Yaroslav Olexandrovych Halan
|Native name||Ukrainian: Ярослав Олександрович Галан|
August 27, 1902|
|Died||October 24, 1949
|Resting place||Lychakiv Cemetery|
|Pen name||Comrade Yaga, Volodymyr Rosovych, Ihor Semeniuk|
|Occupation||writer, playwright, publicist, politician, propagandist, radio host|
|Alma mater||University of Vienna,
|Genres||plays, pamphlets, articles|
|Literary movement||socialist realism|
|Notable works||Mountains Smoke (1938),
Under the Golden Eagle (1947),
Love at Dawn (1949)
|Notable awards||Stalin Prize,
Order of the Badge of Honour
Yaroslav Olexandrovych Halan (in Ukrainian: Ярослав Олександрович Галан, party nickname Comrade Yaga; July 27, 1902, Dynów – October 24, 1949, Lviv) was a Ukrainian Soviet anti-fascist writer, playwright, publicist, member of the Communist Party of Western Ukraine since 1924, killed by nationalist insurgents in 1949.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Assassination
- 3 Evaluations of contemporaries
- 4 Homage
- 5 Awards
- 6 Works
- 7 External links
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 References
Yaroslav Halan was born on July 27, 1902, in Dynów (now Poland) in the family of Olexandr Halan, a small post-office official. After the beginning of the World War I his father along with other "unreliable" elements who could sympathize the Russians was interned in the Thalerhof camp by the Austrian authorities. Eventually Galitzia was taken by the Russians.
During the next Austrian offensive his mother evacuated her family in order to avoid repressions with the retreating Russian army to Rostov-on-Don, where Yaroslav studied at the gymnasium and played in the local theatre. Living there Halan witnessed the Revolutionary events. He became familiar with Lenin’s agitation, and discovered the works of some Russian writers. Later these events formed the base of his story Unforgettable Days.
After the war he returned to Galitzia (annexed by Poland), where in 1922 he graduated from the Przemyśl gymnasium. Then he studied in the Triest Higher Trade School in Italy. In 1922 Halan enrolled in the University of Vienna. In 1926 he transferred to the Jagiellonian University of Krakow, which he graduated from in 1928 (according to some sources he didn't pass the final exams). After that Halan started to work as a teacher of the Polish language and literature at a private gymnasium in Lutsk. However, ten months later he got banned from teaching.
In his students years he joined the left-wing movement. Since 1924 he proactively participated in the underground national liberation movement which in the Ukrainian lands of the Second Polish Republic (except of Glitzia being under OUN influence) was headed by the Communist Party of Western Ukraine (CPWU).
Creativity and political struggle in Poland
In the 1920s, the writer's creative activity also began. In 1927 he finished working on his first significant play Don Quixote from Ettenheim. For the first time he revealed the venality of nationalistic and chauvinistic parties in his play 99% (1930) staged by the semi-legal Lviv Workers’ Theatre. The theme of class struggle and condemning the segregation were actualized in the plays Cargo (1930) and Cell (1932), calling for united actions and class solidarity of Ukrainian, Jewish and Polish proletarians.
Yaroslav Halan was one of the founders of the Ukrainian proletarian writers’ group Horno. From 1927 to 1932 along with other communist writers and members of the CPWU he worked at the Lviv-based Ukrainian magazine Vikna until it was closed by the censorship.
Living in the Polish-controlled city of Lviv, Halan frequently had to earn money from translating some novels from German into Polish. In the moments when he had no money he used to live in the countryside and kept working on his own plays, stories and articles there.
Halan was denied a Soviet citizenship in 1935.
Throughout his political career the writer was repeatedly persecuted, twice imprisoned (for the first time in 1934). Yaroslav Halan was one of the organizers of the Lviv Anti-Fascist Congress of Cultural Workers in May 1936. Besides he took part in the biggest political manifestation on April 16, 1936, in Lviv, that was shot by the Polish police (in total, thirty workers were killed and two hundred injured). Halan devoted his story Golden Arch to the memory of fallen comrades.
Participation in the Anti-Fascist Congress forced him to escape from Lviv to Warsaw where he worked together with Wanda Wasilewska at the left-wing newspaper Dziennik Popularny. In 1937, the newspaper was closed by the authorities, and on April 8 Halan being accused of the illegal communist activism was sent to the prison in Warsaw, later transferred to Lviv. Released in December 1937, Halan lived in Lviv under a strict supervision by the police.
In 1937, his elder brother, a member of the CPWU, died in Lviv. After the Communist Party of Poland and the Communist Party of Western Ukraine, as its autonomous organization, were dissolved by the Comintern on trumped-up accusations of spying for Poland in 1938, Halan's first wife Anna Henyk (also a member of the CPWU) who studied in the Kharkiv Medical Institute, USSR, was arrested by the NKVD and executed within the Great Purge.
In the Soviet Lviv
After the USSR annexed Western Ukraine and Western Belarus, in September 1939, Yaroslav Halan worked in the newspaper Vilna Ukraina, directed the Lviv Dramatic Theatre, wrote more than 100 pamphlets and articles on changes taking place in the reunited lands of Western Ukraine.
"A group of writers such as Yaroslav Halan, Petro Kozlaniuk, Stepan Tudor and Olexa Havryliuk [...] treated the liberation of Western Ukraine [by the Red Army] as a logical conclusion of the policy of the Communist Party, which fought for the reunification of the Ukrainian people. In this, they actively helped the party in word and deed. In return, they have already had experience with Polish prisons and oppression from their fellow countrymen. Now [after it happened] they could breathe a sigh of relief. That is why their smiles were so sincere and celebratory.
In November 1939 Halan went to Kharkiv trying to find his disappeared wife Anna Henyk. Together with the writer Yuri Smolych he came to the dormitory of the Medical Institute and asked the porter if there is any information about her destiny. The porter only gave him back a suitcase with Anna's belongings and said that she had been arrested by the NKVD, in response to that Halan burst into tears.
In June 1941, being a journalist of the newspaper Vilna Ukraina, he got his first professional vacations in Crimea. But he didn't managed to rest, because on June 22 Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
When the war on the Eastern Front began, Halan arrived in Kharkiv and went to the military commissariat having a big desire to become a volunteer of the Red Army and to go to the frontline but was denied.
During the war Halan worked at some front-line newspapers, was a radio host at the Taras Shevchenko Radio Station (Saratov) and a special correspondent of the newspaper Sovietskaya Ukraina, and then Radianska Ukraina.
"The majority of his radio-comments have been born spontaneously. He listens to the enemy's radio shows, thinks for a while, then goes to the studio with an open microphone and without any preparations responds, expressing everything what he feels. That was a true radio-battle with all Hitler's propagandists starting from Goebbels, Ditrikh, and others. The opportunity to fight like this – immediately, without paper [and censorship] – demonstrates a high confidence given to him by the Government and the Central Committee of the CPSU(b)."
In 1943 he published the collection of his war stories Front on Air. In the same year, Halan moved to the recently liberated Kharkov and worked there on the frontline radio station Dnipro. During and after the war he sharply condemned the Ukrainian nationalists – banderivtsi, melnykivtsi, bulbivtsi – as accomplices of the Nazi occupiers.
Yaroslav Halan wrote much about Ukrainian nationalists in his story What Has No Name he described the OUN crimes:
"Fourteen-years-old girl can’t calmly look at meat. She trembles if someone is going to cook cutlets in her presence. A few months ago, during Easter Night, armed people came to a peasant house in a village close to the town of Sarny, and stabbed its inhabitants with knifes. The girl having the eyes widened of fear was looking at the agony of her parents. The girl with horror in her eyes was looking at the agony of her parents. One of the gangsters put a knife blade to the child’s neck, but at the last moment a new “idea” came to his mind: “Live in glory to Stepan Bandera! And to avoid you being starved to death we will leave you some food. Guys, slice pork for her!" The "guys" liked such a proposal. In a few minutes a mountain of meat made from the bleeding father and mother grew up in front of the horror-struck girl..."
In Halan's tragedy Under the Golden Eagle (1947) the writer compared the crimes against humanity committed in the Nazi concentration camps with arbitrariness of the American occupation forces in Western Germany. In his play Love at Dawn (1949, published in 1951) he described the triumph of Socialism in the rural areas of Western Ukraine.
Often he was focused on counteracting the nationalistic propaganda. Nevertheless, Halan complained that these "Augean stables" were not his vocation but it had to be done by someone:
"I understand: the sewage work is a necessary and useful work, but why only me? Why should I be the only sanitizer? The reader of our periodicals will involuntarily have the thought that there is only "maniac" Halan, who has clung to Ukrainian fascism like a drunk clings to the raft, [while] the vast majority of the writers ignore this issue. It isn't needed to be explained what further conclusions the reader will make from this."
In his last satirical pamphlets Yaroslav Halan criticized the nationalistic and clerical reaction (particularly, the Greek Catholic Church and the anti-Communist doctrine of the Holy See): Their Face (1948), In the service of Satan (1948), In the Face of Facts (1949), Father of Darkness and His Henchmen (1949), The Vatican Idols Thirst for Blood, Twilight of the Alien Gods, What Should Not Be Forgotten, The Vatican Without Mask etc.
When the Vatican had discovered that Halan is going to publish his new anti-clerical pamphlet Father of Darkness and His Henchmen, in July 1949 the Pope Pius XII excommunicated him. In response to this, Halan wrote a pamphlet I Spit on the Pope, that caused a significant resonance within the Church and among believers. In the pamphlet he ironized on the Decree against Communism released by the Vatican on July 1, in which the Holy See had threatened to excommunicate all members of the Communist parties and active supporters of the Communists:
“My only consolation is that I am not alone: together with me, the Pope excommunicated at least three hundred million people, and with them I once again in full voice declare: I spit on the Pope!”
Yaroslav Halan was killed in an assassination on October 24, 1949, in his home office, which was situated at Hvadiyska street in Lviv. He received 11 hits to the head with an axe. His blood spilled on the manuscript of his new article Greatness of the Liberated Human dedicated the tenth anniversary of the reunification of Western Ukraine with the Ukrainian SSR.
The killers – two students of the Lviv Forestry Technical Institute Ilariy Lukashevych and Mykhailo Stakhur – committed the assassination after they got the appropriate order by the OUN leadership. On the eve of the murder Lukashevych gained the writer's confidence, so the students were let into the house. They came to the apartment under the pretext of being discriminated against at the university and seeking his help. When Lukashevych gave a signal, Stakhur attacked the writer with the axe. After Stakhur got convinced that Halan is dead, they tied up the housekeeper and escaped.
The Ministry of the State Security (MGB) accused the Ukrainian nationalists of his murder, while the OUN claimed that it was a Soviet provocation in order to start a new wave of repressions against locals.
Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Ukrainian SSR at that time, took personal control of the investigation. In 1951, the MGB agent Bohdan Stashynskyi being infiltrated into the OUN underground network managed to find Stakhur, who himself bragged about the assassination of Halan. He was arrested on July 10, and afterwards fully admitted his responsibility for the crime during the trial. According to Stakhur, he did that because of the writer's critical statements on the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, Ukrainian Insurgent Army and the Vatican.
On October 16, 1951, the military tribunal of the Carpathian Military District sentenced Mikhail Stakhur to death by hanging: the court hall applauded the announcement of the verdict. The verdict was enforced on the same day.
Some contemporary Ukrainian historians and journalists put forward the hypothesis that Halan was killed by the Soviets. However, nowadays the fact of the OUN guilt proved with the numerous pieces of evidence is widely recognized by the vast majority of historians.
The assassination of Halan caused tightening of measures against the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), which continued terrorist activities against the Soviet power in Western Ukraine. All the leadership of the MGB arrived in Lviv, Pavel Sudoplatov himself worked there for several months. One of the consequences of the murder of Halan was the elimination of the UPA leader Roman Shukhevych four months later.
Evaluations of contemporaries
"Yaroslav Halan is a talented publicist, was a progressive writer in the past. Nowadays he still is the most advanced one among [local] non-party writers. But he's infected with the Western European bourgeois "spirit". Has little respect for Soviet people. Considers them not civilised enough. But just inwardly. In general terms, he understands the policy of the party, but in his opinion, the party makes great mistakes with regards to peasants in Western Ukraine. Halan places responsibility for these mistakes on the regional committee of the CPSU(b), local institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the local Soviet authorities. Believes in Moscow. Doesn't want to join the party (he was advised to) due to being an individualist, and also in order to keep his hands, mind, and words free. He thinks if he joins the party, he will lose this [freedom]."
In 1962, in Toronto, Olexandr Matla, aka Petro Tereschuk, a pro-nationalist historian from the Ukrainian diaspora in Canada, published the brochure History of a Traitor (Yaroslav Halan), in which he accused Halan of being an informer of both Polish and Soviet intelligence services, and of helping them to oppress nationalists and even some pro-Soviet writers from Western Ukraine such as Anton Krushelnytsky, who moved from Lviv to Kharkiv in the 1930s and was killed during the Great Terror.
[Halan] has used his undeniable publicistic talent to serve the enemy, thereby placing himself outside the Ukrainian people. He has directed his energy and creative mind against his own people and their interests. An outrageous egoist, egocentrist, money lover, slandered, cynic, provocator, agent of two intelligence services, misanthrope, falsificator, speculator, and an informer are all the characteristics of Yaroslav Halan.
Petro Tereschuk, History of a Traitor (Yaroslav Halan), Canadian League for Ukraine's Liberation, Toronto, 1962.
Yaroslav is an erudite, artist, polemicist, politician and undoubtedly an international-level journalist. I was amazed at his knowledge of the languages: German, French, Italian, Polish, Jewish, Russian. Picking up any newspaper or document he leafs through, reads it and writes something down. I was also surprised by his efficiency in work, interest in everything, an exceptional ability to "seek" and "raise" topics, problems, his persistent work on processing the material.
- In 1954, the movie It Mustn't Be Forgotten, based on Yaroslav Halan's life events, with Sergei Bondarchuk in the main role was filmed. In 1973, another movie based on the biography of Halan Until the Last Minute with Vladislav Dvorzhetsky in the main role was released.
- In 1962, 1970 and 1976, the USSR Post issued postal envelopes with a portrait of Yaroslav Halan.
- A huge monument to Yaroslav Halan was installed in Lviv in 1972. Besides, the square where the monument was situated was named after Halan. In 1992, on the eve of the Vatican officials’ visit, the local authorities demolished the monument, and its metal was used for constructing a monument to Prosvita, a nationalist organization which Halan fought with. The personal museum of Halan was turned into the Museum of Literature. There was another monument to the writer in the city Park of Culture installed in 1957 and demolished in the 1960s.
- The Lviv Regional Theatre of Drama (Drohobych) and Kolomyia Regional Theatre of Drama (Kolomyia) received the name of Yaroslav Halan.
- The Ternopil Pedagogical Institute received the name of Yaroslav Halan. Renamed in he 1990s.
- A monument to Halam existed in Drohobych, Lviv Region. Demolished in the 1990s.
- The streets named after Yaroslav Halan existed in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Kryvyi Rih, Odesa, Chernihiv, Dnipro, Kalush, Nikopol, Poltava, Cherkasy, Uzhgorod, Khmelnytskyi, and Novograd Volynskyi but they were renamed within the campaign against the Soviet memorial legacy.
- In Donetsk, Luhansk, Enakievo, Shostka, and Rostov-on-Don, there are still the streets bearing the name of Halan.
- During the Soviet times in Saratov, the name of Yaroslav Halan was given to the street where he worked at the Taras Shevchenko Radio Station. After the USSR collapsed, the street recovered it historical name Proviantskaya.
- The name of Yaroslav Halan was given to the passenger steamer of the Belsky river shipping company, which operated on the Moscow-Ufa line. Currently out of use.
- In 2012, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted the resolution About the celebration of the 110th anniversary of the birth of the famous Ukrainian anti-Fascist writer Yaroslav Oleksandrovych Halan.
- From 1964 the Halan Prize was awarded by the Writers' Union of Ukraine for the best propagandistic journalism.
- Halan's wogrks in three volumes were published in Kyiv in 1977–8.
- In the 1970s, in Lviv Region, there was a network of 450 atheist clubs named after Yaroslav Halan.
Writer's grave at the Lychakiv Cemetery
Former Yaroslav Halan street in Kharkiv (renamed in 2016)
Former building of the Ukrainian gymnasium of Lutsk where Halan worked.
- Don Quixote from Ettenheim (1927)
- 99% (1930)
- Cargo (1930)
- Veronika (1930)
- Cell (1932)
- Make Noise, Maritsa! (1942)
- Under the Golden Eagle (1947)
- Love at Dawn (1949, published in 1951)
Stories and articles (selected)
- Savko Is Flooded With Blood (1925)
- Dead Are Fighting (1925)
- Unforgettable Days (1930)
- Three Deaths
- Unknown Petro (1932)
- Punishment (1932)
- On the Bridge (1940)
- Mountains Smoke (1938, in Polish)
- Yoasia (1940)
- Forget-Me-Not (1940)
- Grandfather Martyn (1940)
- Jenny (1941)
- Greatness of the Liberated Human (1949, in Russian)
- With Cross or With Knife (1945)
- Their Face (1948)
- In the service of Satan (1948)
- In the Face of Facts (1949)
- Father of Darkness And His Henchmen (1949)
- The Vatican Idols Thirst for Blood (1949, in Polish)
- Twilight of the Alien Gods (1949)
- What Should Not Be Forgotten, (1949)
- The Vatican Without Mask (1949)
- I Spit on the Pope (1949)
- Front on Air (1943, radio speeches)
- Under the Golden Eagle (1958)
- We must not forget. Moscow: Novosti Press Agency Publishing House, 1975
- Reports from Nuremberg. Kyiv: Dnipro Publishers, 1976
- People Without a Homeland: Pamphlets. Kyiv: Dnipro Publishers, 1974
- Lest People Forget: Pamphlets, Articles and Reports. Kyiv: Dnipro Publishers, 1986
- Reportajes de Nuremberg. Kyiv: Dnipro Publishers. 1976
- Favorites. Translation from Ukrainian. Moscow: publishing house Sovetskiy Pisatel, 1951.
- Favorites. Translation from Ukrainian. Moscow: publishing house Sovetskiy Pisatel, 1952.
- The Vatican Without a Mask. Translation from Ukrainian. Moscow, publishing house Literaturnaya Gazeta, 1952.
- Plays. Moscow: Iskusstvo. 1956.
- With Cross or With Knife: Pamphlets. Moscow: 1962
- Light from the East. Translation from Ukrainian. Moscow, publishing house Molodaya Guàrdia, 1954.
- Favorites. Translation from Ukrainian. Moscow, Goslitizdat, 1958.
- Favorites. Kyiv: publishing house Radianskyi Pysmennyk, 1951.
- Works. In 2 volumes. Kyiv: Derzhlitvidav, 1953.
- Works. In 3 volumes. Kyiv: Derzhlitvidav, 1960.
- Unfinished Song. Kyiv: Dnipro Publishers. 1972.
- Favorites. Lviv: Shkilna Biblioteka. 1976
- Works: Pamphlets and Fayletons. Kyiv:Naukova Dumka. 1980.
- Works. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka. 1980.
- Dramas. Lviv: Kameniar. 1981
- Favorites. Lviv: Kameniar. 1987.
- Ukrainian Stories. Azərnəşr. 1954
(English translation) Halan, Yaroslav. Reports from Nuremberg. Kyiv: Dnipro Publishers, 1976
(English translation) Halan. Yaroslav. I Spit on the Pope!
- Yaroslav Halan on the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine
- Yaroslav Halan on the IMDb
- Yaroslav Halan on the WorldCat Identities – books publication statistics and other data
- Yaroslav Halan (as Yaroslav Galan) on the Google Books Ngram Viewer – frequency of mention in English-language books
- Беляев В., Ёлкин А. Ярослав Галан. – М.: Молодая гвардия, 1971. – (Жизнь замечательных людей)
- Галан Ярослав: Енциклопедія історії України: Т. 2. Редкол.: В. А. Смолій (голова) та ін. НАН України. Інститут історії України. – Київ 2004, "Наукова думка". ISBN 966-00-0632-2.
- Терещенко Петро. Історія одного зрадника (Ярослва Галан). Торонто: Канадаська ліга за визволення України, 1962.
- Галан Ярослав, Спогади про письменника, Львiв, вид-во "Каменяр", 1965.
- Вальо М. А. Ярослав Галан (1902—1949): до 80-річчя з дня народження. Бібліографічний покажчик. – Львів, 1982.
- Про Ярослава Галана: Спогади, статті. – К., 1987.
- Ярослав Галан – борець за правду і справедливість: Документи // Український історичний журнал. – 1990. – № 2—3.
- Рубльов О. С., Черченко Ю. А. Сталінщина й доля західноукраїнської інтелігенції (20—50-ті роки XX ст.) – К., 1994.
- Бантышев А. Ф., Ухаль А. М. Убийство на заказ: кто же организовал убийство Ярослава Галана? Опыт независимого расследования. – Ужгород, 2002.
- Цегельник Я. Славен у віках. Образ Львова у спадщині Я. Галана // Жовтень. – 1982. – № 3 (449). – С. 72—74. – ISSN 0131—0100.
- "Боротьба трудящихся Львівщини проти Нiмецько-фашистьских загарбників". Львів, вид-во "Вільна Україна", 1949.
- Буряк Борис, Ярослав Галан. В кн.: Галан Я., Избранное. М., Гослитиздат, 1958, стр. 593–597.
- Даниленко С., Дорогою ганьби і зради. К., вид-во "Наукова думка", 1970.
- Довгалюк Петро, В кн.: Галан Я., Твори в трьох томах, К., Держлітвидав, 1960, стр. 5–44.
- Добрич Володимир, У тіні святого Юра. Львiв, вид-во "Каменяр", 1968.
- Евдокименко В. Ю., Критика ідейних основ украінського буржуазного націоналізму. К., вид-во "Наукова думка", 1967.
- Ёлкин Анатолий, Ярослав Галан в борьбе с католической и американской реакцией. "Вестник Ленинградского университета", 1951, № 10, стр. 85–100.
- Елкин Анатолий, Ярослав Галан. (Новые материалы.) "Звезда", 1952, № 7, стр. 163–172.
- Елкин Анатолий, Библиография противоватиканских работ Я. А. Галана. В кн.: "Вопросы истории религии и атеизма". М., изд-во АН СССР, т. 2, 1954, стр. 288–292.
- Елкин Анатолий, Ярослав Галан. Очерк жизни и творчества. М., изд-во "Советский писатель", 1955.
- Елкин Анатолий, Степан Тудор. Критико-биографич. очерк. М., изд-во "Советский писатель", 1956.
- Замлинський Володимир, Шлях чорної зради. Львів, вид-во "Каменяр", 1969.
- Косач Юрий, Вид феодалізму до неофашизму. Нью-Йорк, 1962.
- "Людьскоі крові не змити". Книга фактів. К, 1970.
- Мельничук Ю., Ярослав Галан. Львівске кн. – журн. вид-во, 1953.
- Млинченко К. М., Зброєю полум'яного слова. К., вид-во АН УССР, 1963.
- Млот Франтишек, Мешок иуд, или Разговор о клерикализме. Краков, 1911. На польском языке.
- Полевой Борис. В конце концов. М., изд-во "Советская Россия", 1969.
- "Пост имени Ярослава Галана". Сборник. Львів, вид-во "Каменяр", 1967.
- "Правда про унію". Документи і матеріяли. Львiв, вид-во "Каменяр", 1968.
- Терлиця Марко, "Правнуки погані". Киев, изд-во "Радянський письменник", 1960.
- Терлиця Марко. Націоналістичі скорпіони. Киев, изд-во "Радянський письменник", 1963.
- "Ті, що канули в пітьму". Львів, вид-во "Каменяр", 1968.
- Ткачев П. И., Вечный бой. Минск, изд-во БГУ, 1970.
- Цегельник Яків, В кн.: Галан Ярослав, Спогади про письменника. Львів, вид-во "Каменяр", 1965.
- Чередниченко В., Націоналізм против націі. К., 1970.
- Siundiukov, Ihor (November 6, 2001). "Yaroslav Halan's symbol of faith". Day.
- Tereshchuk, Petro (1962). Story of a Traitor (Yaroslav Halan). Toronto: Canadian League for Ukraine's Liberation.
- "Колесо історії: Луцька українська гімназія (фото)" [Wheel of History: Lutsk Ukrainian Gymnasium (photo)]. Хроніки Любарта (in Ukrainian). September 17, 2016. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- Beliaev, Vladimir; Yolkin, Anatoliy (1962). Жизнь замечательных людей. Ярослав Галан [Life of Outstanding People. Yaroslav Halan] (in Russian). Moscow: Molodaya Gvardiya.
- Marples, David R. (January 23, 2013). Heroes and Villains : Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Hors collection. Budapest: Central European University Press. pp. 125–165. ISBN 9786155211355.
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- "Halan, Yaroslav". encyclopediaofukraine.com. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- "Ярославу Галану удалось выйти из польских застенков" [Yaroslav Halan managed to get out of the Polish dungeons]. СЕГОДНЯ (in Russian) (238 (739)). December 15, 2000.
- Hrabovskyi, Serhiy (July 25, 2007). "Ярослав Галан: трагедія "зачарованого на Схід"" [Yaroslav Halan: The Tragedy of the "Enchanted to the East"] (in Ukrainian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- Leszczyński, Adam (May 5, 2014). "Masakra we Lwowie". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- Tarnavskyi, Ostap (1995). Literary Lviv, 1939–1944: Memories. Lviv. pp. 30–32.
- "Vilna Ukrayina Newspaper". lvivcenter.org. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- Panch, Petro (1960). Lviv, Kopernyka str., 42. Vitchyzna.
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