26 – 27, 1899 40 (65) Unknown Texas 284 $9 million [1][20][37]
Six October 2 – 6, 1899 60 (95) Unknown Florida, Georgia, East Coast of the United States 0 Unknown [1][37]
Seven October 10 – 14, 1899 45 (75) Unknown None 0 None [1][37][38]
Eight October 15 – 18, 1899 45 (75) Unknown Bahamas 0 None [1][37]
Ten November 7 – 10, 1899 65 (100) Unknown Jamaica, Cuba 4 Unknown [1][37]

1900-1950[edit]

Name Duration Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damage
(USD)
Refs
Four September 11 – 15, 1900 50 (85) ≤1005 hPa (mbar) Yucatan Peninsula, Gulf Coast of the United States 0 Unknown [1][39]
Five October 4 – 10, 1900 70 (110) Unknown Nova Scotia 1 $100 thousand [1][39][40]
Six October 10 – 12, 1900 45 (75) ≤1008 hPa (mbar) Florida, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada 0 Minor [1][39]
Seven October 24 – 28, 1900 50 (85) Unknown Hispaniola, Cuba, Bahamas, Florida 0 None [1][39]
One June 11 – 15, 1901 40 (65) <1010 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida, South Carolina 0 Unknown [1][41]
Two June 30 – July 10, 1901 70 (110) 1007 hPa (mbar) Windward Islands, Hispaniola, Cuba, Texas 14 Unknown [1][20][41]
Five August 18 – 22, 1901 50 (85) ≤1012 hPa (mbar) Barbados, Venezuela 0 Minimal [1][41]
Nine September 12 – 17, 1901 60 (95) Unknown None 0 None [1][41]
Ten September 21 – 28, 1901 50 (85) Unknown Cuba, Florida, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada 0 Unknown [1][41][42]
Eleven October 5 – 10, 1901 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1][41]
Twelve October 15 – 18, 1901 60 (95) Unknown Cuba, Bahamas 0 Minimal [1][41]
One June 12 – 16, 1902 60 (95) 997 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada 0 Unknown [1][43]
Five November 1 – 6, 1902 70 (110) 993 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1][43]
Five September 19 – 26, 1903 60 (95) 1003 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1][44]
Eight October 5 – 10, 1903 70 (110) 997 hPa (mbar) East Coast of the United States 26 $10 million [1][44][45]
Nine October 21 – 24, 1903 60 (95) 1008 hPa (mbar) Bahamas, Newfoundland 0 None [1][44]
Five October 19 – 23, 1904 50 (85) 1005 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1][46]
Six October 31 – November 4, 1904 50 (85) 1005 hPa (mbar) Florida, Georgia, South Carolina 0 Unknown [1][2][46]
One September 6 – 8, 1905 60 (95) Unknown None 2 None [1][47]
Two September 11 – 16, 1905 60 (95) 1004 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1][47]
Three September 24 – 30, 1905 50 (85) 1000 hPa (mbar) Yucatan Peninsula, Louisiana, Arkansas 0 Unknown [1][47]
Five October 5 – 10, 1905 50 (85) 1003 hPa (mbar) Louisiana, Mississippi 0 Unknown [1][47][48]
One June 8 – 13, 1906 50 (85) 1002 hPa (mbar) Cuba, Florida 0 None [1][49]
Three August 22 – 25, 1906 70 (110) 1003 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1][2][49]
Seven September 22 – October 1, 1906 70 (110) 994 hPa (mbar) England 0 None [1][50]
Nine October 14 – 17, 1906 50 (85) 1003 hPa (mbar) Florida 0 None [1][50]
Ten October 15 – 20, 1906 50 (85) 1005 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1][50]
One June 24 – 29, 1907 65 (100) 1002 hPa (mbar) Florida, Georgia 0 Unknown [1][2]
Two September 18 – 22, 1907 45 (75) 1003 hPa (mbar) Louisiana, Alabama 0 Unknown [1]
Three September 27 – 29, 1907 50 (85) 1005 hPa (mbar) Florida, Georgia, North Carolina 0 Unknown [1]
Four October 17 – 19, 1907 50 (85) 1003 hPa (mbar) None 0 None [1][2]
Five November 6 – 12, 1907 45 (75) Unknown None 0 None [1]
Four July 29 – August 3, 1908 60 (95) Unknown Gulf Coast of the United States 0 Unknown [1][51][52]
Five August 30 – September 2, 1908 50 (85) Unknown North Carolina 0 None [1][52]
Seven September 16 – 18, 1908 70 (110) Unknown None 0 None [1][53]
Ten October 20 – 23, 1908 40 (65) Unknown South Carolina 0 None [1][53]

1950-2000[edit]

Name Duration Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damage
(USD)
Refs

2000-present[edit]

Name Duration Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damage
(USD)
Refs

Climatology[edit]

Category 2 hurricanes by month
Month Number of storms
January
0
February
0
March
0
April
0
May
4
June
16
July
8
August
17
September
45
October
50
November
10
December
1
Category 2 hurricanes by decade
Decade Number of storms
1850s
14
1860s
22
1870s
20
1880s
26
1890s
32
1900s
36

Landfalls[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ However, on August 29, a barque experienced a violent storm which was probably the extratropical remnants of Two.[5]
  2. ^ At the time, the US Virgin Islands were not yet part of the United States.
  3. ^ Much of the land that Six affected was part of the Confederate States of America at the time.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. May 25, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hurricane Research Division (2008). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
  3. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2003). "Raw Observations for Tropical Storm Five in 1851" (XLS). Retrieved 2008-05-26.
  4. ^ a b c d Jose F. Partagas (1996). Year 1853 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 21–26. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  5. ^ a b c Jose F. Partagas (1996). Year 1854 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 21–26. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  6. ^ Jose F. Partagas (1996). Year 1855 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 32–36. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  7. ^ a b Jose Fernandez-Partagas (1996). Year 1856 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l José Fernández-Partagás; Henry F. Diaz (1995). A Reconstruction of Historical Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Atlantic from Documentary and other Historical Sources 1851-1880 Part 1: 1851-1870. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  9. ^ Partagás, José Fernández (2003). "A Reconstruction of Historical Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Atlantic from Documentary and other Historical Sources: Year 1860" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
  10. ^ a b Partagás, José Fernández (1995). "A Reconstruction of Historical Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Atlantic from Documentary and other Historical Sources: Year 1861" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
  11. ^ "From Charleston". The Intelligencer and Wheeling News Register. New York City, New York. September 24, 1863. p. 3. Retrieved January 13, 2017 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  12. ^ "The Equinoctial Storm–A Flood on the Lehigh and Delaware Rivers". The Baltimore Sun. Easton, Pennsylvania. September 19, 1863. p. 1. Retrieved January 13, 2017 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j David M. Roth (January 13, 2010). Louisiana Hurricane History (PDF). National Weather Service, Southern Region Headquarters. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d José Fernández Partagás (2003). "Year 1865" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
  15. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2011). "Continental United States Tropical Storms: 1851–1930, 1983–2010". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
  16. ^ José Fernández Partagás (2003). "Year 1866" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-06-04.
  17. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2010). "Track data for Storm #2 in 1868" (XLS). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
  18. ^ José Fernández Partagás (2003). "Year 1868" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
  19. ^ a b c José Fernández Partagás (2003). "Year 1869" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l David M. Roth (17 January 2010). Texas Hurricane History (PDF) (Report). National Weather Service Southern Region Headquarters. pp. 19–20. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  21. ^ Al Sandrik & Chris Landsea (2003). "Chronological Listing of Tropical Cyclones affecting North Florida and Coastal Georgia 1565–1899". Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
  22. ^ Jose Fernández-Partagás and Henry F. Diaz (1995). A Reconstruction of Historical Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Atlantic from Documentary and other Historical Sources 1851-1880 Part II: 1871-1880 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Climate Diagnostics Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  23. ^ Mújica-Baker, Frank. Huracanes y Tormentas que han afectadi a Puerto Rico (PDF). Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el manejo de Emergencias y Administracion de Desastres. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  24. ^ Chenoweth, Michael (December 2014). "A New Compilation of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1851–98". Journal of Climate. American Meteorological Society. 27 (12): 8674–8685. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00771.1.
  25. ^ David Roth & Hugh Cobb. "Virginia Hurricane History". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  26. ^ a b c Hudgins, James E. (2000). "Tropical cyclones affecting North Carolina since 1586 - An Historical Perspective" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h José Fernandez-Partagas. Year 1887 in the Atlantic (PDF) (Report).
  28. ^ "Meteorological record of voluntary observers, &c" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Washington, D.C. 16 (7): 181–184. 1888. Bibcode:1888MWRv...16..181.. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1888)16[181:MROVOC]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  29. ^ United States Army Corps of Engineers (1945). Storm Total Rainfall In The United States. War Department. p. SA 3–2.
  30. ^ a b Jose F. Partagas (1996). Year 1890 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Virginia Key, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 41–48. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fernández-Partagás, José; Diaz, Henry F. (1997). A Reconstruction of Historical Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Atlantic from Documentary and other Historical Sources Part IV: 1891-1900. Boulder, Colorado: Climate Diagnostics Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  32. ^ "Great Damage by Floods in Cuba". Chicago Tribune. Matanzas, Cuba. June 13, 1892. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
  33. ^ "The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.
  34. ^ "The floods in Montserrat". The Times. January 13, 1897. Retrieved February 15, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  35. ^ "Disasters in Montserrat". The Guardian. December 28, 1896. p. 6. Retrieved February 15, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  36. ^ a b c d e f Jose Fernandez Partagas and Henry F. Diaz (1996). Year 1898 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  37. ^ a b c d e Jose F. Partagas (1996). Year 1899 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 39–53. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
  38. ^ 1899 Storm 7 (XLS). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Virginia Key, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
  39. ^ a b c d Jose F. Partagas (1996). Year 1900 (PDF) (Report). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. pp. 114–125. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
  40. ^ 1900-5 (Report). Environment Canada. November 20, 2009. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g Jose F. Partagas (1997). Year 1901 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  42. ^ "Storm On The Way". The Boston Post. New York City, New York. September 28, 1901. p. 4. Retrieved May 16, 2016 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  43. ^ a b Jose Fernandez Partagas and Henry F. Diaz (1997). Year 1902 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  44. ^ a b c Jose F. Partagas (1997). Year 1903 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  45. ^ "Houses Swept Away by Floods". Brooklyn Eagle. Easton, Pennsylvania. October 10, 1903. p. 1. Retrieved May 29, 2016 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  46. ^ a b Jose F. Partagas (1997). Year 1904 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  47. ^ a b c d Jose Fernandez Partagas & Henry F. Diaz (1997). Year 1905 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  48. ^ Cleveland Abbe & Frank Owen Stettson (1906). Monthly Weather Review for 1905 (PDF). United States Weather Bureau (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  49. ^ a b Fernández-Partagás, José; Diaz, Henry F. (1997). A Reconstruction of Historical Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Atlantic from Documentary and other Historical Sources (part 1) (PDF). Boulder, Colorado: Climate Diagnostics Center, NOAA. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
  50. ^ a b c Fernández-Partagás, José; Diaz, Henry F. (1997). A Reconstruction of Historical Tropical Cyclone Frequency in the Atlantic from Documentary and other Historical Sources (part 2) (PDF). Boulder, Colorado: Climate Diagnostics Center, NOAA. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
  51. ^ United States Army Corps of Engineers (1945). Storm Total Rainfall In The United States. War Department. p. LMV 3–14.
  52. ^ a b Jose Fernandez Partagas & Henry F. Diaz (1997). Year 1908 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  53. ^ a b Jose Fernandez Partagas & Henry F. Diaz (1997). Year 1908 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 9, 2016.