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We Are Here (collective)

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We Are Here
Wij Zijn Hier
Banner at 2018 demonstration
Banner at 2018 demonstration
Boroughs of Amsterdam
Boroughs of Amsterdam
AbbreviationWZH
FormationSeptember 4, 2012; 7 years ago (2012-09-04)
Founded atGarden of Diakonie, Amsterdam
PurposeRights for migrants
Location
  • Amsterdam
MethodsCampaigning, Demonstrations, Direct Action, Squatting
Websitewijzijnhier.org

We Are Here (Dutch: Wij Zijn Hier) is a collective of migrants based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, which campaigns for human rights for its members and all undocumented migrants. The asylum seekers have in many cases had their applications to remain in the Netherlands denied but they either cannot go back or refuse to return to their country of origin. They ask for access to social services such as medical care and housing. The group formed in 2012 and by 2015 contained over 200 migrants from around 15 countries.

The collective is constantly in flux as a result of individually precarious legal situations. Since its members refuse to use the homeless shelters offered by the city of Amsterdam, which can only be used from 5 p.m. until 9 a.m., the collective has squatted a chain of buildings in and around the city since 2012. Most buildings are quickly evicted, some have led to offshoot projects. The group is mostly composed of men originally from Africa, although there have also been women-only occupations. There have been some successes, such as the Vluchtmaat, where a long-term deal was negotiated with the owner, and some long-term squats such as the Vluchtgarage, where Amsterdam city council tolerated the occupation. As of 2017, roughly one hundred people from the group had gained Dutch residence permits.

By 2018, the new council had pledged to set up 24 hour shelters for up to 500 undocumented migrants, but We Are Here stated it was against the hostels since they were only for a short time period and it disputed the plan to send asylum seekers back to their country of origin at the end of the project. The collective has diversified into different subgroups occupying different buildings, such as a women-only group, a Swahili language group, and a group composed of people mainly from Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan.

Background[edit]

Refugees seeking asylum in the Netherlands are assessed by the Immigration and Naturalisation Service and then either gain residency or fail to do so, based on their documentary evidence. For some who have fled warzones, it is difficult to provide documents or other proof for their claim. If the refugees fail to be granted asylum, they are given temporary housing and have 28 days to leave.[1][2] Some people fall into what human rights groups term the "asylum gap" since they are unable to return to their country of origin, whilst others want to go back but cannot because they do not possess the required visas or identity documents.[3] In 2016, it was estimated there were 35,000 undocumented migrants in the Netherlands. Without a residence permit they are denied access to social services such as healthcare and housing.[1][2]

By the end of 2017, the migrants of the We Are Here collective had occupied over 30 buildings and parks.[4] They argue that they should have access to basic needs such as housing and healthcare. The city council of Amsterdam refuses to accede to their demands. Much of the dispute with the council is that it only offers the so-called BBB service – Bed-Bath-Bread (Dutch: bed-bad-broodvoorziening) – that is to say an overnight accommodation open from 5 p.m. until 9 a.m., which cannot be stayed in during the day. The migrants reject this offer as insufficient and comment that the service is also often over-subscribed.[4] The city council argues that its actions are limited by the policy of the Dutch Government.[5] Therefore, We Are Here have chosen to squat a number of buildings to live in. By 2019, the total had risen to over 50 squats, according to the group. The occupations are tracked on a map hosted on the We Are Here website.[6]

We Are Here is mostly composed of men originally from Africa. In some squats, such as the Vluchgarage occupation, the collective has been men only.[7] However, there have also been women only squats.[8] The group's membership changes often since people are often being deported or detained. Overall, representatives of the group estimated that over one hundred people had gained residence permits by 2017.[4] A spokesperson for the group, Khalid Jone, who escaped war in Sudan and had lived in the Netherlands for 16 years, was granted a residence permit in 2018.[9] The collective regularly makes demonstrations highlighting the plight of individuals.[8] It has also set up the We Are Here Academy, a scheme to offer university level qualifications for undocumented migrants.[10]

In 2018, a newly elected Amsterdam city council, now controlled by a centre-left coalition of GroenLinks, D66, PvdA and SP, decided to go against the will of the Parliament and set up a 24-hour shelter for homeless failed asylum seekers.[11] However, We Are Here as a group announced it would not make use of the shelter, since it would only exist for a maximum time of eighteen months and afterwards participants would be required to return to their country of origin. Since We Are Here was set up for people unable to return to their motherland, a spokesman said the plan offered no real solution.[12] In March 2019, the council announced seven prospective sites for its plan to set up shelters for undocumented migrants. It was considering up to 23 sites, with around 30 beds at each. The cities of Rotterdam, Utrecht, Groningen and Eindhoven stated that they were all also looking for sites.[13]

Femke Halsema, previously parliamentary leader of GroenLinks, started serving a six-year term as Mayor of Amsterdam in July 2018. In 2019, she discussed making the enforcement of the Dutch squatting ban tougher and suggested that the immigration police could be employed to stop the We Are Here collective squatting. GroenLinks asked for clarification since the tradition in Amsterdam is that illegal migrants are not searched for by the police.[14] Halsema stated that if We Are Here members did nothing wrong they had nothing to fear, but that squatting was a criminal offence.[15] GroenLinks stated it was troubled by this position.[16]

Significant occupations[edit]

2012–2017[edit]

We Are Here coalesced as a group in 2012, when a small number of asylum seekers whose claims had been rejected began a protest camp at the garden of the Diakonie on the Nieuwe Herengracht in the Grachtengordel in central Amsterdam.[17] More migrants joined the protest, which then moved location to Notweg in Osdorp. The camp swelled to 130 people and received national media attention. The camp was evicted on 30 November. Everyone was arrested and some people were held in foreign detention (Dutch: vreemdelingendetentie).[18]

After a few nights staying at the Vondelpark Bunker and OT301, the group squatted an empty church in Bos en Lommer. This became known as the Vluchtkerk, a portmanteau of the Dutch words for migrant (Dutch: vluchteling) and church (Dutch: kerk). This began the tradition of giving every new location a nickname, by adding 'Vlucht' to the type of place. The Vluchtkerk again generated a lot of media attention in the Netherlands.[19][20] Celebrities such as popstar Anouk made solidarity performances.[21]

The Vluchtkerk was occupied until 31 May 2013. Mayor of Amsterdam Eberhard van der Laan then asked the group to leave a building they had squatted on the Weteringschans and the council offered the migrants the possibility to stay in a former prison for 6 months. Many people refused, citing bad prior experiences of prisons, but 75 others took the opportunity and it became known as the Vluchthaven.[22][23] Only migrants who signed up with the Dutch Refugee Council were eligible to stay there. By the end of the period, a total of 165 people had stayed in the prison. Of these, three had returned to their country of origin, three more were planning to, twelve had successfully gained residency, one person had died and the largest group (38) was formed by those still gathering documents for their asylum process. In terms of country of origin, the largest numbers of people were from Somalia (48), Eritrea (31) and Ethiopia (28).[24]

On 13 December 2013, a building in Amsterdam Zuid Oost was occupied by a group of 90 migrants and their supporters. It was a derelict parking garage with offices attached, which became known as the Vluchtgarage.[25] It was occupied until April 2015. In August 2014, a Somali man called Nassir Guuleed died at the squat. A few days later, Ibrahim Touré from Côte d'Ivoire suffered a brain haemorrhage and broken vertebra when he fell off a stairway. Police and ambulance services refused to enter the building, citing fears of the presence of asbestos, though the city had found none in an inspection earlier that same day. The severely injured man was carried to the ambulance.[26] Fred Teeven, Undersecretary for Security and Justice announced his intention to evict the Vluchtgarage in January 2015. At this point there were around 100 people living there.[27] Following the eviction in April 2015, people camped on land in the De Pijp neighbourhood but were moved on by the council.[28]

By 2015, We Are Here was composed in total of around 225 migrants from about 15 countries. As well as occupying several buildings, they regularly made demonstrations demanding rights.[29] At each squat, the collective was helped out by local people who donated things. If something was needed, a request was made on the website or on Facebook. Often things were scavenged from the street.[30] The Vluchtmaat was occupied in 2015 by 40 migrants mainly from Ethiopia and Eritrea. The building had formerly been used by the construction company Bouwmaat. Unusually, the owner did not want to evict the squatters but came to an arrangement with them whereby they could stay for a fixed time as long as the building costs were paid. The security of short-term tenure allowed the former squatters to break the offices up into residential units and spaces which small businesses could rent affordably, thus supplying enough money to pay the costs of electricity, water, insurance and so on. A foundation, Stichting Noodzaak, was set up to deal with the owner. The initial contract was for six months and has since been extended in six month blocks.[31]

Another subgroup of We Are Here is composed of Swahili language speakers. They first squatted on Amstelstraat in the centre of Amsterdam at the end of 2016.[32] They then occupied a disused kindergarten in Amsterdam-Zuidoost in May 2017 and a building on Sarphatistraat in September of the same year.[33][34] In May 2018, they were occupying the former discotheque Club Empire on Buikslootermeerplein in Amsterdam-Noord.[35]

In April 2017, the We Are Here subgroup composed of men from West Africa, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan occupied a derelict office building on Nienoord street in Diemen. The owner was the Arq Group, which specialises in treating people with severe psychotraumas which cannot be treated by psychologists or psychiatrists.[36] The owner was sympathetic to the squatters but said the building contained asbestos and therefore was unliveable.[36] We Are Here denounced Arq for not making a temporary contract since the building would not be demolished for two years and added that many in the group had actually attended treatment sessions for trauma provided by the group's Equator Foundation.[37] Normally the group would leave a building willingly after a court order or having made an agreement with the owner, but in this case the squatters said they would resist the eviction, since they were tired of constantly moving.[38] The building was evicted in November 2017 by the police, with one arrest. It was the 29th building which had been squatted by We Are Here since 2012.[39] Out of the 90 people evicted, 17 were from Sudan. Some said they had escaped the Darfur genocide, but the immigration authorities had refused their claims.[40]

Rudolf Dieselstraat[edit]

In April 2018, We Are Here occupied eleven apartments and a shop on Rudolf Dieselstraat in Amsterdam-Oost. They renamed the street 'We Are Here Village'. Since the housing corporation, Ymere, had left the apartments empty for some time, they asked that they could stay there until they were demolished. The city council backed their request.[41] The previously unknown street became both a media and political sensation with many actors becoming involved in the debate about whether We Are Here should be able to stay or not.[42][43][44][45]

In Parliament, centre-right parties VVD and CDA demanded that the state took action to evict the squatters.[46] This was in response from a motion at the Amsterdam city council put forward by centre-left parties D66, PvdA, SP and GroenLinks proposing that the council would not put asylum seekers on the street and would ask owners of occupied buildings not to evict migrants.[47] Acting mayor Jozias van Aartsen of the VVD party opposed the motion. He later received criticism from within his party for not taking further action and replied that "You must be very careful with the mayor's office and not go down the route of politicizing the mayor's role."[48] CDA Parliament member Madeleine van Toorenburg stated that "the enforcement of the law [which criminalised squatting] is a joke."[49]

The housing corporation, Ymere, went to court to evict the squatters. The judge decided that Ymere was not demonstrating an immediate need for the buildings, which would eventually be demolished. He stated that the squat action had not disturbed the public order and that the squatters could stay until 1 June.[50] The situation then became more tense when a far-right group announced that they would also occupy a building on the same estate, in protest against We Are Here. Identitair Verzet (a small Dutch branch of Generation Identity) claimed to have squatted a building but Ymere later stated a property guardian had let them into a house.[51] The house was immediately attacked with fireworks and had its windows smashed.[52] The police then evicted the house on grounds of public order. Identitair Verzet had also previously tried to demonstrate against the Vluchtkerk.[53] The houses occupied by the We Are Here collective were subsequently evicted in June.[54]

2018–[edit]

refer to caption
Placards at 2018 demonstration

We Are Here squatted in a building in Amstelveen on Groen van Prinstererlaan in June 2018, having left Rudolf Dieselstraat. They had briefly occupied a former bowling alley in Amsterdam-Noord and failed to squat at Hoog Kadijk and Weesperzijde.[55] They were then given an eviction order for the end of the month.[56]

The Weesperzijde squat action at a former United Nations building became a notorious incident, since the building was actually inhabited. A heated confrontation between We Are Here and a resident, who happened to be the son of the chair of the local branch of the VVD, was filmed and circulated in the press.[57][58] In April 2019, member of the collective Fortune M. was given a three-day jail sentence and a conditional fine of €150, for damaging a door during the attempt to squat the building.[59]

In popular culture[edit]

  • 2014: Photographer Manel Quiros won third place in the International Photography Awards with a photoseries following We Are Here.[60]
  • 2015-2016: Inspired by meeting members of the We Are Here collective and following them around for several months, Dutch artist Manon van Hoeckel created the Limbo Embassy. This provided a way for people to hear the stories of We Are Here participants. Members of the collective were otherwise not allowed to work or volunteer, but because it was an artistic project they could be paid for performances and sell political printed matter. Between June 2015 to June 2016, the embassy visited 15 events, including the Dutch Design Week in Eindhoven.[1][61]
  • 2015: Alexandra Jansse made an hour long documentary called Wij Zijn Hier about the group [62]
  • 2017: We Are Here featured in the exhibition Architecture of Appropriation at Het Nieuwe Instituut (the Dutch Institute of Architecture), in Rotterdam.[63]
  • 2018: Artist Hilda Moucharrafieh won the International Bursary Award at the Amsterdam Fringe Festival for her project Tracing Erased Memories: A parallel walk of Amsterdam & Cairo. She worked with members of We Are Here to make a choreographed roadmap in which a person walked through central Amsterdam wearing headphones and hearing the sounds of someone walking through central Cairo.[64]
  • 2018: Academics who have studied We Are Here organised a meeting at Spui 25 cultural centre to discuss their findings with members of the collective and to listen to their feedback.[65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Merks, Kelly. "Life in Limbo in the Netherlands". Access Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b Keulen, Brechtje. "'Wij zijn allemaal moe'". Groene Amsterdammer (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  3. ^ Tilotta, Sarah. "Worse than Wilders? Refugees fear status quo". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Wolthuizen, Josien; Koops, Ruben (1 December 2017). "We Are Here: Vijf jaar later nog geen stap verder". Parool. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  5. ^ Karman, Jasper (6 December 2013). "Havenstraat biedt iedereen hoop". Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. Dat tot frustratie van de burgemeester en de gemeenteraad, die allebei graag meer wilden doen, maar moesten blijven herhalen dat niet Amsterdam, maar Den Haag over het asielbeleid gaat en dat de stad geen asielzoekers mág opvangen.
  6. ^ "Geschiedenis van Wij Zijn Hier". We Are Here. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  7. ^ "BED, BAD, BROOD EN MÉÉR..." Vluchtverhalen (in Dutch). 20 June 2017. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. Het zijn alleen mannen, afkomstig uit vooral Afrikaanse en Arabische landen.
  8. ^ a b "We Are Here-vrouwen demonstreren bij Stopera". Parool (in Dutch). 10 April 2018. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  9. ^ Kieft, Tom (18 July 2018). "We Are Here-woordvoerder krijgt na 16 jaar verblijfsvergunning". Parool. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019. Toen hij dinsdag zijn email opende en las dat hem een verblijfsvergunning zou zijn toegekend, geloofde hij het niet.
  10. ^ Agustín, Óscar García; Jørgensen, Martin Bak (19 July 2018). Solidarity and the 'Refugee Crisis' in Europe. ISBN 9783319918488.
  11. ^ van Unen, David (3 June 2018). "We Are Here probeert tevergeefs nieuw pand te kraken". Parool. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019. Het nieuwe college van Groenlinks, D66, PvdA en SP wil, ondanks weerstand uit Den Haag, 24-uursopvang gaan aanbieden voor de veelal uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers van We Are Here.
  12. ^ van Unen, David (3 June 2018). "We Are Here probeert tevergeefs nieuw pand te kraken". Parool. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019. De nieuwe opvang biedt voor maximaal anderhalf jaar een oplossing. Daarna moeten asielzoekers meewerken aan een terugkeer naar het land van herkomst, terwijl dat juist niet is wat We Are Here wil.
  13. ^ Raap, Rebekka; Hielkema, David (12 March 2019). "Dit zijn de 7 mogelijke locaties voor opvang van asielzoekers" (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  14. ^ Koops, Ruben (18 December 2019). "Halsema: 'Illegalen die geen strafbare feiten plegen hebben niets te vrezen'". Het Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2019. GroenLinks had om opheldering gevraagd, nadat Halsema eerder dit jaar zei dat zij de vreemdelingenpolitie wil inschakelen tegen de asielactivisten van We Are Here [...] GroenLinks was bang dat de burgemeester daarmee afscheid nam van de Amsterdamse traditie dat op illegale vreemdelingen in principe niet gejaagd wordt door de veiligheidsdiensten.
  15. ^ Koops, Ruben (18 December 2019). "Halsema: 'Illegalen die geen strafbare feiten plegen hebben niets te vrezen'". Het Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2019. Illegalen die niets hebben gedaan worden niet in detentie geplaatst," beloofde Halsema. "Maar ook voor We Are Here geldt dat, als er strafbare feiten worden gepleegd, er aanhoudingen volgen en de juridische procedure moet worden doorlopen.
  16. ^ Koops, Ruben (18 December 2019). "Halsema: 'Illegalen die geen strafbare feiten plegen hebben niets te vrezen'". Het Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2019. Onder de achterban van GroenLinks was grote onrust ontstaan om de uitspraken van de burgemeester.
  17. ^ Wolthuizen, Josien (17 November 2017). "Arrestatie bij ontruiming 29ste onderkomen Wij Zijn Hier". Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019. In september van dat jaar sloegen drie asielzoekers uit Eritrea een tentje op in de achtertuin van de Diakonie op de Nieuwe Herengracht
  18. ^ "BED, BAD, BROOD EN MÉÉR…". VLUCHTVERHALEN. Vluchtverhalen. 20 June 2017. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. Het aantal bewoners in het tentenkamp in Osdorp groeit tot ongeveer 130 [...] Uiteindelijk geeft burgemeester Eberhard van der Laan op 30 november 2012 de politie opdracht het kamp te ontruimen. Vele mensen worden gearresteerd. Een tiental verdwijnt in vreemdelingendetentie.
  19. ^ Steenhuis, Peter Henk (18 December 2012). "Wie geen nationaliteit heeft, heeft geen rechten". Trouw. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  20. ^ van Wijk, Lieke; van Wijnbergen, Lucille (13 March 2013). "'Illegaliteit strafbaar? Zo criminaliseer je groep die bescherming nodig heeft'". Volkskrant. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  21. ^ Redactie (26 December 2012). "Weblog Vluchtkerk: kerst met Anouk en PVV met een geweer". BN DeStem (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019. Afrikaanse muziek is het natuurlijk niet, maar de titel van een van de nummers die Anouk op kerstavond zong tijdens haar verrassingsoptreden in De Vluchtkerk was wel toepasselijk:'I don't wanna hurt no more' .......
  22. ^ Eigenraam, Anouk. "Amsterdamse asielzoekers kraken nieuw pand". NRC (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 July 2019. Burgemeester Eberhard van der Laan eiste dat de groep uit dit pand zou vertrekken. Ongeveer 75 anderen accepteerden het bod van de gemeente Amsterdam en kregen zo onderdak in een voormalige gevangenis aan de Havenstraat. Ze mogen daar een halfjaar blijven.
  23. ^ Karman, Jasper (6 December 2013). "Havenstraat biedt iedereen hoop". Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. Daarnaast riep ook het gebouw zelf weerstand op: bij de aanblik van de gevangenis hadden velen vervelende associaties.
  24. ^ Devaney, Beulah Maud (12 September 2014). "The city of Amsterdam has come up with a new way to help its refugee population". City Metric. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  25. ^ Eigenraam, Anouk. "Amsterdamse asielzoekers kraken nieuw pand". NRC (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 July 2019. De uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers die sinds begin december door Amsterdam zwerven, hebben vandaag een nieuw pand gekraakt, zo laten ze in een verklaring weten. Het gaat om de groep van negentig asielzoekers die niet in aanmerking kwam voor opvang in een voormalige gevangenis.
  26. ^ Hokstam, Marvin (27 August 2014). "Politics Asylum seeker hurt in Amsterdam squat". Dutch News. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  27. ^ "Vluchtgarage Amsterdam wordt ontruimd". NOS (in Dutch). 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. De ruim honderd uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers die worden opgevangen in de Vluchtgarage in Amsterdam, moeten het gebouw uit. Staatssecretaris Teeven van Justitie laat weten dat de oude garage in Zuidoost ontruimd zal worden.
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  29. ^ Drummond, Lyn (30 October 2015). "Asylum seekers squat empty buildings while waiting for Netherlands approval". New Internationalist. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019. NI
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  31. ^ Kafka, George. "The Vluchtmaat". Disegno. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
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  34. ^ "'Wij zijn hier' kraakt pand aan Sarphatistraat". AT5. 4 September 2017. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  35. ^ Claus, Ryan (24 September 2018). "We Are Here: 'Dit is mijn land en ik ga niet meer weg!'". Revu (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019. Meer
  36. ^ a b Wolthuizen, Josien (17 November 2017). "Arrestatie bij ontruiming 29ste onderkomen Wij Zijn Hier". Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019. Over twee jaar wordt het gesloopt, maar vanwege de asbest kunnen we het niet verhuren. Daarom vinden we ook dat er geen mensen zouden moeten wonen. Het is hartstikke gevaarlijk
  37. ^ "Geschiedenis van Wij Zijn Hier". Wij Zijn Hier. See note 33 on map. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  38. ^ "Wij Zijn Hier-leden kondigen verzet aan bij ontruiming". Parool (in Dutch). 16 November 2017. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019. 'Wij zijn kapot van het rondzwerven en hebben besloten niet vrijwillig te vertrekken. We hebben al onze sympathisanten opgeroepen ons te komen ondersteunen in ons vreedzaam verzet.'
  39. ^ Wolthuizen, Josien (17 November 2017). "Arrestatie bij ontruiming 29ste onderkomen Wij Zijn Hier". Parool (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019. Het was het 29ste pand dat sinds 2012 werd gekraakt door Wij Zijn Hier
  40. ^ "Darfur refugees among 90 forcibly evicted in Amsterdam". Radio Dabanga. 18 November 2017. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2019. A human rights activist told Radio Dabanga that the Dutch immigration authority has closed the files of 17 Sudanese nationals in the Netherlands including Darfuris, as they do not believe they come from Darfur. The refugees said they had proved it, but the immigration authorities doubted their arguments.
  41. ^ "Amsterdam: asylum seekers squat 12 buildings". Freedom. 4 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  42. ^ Hiemstra, Eelco (26 January 2019). "Straks compact wonen in de nieuwe 'Rudolf Dieselbuurt'". Oost Online (in Dutch). Retrieved 20 June 2019. Ongedocumenteerde vluchtelingen van We Are Here kraakten er tijdens de paasdagen een aantal woningen en vanaf dat moment wisten vele voor- en tegenstanders, journalisten en politici de tot dan toe relatief onbekende straat te vinden.
  43. ^ "Uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers kraken 12 panden in Oost". Parool (in Dutch). 3 April 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  44. ^ Pieters, Janine. "Business Amsterdam squatters turn to court over eviction". NL Times. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
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  46. ^ "De gekraakte woningen in Amsterdam-Oost ANP VVD en CDA willen dat kabinet ingrijpt in Amsterdam om krakende illegalen". NOS (in Dutch). ANP. 18 May 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019. Het kabinet moet in Amsterdam ingrijpen in de zaak van illegalen die corporatiewoningen hebben gekraakt, vinden de regeringspartijen VVD en CDA in de Tweede Kamer.
  47. ^ "De gekraakte woningen in Amsterdam-Oost ANP VVD en CDA willen dat kabinet ingrijpt in Amsterdam om krakende illegalen". NOS (in Dutch). ANP. 18 May 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019. Met steun van D66, PvdA en SP kreeg GroenLinks een motie door de raad waarin staat dat de gemeente voorlopig geen uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers op straat zet en pandeigenaren verzoekt geen ontruiming aan te vragen.
  48. ^ "Van Aartsen: 'Ik heb geen enkele zin om me in debat over krakers te laten trekken'". AT5 (in Dutch). 13 April 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019. U moet heel voorzichtig zijn met het ambt burgemeester en niet de route op gaan om de burgemeester te politiseren.
  49. ^ "De gekraakte woningen in Amsterdam-Oost ANP VVD en CDA willen dat kabinet ingrijpt in Amsterdam om krakende illegalen". NOS (in Dutch). ANP. 18 May 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019. Volgens Van Toorenburg wordt de wet niet goed gehandhaafd en worden krakers in de praktijk niet vervolgd na een aangifte. "De handhaving van de wet is een lachertje", zei ze in het debat.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]