|<<||Selected anniversaries for October||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2018 day arrangement
- 1832 – The first political gathering of colonists in Mexican Texas convened to seek reforms from the Mexican government in hopes of quelling the widespread belief that settlers in Texas wished to secede from Mexico.
- 1861 – Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management (pictured), a book on housekeeping and cooking which remains in print today, was first published in London.
- 1890 – At the urging of preservationist John Muir and writer Robert Underwood Johnson, the United States Congress established Yosemite National Park in California.
- 1975 – In boxing, Muhammad Ali defeated Joe Frazier in a match known as the "Thrilla in Manila".
- 1998 – Europol was founded, when the Europol Convention signed by all of its member states came into force.
- 1263 – Scottish–Norwegian War: The armies of Norway and Scotland fought at the Battle of Largs, an inconclusive engagement near the present-day town of Largs in North Ayrshire.
- 1835 – Mexican dragoons dispatched to disarm settlers at Gonzales, Texas, encountered stiff resistance from a Texian militia in the Battle of Gonzales, the first armed engagement of the Texas Revolution.
- 1942 – Second World War: HMS Curacoa (pictured) was accidentally rammed and sunk by RMS Queen Mary while escorting the liner to provide protection from submarine attacks.
- 1992 – In response to a prison riot, military police stormed the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil, killing at least 100 prisoners.
- 1996 – A maintenance worker's failure to remove tape covering the static ports of the aircraft caused Aeroperú Flight 603 to crash into the ocean near Lima, Peru.
- 2333 BC – According to Korean legend, Dangun, the "grandson of heaven", established Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom.
- 1952 – The United Kingdom successfully completed a nuclear test to become the world's third nuclear power.
- 1963 – Oswaldo López Arellano replaced Honduran President Ramón Villeda Morales in a violent coup and initiated two decades of military rule.
- 1991 – Nadine Gordimer (pictured) became the seventh woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
- 2008 – The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, establishing the Troubled Asset Relief Program, commonly referred to as a bailout of the U.S. financial system, was enacted.
- 1876 – Texas A&M University opened as the first public institution of higher education in the US state of Texas.
- 1917 – First World War: The British devastated the German defence in the Battle of Broodseinde, which prompted a crisis among the German commanders and caused a severe loss of morale in the German Fourth Army.
- 1957 – Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 1 (replica pictured), the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth, was launched by an R-7 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
- 2003 – A suicide bomber killed 21 people and injured more than 50 others inside the Maxim restaurant in Haifa, Israel.
- 2010 – The dam holding a waste reservoir in western Hungary collapsed, freeing 1 million cubic metres (1,300,000 cu yd) of red mud, which flooded nearby communities and killed at least nine people.
- 610 – Heraclius was crowned Byzantine Emperor, having personally beheaded the previous emperor Phocas.
- 1869 – During construction of the Hennepin Island tunnel in St. Anthony, Minnesota (now Minneapolis), U.S., the Mississippi River broke through the tunnel's limestone ceiling, nearly destroying Saint Anthony Falls.
- 1903 – Samuel Griffith (pictured) became the first Chief Justice of Australia, while Edmund Barton and Richard O'Connor became the first Puisne Justices of the High Court of Australia.
- 1962 – Dr. No, the first in the James Bond film series, was released.
- 2011 – Two Chinese cargo ships were attacked on a stretch of the Mekong River in the Golden Triangle area of Southeast Asia, and their crews murdered.
- 69 BC – Third Mithridatic War: Forces of the Roman Republic captured the Armenian capital city Tigranakert.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British forces under General Sir Henry Clinton captured Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery, and then dismantled the Hudson River Chain.
- 1973 – Egyptian forces crossed the Suez Canal (pictured) and attacked the fortified Israeli Bar Lev Line, starting the Yom Kippur War.
- 1985 – Police constable Keith Blakelock was killed during rioting in the Broadwater Farm housing estate in Tottenham, London.
- 2000 – Denouncing corruption in the administration of Argentine President Fernando de la Rúa and in the Senate, Vice President Carlos Álvarez resigned.
- 1513 – War of the League of Cambrai: A Venetian army under Bartolomeo d'Alviano was decisively defeated by the Spanish army commanded by Ramón de Cardona and Fernando d'Avalos.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Patriots and Loyalist militias engaged each other at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina.
- 1800 – The French privateer Robert Surcouf led a 150-man crew to capture the 40-gun, 437-man East Indiaman Kent.
- 1958 – Attempting to control the political instability in Pakistan, President Iskander Mirza (pictured) suspended the 1956 constitution, imposed martial law, and dissolved the National Assembly.
- 1985 – As a result of severe flooding in Puerto Rico, at least 130 people died as a result of the deadliest single landslide on record in North America.
- 1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Perryville, one of the bloodiest battles of the war, was fought in the Chaplin Hills west of Perryville, Kentucky.
- 1897 – Composer Gustav Mahler (pictured) was appointed the director of the Vienna Court Opera.
- 1952 – Three trains collided at Harrow & Wealdstone station in London killing 112 people and injuring 340.
- 1967 – Marxist revolutionary and guerrilla leader Che Guevara was captured near La Higuera, Bolivia.
- 1998 – A new airport for Oslo, Norway, opened at Gardermoen, replacing a smaller one at the same location that had served as a backup to the city's previous main airport at Fornebu.
- 1594 – Sinhalese–Portuguese War: Portugal had almost conquered the island of Sri Lanka when its army was completely annihilated, ending the Campaign of Danture.
- 1874 – The Universal Postal Union, then known as the General Postal Union, was established with the signing of the Treaty of Bern to unify disparate postal services and regulations so that international mail could be exchanged freely.
- 1942 – World War II: American forces defeated the Japanese at the Third Battle of the Matanikau in Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, reversing the Japanese victory a couple of weeks earlier.
- 1986 – The Phantom of the Opera, a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber currently the longest-running Broadway show in history, opened in London's West End.
- 2012 – Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai (pictured) was severely injured by a Taliban gunman in a failed assassination attempt.
- 1846 – English astronomer William Lassell discovered Triton (pictured), the largest moon of the planet Neptune.
- 1911 – The Xinhai Revolution began with the Wuchang Uprising, marking the beginning of the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China.
- 1967 – The Outer Space Treaty, a treaty that forms the basis of international space law, entered into force.
- 1982 – Maximilian Kolbe, who had volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz in Poland, was canonized by the Catholic Church.
- 1492 – Members of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus reported the sighting of unknown light on their way to Guanahani.
- 1531 – Swiss Reformation leader Huldrych Zwingli (pictured) was killed in battle when Catholic cantons attacked in response to a food blockade being applied by his alliance.
- 1942 – World War II: At the Battle of Cape Esperance on the northwest coast of Guadalcanal, American ships intercepted and defeated a Japanese fleet sent to attack Henderson Field.
- 1987 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The Indian Peace Keeping Force began Operation Pawan to take control of Jaffna from the Tamil Tigers to enforce their disarmament as a part of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord.
- 1398 – The Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen signed the Treaty of Salynas, the third attempt to cede Samogitia to the Knights.
- 1798 – The Peasants' War began in Overmere, Southern Netherlands, with peasants taking up arms against the French occupiers.
- 1917 – First World War: New Zealand troops suffered more than 2,000 casualties, including more than 800 deaths, in the First Battle of Passchendaele, making it the nation's largest loss of life in one day.
- 1960 – Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (pictured) reportedly pounded his shoe on a desk during the Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly in response to Filipino delegate Lorenzo Sumulong's assertion of Soviet colonial policy being conducted in Eastern Europe.
- 1992 – A 5.8 MB earthquake struck south of Cairo, Egypt, killing 545 people.
- 1307 – Agents of King Philip IV of France launched a dawn raid, arresting many members of the Knights Templar, and subsequently torturing them into "admitting" heresy.
- 1885 – The Georgia Institute of Technology (pictured) was established in Atlanta as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the Southern United States.
- 1917 – At least 30,000 people in the Cova da Iria fields near Fátima, Portugal, witnessed the "Miracle of the Sun".
- 1979 – Michael Jackson's "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" topped the Billboard Hot 100.
- 2013 – During the Hindu festival of Navratri at a temple in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, rumours about an impending bridge collapse caused a stampede that resulted in 115 deaths.
- 1758 – Third Silesian War: At the Battle of Hochkirch, an Austrian army under Leopold Joseph von Daun surprised the Prussians commanded by Frederick the Great, overwhelming them and forcing a general retreat.
- 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: French forces under Marshal Michel Ney defeated Austrian forces in Elchingen, present-day Germany.
- 1913 – The worst mining accident in the United Kingdom's history took place when an explosion resulted in 440 deaths (rescue team pictured) at the Universal Colliery in Senghenydd, Wales.
- 1979 – At least 75,000 people attended the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights in Washington, D.C., to demand equal civil rights for LGBT people.
- 2012 – Felix Baumgartner jumped from a helium balloon in the stratosphere to become the first person to break the sound barrier without vehicular power.
- 1529 – The Siege of Vienna ended as the Austrians repelled the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of conquest in Europe by the Ottoman Empire.
- 1888 – George Lusk, the chairman of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee in London, received a letter allegedly from Jack the Ripper.
- 1917 – Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari (pictured) was executed by a firing squad for spying for Germany.
- 1997 – In Nevada's Black Rock Desert, Royal Air Force pilot Andy Green set the first supersonic land speed record in the jet-propelled car ThrustSSC.
- 955 – The forces of Otto the Great defeated the Obotrite federation in the Battle on the Raxa, marking the high point of Otto's reign.
- 1869 – Girton College (pictured), one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge and England's first residential college for women, was founded.
- 1940 – World War II: Nazi Governor-General Hans Frank established the Warsaw Ghetto, the largest Jewish ghetto in occupied Poland.
- 1964 – With the success of the nuclear weapons test named "596", China became the world's fifth nuclear power.
- 2013 – In Laos's deadliest air accident, Lao Airlines Flight 301 crashed into the Mekong River, resulting in the deaths of all 49 people aboard.
- 2017 – The journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia was killed in a car bomb attack in Bidnija, Malta.
- 1346 – King David II of Scotland, under the terms of the Auld Alliance with France, led an invasion of England during the Hundred Years' War, but was captured in the Battle of Neville's Cross.
- 1660 – A series of executions concluded, where of the fifty-nine commissioners who signed the death warrant for Charles I of England, nine were hanged, drawn and quartered for treason.
- 1931 – American gangster Al Capone was convicted on five counts of income tax evasion.
- 1964 – Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies opened the artificial Lake Burley Griffin (pictured) in the middle of the capital Canberra.
- 2000 – A rail accident at Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK, caused the collapse of Railtrack and the introduction of widespread speed limit reductions throughout the rail network.
- 1081 – Byzantine–Norman wars: Robert Guiscard led an invasion of the Byzantine Empire, capturing Dyrrhachium in present-day Albania.
- 1561 – Sengoku period: The fourth battle of Kawanakajima, one of the most famous in Japanese history, was fought in present-day Nagano Prefecture.
- 1851 – Moby-Dick, a novel by American writer Herman Melville, was first published as The Whale in London.
- 1929 – In the Persons Case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council decided that women were eligible to sit in the Canadian Senate.
- 1967 – The Soviet space probe Venera 4 (replica pictured) became the first spacecraft to perform direct in situ analysis of the environment of another planet (Venus).
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: British forces led by Lord Cornwallis officially surrendered (pictured) to Franco-American forces under George Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau, ending the Siege of Yorktown.
- 1914 – First World War: Allied forces engaged German troops in the First Battle of Ypres.
- 1944 – The Guatemalan Revolution began when a small group of army officers led by Francisco Javier Arana and Jacobo Árbenz launched a coup against the dictator Jorge Ubico.
- 1987 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 22.6% on Black Monday, the largest one-day percentage decline in Dow Jones history.
- 2005 – Hurricane Wilma became the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum atmospheric pressure of 882 mbar.
- 1740 – Under the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, Maria Theresa (pictured) assumed the throne of the Habsburg Monarchy in Austria.
- 1939 – Pope Pius XII published his first major encyclical, Summi Pontificatus, which was seen as setting a tone for his papacy.
- 1967 – Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin filmed an unidentified subject at Six Rivers National Forest in California who they claimed was a Bigfoot.
- 1982 – During a UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, a large number of attendees tried to leave the Grand Sports Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium at the same time, resulting in a stampede that caused 66 deaths.
- 1991 – The Uttarkashi earthquake struck the Indian state of Uttarakhand, killing at least 768 people and destroying thousands of homes.
- 1520 – The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon near Canada were visited by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes, who named them "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins".
- 1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Lord Nelson (pictured) signalled "England expects that every man will do his duty" to the rest of his Royal Navy forces before the Battle of Trafalgar off the coast of Spain's Cape Trafalgar.
- 1867 – The first of the Medicine Lodge Treaties was signed between the United States and several Native American tribes in the Great Plains, requiring them to relocate to areas in present-day western Oklahoma.
- 1966 – A coal tip fell on the village of Aberfan, Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
- 1994 – North Korea and the United States signed the Agreed Framework to limit North Korea's nuclear weapons program and to normalize relations between the two.
- 1797 – Dropping from a hydrogen balloon 3,200 feet (980 m) above Paris, André-Jacques Garnerin carried out the first descent using a frameless parachute (schematic pictured).
- 1877 – The Blantyre mining disaster, Scotland's worst mining accident, occurred when an explosion at a colliery in Blantyre killed 207 miners.
- 1907 – A bank run forced New York's Knickerbocker Trust Company to suspend operations, which triggered the Panic of 1907.
- 1966 – With their album The Supremes A' Go-Go, The Supremes became the first all-female group to reach number one on the U.S. Billboard 200.
- 2001 – The controversial video game Grand Theft Auto III was first released to critical acclaim, and went on to popularise open world and mature-content games.
- 1850 – The first National Women's Rights Convention, presided over by Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis (pictured), was held in Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces began their ill-fated attempt to recapture Henderson Field from the Americans.
- 1956 – The Hungarian Revolution began as a peaceful student demonstration which attracted thousands as it marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building.
- 2002 – Chechen separatists seized a crowded theater in Moscow, taking approximately 700 patrons and performers hostage.
- 1789 – The Brabant Revolution, sometimes considered as the first expression of Belgian nationalism, began with the invasion of the Austrian Netherlands by an émigré army from the Dutch Republic.
- 1851 – William Lassell discovered the Uranian moons Umbriel and Ariel.
- 1871 – The largest mass lynching in United States history took place when around 500 white rioters entered Chinatown in Los Angeles to attack, rob, and murder its residents.
- 1944 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese battleship Musashi (pictured), one of the heaviest and most powerfully armed ever constructed, was sunk in the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
- 1964 – The military court of South Vietnamese junta chief Nguyễn Khánh acquitted Generals Dương Văn Đức and Lâm Văn Phát of leading a coup attempt against Khanh, despite the pair's proclamation of his overthrow during their military action.
- 1147 – Reconquista: Forces under Afonso I of Portugal captured Lisbon from the Moors after a four-month siege in one of the few Christian victories during the Second Crusade.
- 1760 – George III (pictured) became King of Great Britain and Ireland.
- 1927 – A propeller shaft on the Italian cruise liner SS Principessa Mafalda broke and fractured the hull, sinking it and resulting in 314 deaths.
- 1950 – Korean War: The Chinese People's Volunteer Army ambushed the South Korean II Corps, marking China's entry into the war.
- 2010 – Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia, began an increasingly violent series of eruptions that lasted over a month.
- 1341 – The Byzantine army proclaimed chief minister John VI Kantakouzenos emperor, triggering a civil war between his supporters and those of John V Palaiologos, the heir to the throne.
- 1881 – The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, one of the most famous gunfights of the American Old West, took place in Tombstone, Arizona, between Ike Clanton's gang and lawmen led by Wyatt Earp.
- 1955 – Ngo Dinh Diem proclaimed himself president of the newly created Republic of Vietnam after defeating former Emperor Bao Dai in a fraudulent referendum supervised by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.
- 1977 – Somalian hospital cook Ali Maow Maalin began displaying symptoms in the last known case of naturally occurring smallpox.
- 2000 – Laurent Gbagbo (pictured) became the first elected President of Ivory Coast since Henri Konan Bédié was thrown out of power during the 1999 Ivorian coup d'état.
- 1682 – William Penn landed at New Castle, Delaware Colony, on his way to founding the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
- 1914 – World War I: The Royal Navy dreadnought HMS Audacious was sunk by a mine, but its loss was kept secret for four more years.
- 1958 – General Ayub Khan (pictured) deposed Iskander Mirza to become the second President of Pakistan.
- 1992 – U.S. Navy Petty Officer Allen R. Schindler Jr. was killed in Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan, a victim of a hate crime for being gay, which led to the U.S. Armed Forces' "Don't ask, don't tell" policy.
- 2011 – Michael D. Higgins was elected President of Ireland with far more votes than any Irish politician in the history of the republic.
- 312 – Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Constantine the Great defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in Rome.
- 1453 – Ladislaus the Posthumous was crowned King of Bohemia, although George of Poděbrady remained in control of the government.
- 1919 – The U.S. Congress passed the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, reinforcing Prohibition in the United States.
- 1925 – The funerary mask of Tutankhamun (pictured), possibly made for Queen Nefertiti, was uncovered for the first time in 3,250 years.
- 2013 – The first terrorist attack in Beijing's recent history took place when three members of the Turkistan Islamic Party drove a vehicle into a crowd.
- 539 BC – Cyrus the Great captured Babylon, incorporating the Neo-Babylonian Empire and making the Achaemenid Empire the largest in the history of the world to that time.
- 1792 – Lt. William Broughton, a member of George Vancouver's expedition, observed a peak in what is now Oregon, U.S., and named it Mount Hood (pictured) after British admiral Samuel Hood.
- 1917 – The Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, in charge of preparing for and carrying out the Russian Revolution, was established.
- 1960 – The C-46 airliner carrying the Cal Poly Mustangs football team crashed during takeoff from Toledo Express Airport in Ohio, U.S., resulting in 22 deaths.
- 1999 – About 10,000 people died when a supercyclone hit the Indian state of Odisha near the city of Bhubaneswar.
- 1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Believing they were massively outnumbered, the 5,300-man German garrison at Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland), surrendered to a much smaller French force without a fight.
- 1888 – King Lobengula of Matabeleland granted the Rudd Concession to agents of Cecil Rhodes, setting in motion the creation of the British South Africa Company.
- 1918 – The Armistice of Mudros was signed in Moudros in the Lesbos Prefecture, Greece, ending the hostilities in the Middle-Eastern theatre of World War I, and paving the way for the occupation of Constantinople and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1961 – The Soviet hydrogen bomb Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated, was set off over Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean as a test.
- 1983 – As the military dictatorship came to an end, Argentina's first democratic election in a decade resulted in Raúl Alfonsín (pictured) being elected President of Argentina.
- 1913 – Public transportation workers in Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S., went on strike, shutting down mass transit in the city and sparking riots when strikebreakers attempted to restart services.
- 1917 – World War I: Allied forces defeated Turkish troops in Beersheba in Southern Palestine at the Battle of Beersheba, with the battle involving one of the last successful cavalry charges.
- 1973 – Three Provisional Irish Republican Army members escaped from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin aboard a hijacked helicopter which landed in the prison's exercise yard.
- 1984 – Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (pictured) was assassinated by two of her own Sikh bodyguards, sparking anti-Sikh riots throughout the country.
- 2015 – Shortly after takeoff, Metrojet Flight 9268 exploded and then crashed into the Sinai Peninsula, killing all 224 people on board.